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POD2MAN(1)			 Perl Programmers Reference Guide		       POD2MAN(1)

       pod2man - Convert POD data to formatted *roff input

       pod2man [--section=manext] [--release=version] [--center=string] [--date=string]
       [--fixed=font] [--fixedbold=font] [--fixeditalic=font] [--fixedbolditalic=font]
       [--name=name] [--official] [--lax] [--quotes=quotes] [--verbose] [input [output] ...]

       pod2man --help

       pod2man is a front-end for Pod::Man, using it to generate *roff input from POD source.
       The resulting *roff code is suitable for display on a terminal using nroff(1), normally
       via man(1), or printing using troff(1).

       input is the file to read for POD source (the POD can be embedded in code).  If input
       isn't given, it defaults to STDIN.  output, if given, is the file to which to write the
       formatted output.  If output isn't given, the formatted output is written to STDOUT.  Sev-
       eral POD files can be processed in the same pod2man invocation (saving module load and
       compile times) by providing multiple pairs of input and output files on the command line.

       --section, --release, --center, --date, and --official can be used to set the headers and
       footers to use; if not given, Pod::Man will assume various defaults.  See below or
       Pod::Man for details.

       pod2man assumes that your *roff formatters have a fixed-width font named CW.  If yours is
       called something else (like CR), use --fixed to specify it.  This generally only matters
       for troff output for printing.  Similarly, you can set the fonts used for bold, italic,
       and bold italic fixed-width output.

       Besides the obvious pod conversions, Pod::Man, and therefore pod2man also takes care of
       formatting func(), func(n), and simple variable references like $foo or @bar so you don't
       have to use code escapes for them; complex expressions like $fred{'stuff'} will still need
       to be escaped, though.  It also translates dashes that aren't used as hyphens into en
       dashes, makes long dashes--like this--into proper em dashes, fixes "paired quotes," and
       takes care of several other troff-specific tweaks.  See Pod::Man for complete information.

       -c string, --center=string
	   Sets the centered page header to string.  The default is "User Contributed Perl Docu-
	   mentation", but also see --official below.

       -d string, --date=string
	   Set the left-hand footer string to this value.  By default, the modification date of
	   the input file will be used, or the current date if input comes from STDIN.

	   The fixed-width font to use for vertabim text and code.  Defaults to CW.  Some systems
	   may want CR instead.  Only matters for troff(1) output.

	   Bold version of the fixed-width font.  Defaults to CB.  Only matters for troff(1) out-

	   Italic version of the fixed-width font (actually, something of a misnomer, since most
	   fixed-width fonts only have an oblique version, not an italic version).  Defaults to
	   CI.	Only matters for troff(1) output.

	   Bold italic (probably actually oblique) version of the fixed-width font.  Pod::Man
	   doesn't assume you have this, and defaults to CB.  Some systems (such as Solaris) have
	   this font available as CX.  Only matters for troff(1) output.

       -h, --help
	   Print out usage information.

       -l, --lax
	   No longer used.  pod2man used to check its input for validity as a manual page, but
	   this should now be done by podchecker(1) instead.  Accepted for backwards compatibil-
	   ity; this option no longer does anything.

       -n name, --name=name
	   Set the name of the manual page to name.  Without this option, the manual name is set
	   to the uppercased base name of the file being converted unless the manual section is
	   3, in which case the path is parsed to see if it is a Perl module path.  If it is, a
	   path like ".../lib/Pod/Man.pm" is converted into a name like "Pod::Man".  This option,
	   if given, overrides any automatic determination of the name.

	   Note that this option is probably not useful when converting multiple POD files at
	   once.  The convention for Unix man pages for commands is for the man page title to be
	   in all-uppercase even if the command isn't.

       -o, --official
	   Set the default header to indicate that this page is part of the standard Perl
	   release, if --center is not also given.

       -q quotes, --quotes=quotes
	   Sets the quote marks used to surround C<> text to quotes.  If quotes is a single char-
	   acter, it is used as both the left and right quote; if quotes is two characters, the
	   first character is used as the left quote and the second as the right quoted; and if
	   quotes is four characters, the first two are used as the left quote and the second two
	   as the right quote.

	   quotes may also be set to the special value "none", in which case no quote marks are
	   added around C<> text (but the font is still changed for troff output).

       -r, --release
	   Set the centered footer.  By default, this is the version of Perl you run pod2man
	   under.  Note that some system an macro sets assume that the centered footer will be a
	   modification date and will prepend something like "Last modified: "; if this is the
	   case, you may want to set --release to the last modified date and --date to the ver-
	   sion number.

       -s, --section
	   Set the section for the ".TH" macro.  The standard section numbering convention is to
	   use 1 for user commands, 2 for system calls, 3 for functions, 4 for devices, 5 for
	   file formats, 6 for games, 7 for miscellaneous information, and 8 for administrator
	   commands.  There is a lot of variation here, however; some systems (like Solaris) use
	   4 for file formats, 5 for miscellaneous information, and 7 for devices.  Still others
	   use 1m instead of 8, or some mix of both.  About the only section numbers that are
	   reliably consistent are 1, 2, and 3.

	   By default, section 1 will be used unless the file ends in .pm in which case section 3
	   will be selected.

       -v, --verbose
	   Print out the name of each output file as it is being generated.

       If pod2man fails with errors, see Pod::Man and Pod::Parser for information about what
       those errors might mean.

	   pod2man program > program.1
	   pod2man SomeModule.pm /usr/perl/man/man3/SomeModule.3
	   pod2man --section=7 note.pod > note.7

       If you would like to print out a lot of man page continuously, you probably want to set
       the C and D registers to set contiguous page numbering and even/odd paging, at least on
       some versions of man(7).

	   troff -man -rC1 -rD1 perl.1 perldata.1 perlsyn.1 ...

       To get index entries on stderr, turn on the F register, as in:

	   troff -man -rF1 perl.1

       The indexing merely outputs messages via ".tm" for each major page, section, subsection,
       item, and any "X<>" directives.	See Pod::Man for more details.

       Lots of this documentation is duplicated from Pod::Man.

       For those not sure of the proper layout of a man page, here are some notes on writing a
       proper man page.

       The name of the program being documented is conventionally written in bold (using B<>)
       wherever it occurs, as are all program options.	Arguments should be written in italics
       (I<>).  Functions are traditionally written in italics; if you write a function as func-
       tion(), Pod::Man will take care of this for you.  Literal code or commands should be in
       C<>.  References to other man pages should be in the form "manpage(section)", and Pod::Man
       will automatically format those appropriately.  As an exception, it's traditional not to
       use this form when referring to module documentation; use "L<Module::Name>" instead.

       References to other programs or functions are normally in the form of man page references
       so that cross-referencing tools can provide the user with links and the like.  It's possi-
       ble to overdo this, though, so be careful not to clutter your documentation with too much

       The major headers should be set out using a "=head1" directive, and are historically writ-
       ten in the rather startling ALL UPPER CASE format, although this is not mandatory.  Minor
       headers may be included using "=head2", and are typically in mixed case.

       The standard sections of a manual page are:

	   Mandatory section; should be a comma-separated list of programs or functions docu-
	   mented by this podpage, such as:

	       foo, bar - programs to do something

	   Manual page indexers are often extremely picky about the format of this section, so
	   don't put anything in it except this line.  A single dash, and only a single dash,
	   should separate the list of programs or functions from the description.  Functions
	   should not be qualified with "()" or the like.  The description should ideally fit on
	   a single line, even if a man program replaces the dash with a few tabs.

	   A short usage summary for programs and functions.  This section is mandatory for sec-
	   tion 3 pages.

	   Extended description and discussion of the program or functions, or the body of the
	   documentation for man pages that document something else.  If particularly long, it's
	   a good idea to break this up into subsections "=head2" directives like:

	       =head2 Normal Usage

	       =head2 Advanced Features

	       =head2 Writing Configuration Files

	   or whatever is appropriate for your documentation.

	   Detailed description of each of the command-line options taken by the program.  This
	   should be separate from the description for the use of things like Pod::Usage.  This
	   is normally presented as a list, with each option as a separate "=item".  The specific
	   option string should be enclosed in B<>.  Any values that the option takes should be
	   enclosed in I<>.  For example, the section for the option --section=manext would be
	   introduced with:

	       =item B<--section>=I<manext>

	   Synonymous options (like both the short and long forms) are separated by a comma and a
	   space on the same "=item" line, or optionally listed as their own item with a refer-
	   ence to the canonical name.	For example, since --section can also be written as -s,
	   the above would be:

	       =item B<-s> I<manext>, B<--section>=I<manext>

	   (Writing the short option first is arguably easier to read, since the long option is
	   long enough to draw the eye to it anyway and the short option can otherwise get lost
	   in visual noise.)

	   What the program or function returns, if successful.  This section can be omitted for
	   programs whose precise exit codes aren't important, provided they return 0 on success
	   as is standard.  It should always be present for functions.

	   Exceptions, error return codes, exit statuses, and errno settings.  Typically used for
	   function documentation; program documentation uses DIAGNOSTICS instead.  The general
	   rule of thumb is that errors printed to STDOUT or STDERR and intended for the end user
	   are documented in DIAGNOSTICS while errors passed internal to the calling program and
	   intended for other programmers are documented in ERRORS.  When documenting a function
	   that sets errno, a full list of the possible errno values should be given here.

	   All possible messages the program can print out--and what they mean.  You may wish to
	   follow the same documentation style as the Perl documentation; see perldiag(1) for
	   more details (and look at the POD source as well).

	   If applicable, please include details on what the user should do to correct the error;
	   documenting an error as indicating "the input buffer is too small" without telling the
	   user how to increase the size of the input buffer (or at least telling them that it
	   isn't possible) aren't very useful.

	   Give some example uses of the program or function.  Don't skimp; users often find this
	   the most useful part of the documentation.  The examples are generally given as verba-
	   tim paragraphs.

	   Don't just present an example without explaining what it does.  Adding a short para-
	   graph saying what the example will do can increase the value of the example immensely.

	   Environment variables that the program cares about, normally presented as a list using
	   "=over", "=item", and "=back".  For example:

	       =over 6

	       =item HOME

	       Used to determine the user's home directory.  F<.foorc> in this
	       directory is read for configuration details, if it exists.


	   Since environment variables are normally in all uppercase, no additional special for-
	   matting is generally needed; they're glaring enough as it is.

	   All files used by the program or function, normally presented as a list, and what it
	   uses them for.  File names should be enclosed in F<>.  It's particularly important to
	   document files that will be potentially modified.

	   Things to take special care with, sometimes called WARNINGS.

	   Things that are broken or just don't work quite right.

	   Bugs you don't plan to fix.	:-)

	   Miscellaneous commentary.

       SEE ALSO
	   Other man pages to check out, like man(1), man(7), makewhatis(8), or catman(8).  Nor-
	   mally a simple list of man pages separated by commas, or a paragraph giving the name
	   of a reference work.  Man page references, if they use the standard "name(section)"
	   form, don't have to be enclosed in L<> (although it's recommended), but other things
	   in this section probably should be when appropriate.

	   If the package has a mailing list, include a URL or subscription instructions here.

	   If the package has a web site, include a URL here.

	   Who wrote it (use AUTHORS for multiple people).  Including your current e-mail address
	   (or some e-mail address to which bug reports should be sent) so that users have a way
	   of contacting you is a good idea.  Remember that program documentation tends to roam
	   the wild for far longer than you expect and pick an e-mail address that's likely to
	   last if possible.

	   For copyright

	       Copyright YEAR(s) by YOUR NAME(s)

	   (No, (C) is not needed.  No, "all rights reserved" is not needed.)

	   For licensing the easiest way is to use the same licensing as Perl itself:

	       This library is free software; you may redistribute it and/or modify
	       it under the same terms as Perl itself.

	   This makes it easy for people to use your module with Perl.	Note that this licensing
	   is neither an endorsement or a requirement, you are of course free to choose any

	   Programs derived from other sources sometimes have this, or you might keep a modifica-
	   tion log here.  If the log gets overly long or detailed, consider maintaining it in a
	   separate file, though.

       In addition, some systems use CONFORMING TO to note conformance to relevant standards and
       MT-LEVEL to note safeness for use in threaded programs or signal handlers.  These headings
       are primarily useful when documenting parts of a C library.  Documentation of object-ori-
       ented libraries or modules may use CONSTRUCTORS and METHODS sections for detailed documen-
       tation of the parts of the library and save the DESCRIPTION section for an overview; other
       large modules may use FUNCTIONS for similar reasons.  Some people use OVERVIEW to summa-
       rize the description if it's quite long.

       Section ordering varies, although NAME should always be the first section (you'll break
       some man page systems otherwise), and NAME, SYNOPSIS, DESCRIPTION, and OPTIONS generally
       always occur first and in that order if present.  In general, SEE ALSO, AUTHOR, and simi-
       lar material should be left for last.  Some systems also move WARNINGS and NOTES to last.
       The order given above should be reasonable for most purposes.

       Finally, as a general note, try not to use an excessive amount of markup.  As documented
       here and in Pod::Man, you can safely leave Perl variables, function names, man page refer-
       ences, and the like unadorned by markup and the POD translators will figure it out for
       you.  This makes it much easier to later edit the documentation.  Note that many existing
       translators (including this one currently) will do the wrong thing with e-mail addresses
       or URLs when wrapped in L<>, so don't do that.

       For additional information that may be more accurate for your specific system, see either
       man(5) or man(7) depending on your system manual section numbering conventions.

       Pod::Man, Pod::Parser, man(1), nroff(1), podchecker(1), troff(1), man(7)

       The man page documenting the an macro set may be man(5) instead of man(7) on your system.

       The current version of this script is always available from its web site at
       <http://www.eyrie.org/~eagle/software/podlators/>.  It is also part of the Perl core dis-
       tribution as of 5.6.0.

       Russ Allbery <rra@stanford.edu>, based very heavily on the original pod2man by Larry Wall
       and Tom Christiansen.  Large portions of this documentation, particularly the sections on
       the anatomy of a proper man page, are taken from the pod2man documentation by Tom.

       Copyright 1999, 2000, 2001 by Russ Allbery <rra@stanford.edu>.

       This program is free software; you may redistribute it and/or modify it under the same
       terms as Perl itself.

perl v5.8.0				    2003-02-18				       POD2MAN(1)

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