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RedHat 9 (Linux i386) - man page for perldiag (redhat section 1)

PERLDIAG(1)			 Perl Programmers Reference Guide		      PERLDIAG(1)

NAME
       perldiag - various Perl diagnostics

DESCRIPTION
       These messages are classified as follows (listed in increasing order of desperation):

	   (W) A warning (optional).
	   (D) A deprecation (optional).
	   (S) A severe warning (default).
	   (F) A fatal error (trappable).
	   (P) An internal error you should never see (trappable).
	   (X) A very fatal error (nontrappable).
	   (A) An alien error message (not generated by Perl).

       The majority of messages from the first three classifications above (W, D & S) can be con-
       trolled using the "warnings" pragma.

       If a message can be controlled by the "warnings" pragma, its warning category is included
       with the classification letter in the description below.

       Optional warnings are enabled by using the "warnings" pragma or the -w and -W switches.
       Warnings may be captured by setting $SIG{__WARN__} to a reference to a routine that will
       be called on each warning instead of printing it.  See perlvar.

       Default warnings are always enabled unless they are explicitly disabled with the "warn-
       ings" pragma or the -X switch.

       Trappable errors may be trapped using the eval operator.  See "eval" in perlfunc.  In
       almost all cases, warnings may be selectively disabled or promoted to fatal errors using
       the "warnings" pragma.  See warnings.

       The messages are in alphabetical order, without regard to upper or lower-case.  Some of
       these messages are generic.  Spots that vary are denoted with a %s or other printf-style
       escape.	These escapes are ignored by the alphabetical order, as are all characters other
       than letters.  To look up your message, just ignore anything that is not a letter.

       A thread exited while %d other threads were still running
	   (W) When using threaded Perl, a thread (not necessarily the main thread) exited while
	   there were still other threads running.  Usually it's a good idea to first collect the
	   return values of the created threads by joining them, and only then exit from the main
	   thread.  See threads.

       accept() on closed socket %s
	   (W closed) You tried to do an accept on a closed socket.  Did you forget to check the
	   return value of your socket() call?	See "accept" in perlfunc.

       Allocation too large: %lx
	   (X) You can't allocate more than 64K on an MS-DOS machine.

       '!' allowed only after types %s
	   (F) The '!' is allowed in pack() and unpack() only after certain types.  See "pack" in
	   perlfunc.

       Ambiguous call resolved as CORE::%s(), qualify as such or use &
	   (W ambiguous) A subroutine you have declared has the same name as a Perl keyword, and
	   you have used the name without qualification for calling one or the other.  Perl
	   decided to call the builtin because the subroutine is not imported.

	   To force interpretation as a subroutine call, either put an ampersand before the sub-
	   routine name, or qualify the name with its package.	Alternatively, you can import the
	   subroutine (or pretend that it's imported with the "use subs" pragma).

	   To silently interpret it as the Perl operator, use the "CORE::" prefix on the operator
	   (e.g. "CORE::log($x)") or declare the subroutine to be an object method (see "Subrou-
	   tine Attributes" in perlsub or attributes).

       Ambiguous range in transliteration operator
	   (F) You wrote something like "tr/a-z-0//" which doesn't mean anything at all.  To
	   include a "-" character in a transliteration, put it either first or last.  (In the
	   past, "tr/a-z-0//" was synonymous with "tr/a-y//", which was probably not what you
	   would have expected.)

       Ambiguous use of %s resolved as %s
	   (W ambiguous)(S) You said something that may not be interpreted the way you thought.
	   Normally it's pretty easy to disambiguate it by supplying a missing quote, operator,
	   parenthesis pair or declaration.

       '|' and '<' may not both be specified on command line
	   (F) An error peculiar to VMS.  Perl does its own command line redirection, and found
	   that STDIN was a pipe, and that you also tried to redirect STDIN using '<'.	Only one
	   STDIN stream to a customer, please.

       '|' and '>' may not both be specified on command line
	   (F) An error peculiar to VMS.  Perl does its own command line redirection, and thinks
	   you tried to redirect stdout both to a file and into a pipe to another command.  You
	   need to choose one or the other, though nothing's stopping you from piping into a pro-
	   gram or Perl script which 'splits' output into two streams, such as

	       open(OUT,">$ARGV[0]") or die "Can't write to $ARGV[0]: $!";
	       while (<STDIN>) {
		   print;
		   print OUT;
	       }
	       close OUT;

       Applying %s to %s will act on scalar(%s)
	   (W misc) The pattern match ("//"), substitution ("s///"), and transliteration
	   ("tr///") operators work on scalar values.  If you apply one of them to an array or a
	   hash, it will convert the array or hash to a scalar value -- the length of an array,
	   or the population info of a hash -- and then work on that scalar value.  This is prob-
	   ably not what you meant to do.  See "grep" in perlfunc and "map" in perlfunc for
	   alternatives.

       Args must match #! line
	   (F) The setuid emulator requires that the arguments Perl was invoked with match the
	   arguments specified on the #! line.	Since some systems impose a one-argument limit on
	   the #! line, try combining switches; for example, turn "-w -U" into "-wU".

       Arg too short for msgsnd
	   (F) msgsnd() requires a string at least as long as sizeof(long).

       %s argument is not a HASH or ARRAY element
	   (F) The argument to exists() must be a hash or array element, such as:

	       $foo{$bar}
	       $ref->{"susie"}[12]

       %s argument is not a HASH or ARRAY element or slice
	   (F) The argument to delete() must be either a hash or array element, such as:

	       $foo{$bar}
	       $ref->{"susie"}[12]

	   or a hash or array slice, such as:

	       @foo[$bar, $baz, $xyzzy]
	       @{$ref->[12]}{"susie", "queue"}

       %s argument is not a subroutine name
	   (F) The argument to exists() for "exists &sub" must be a subroutine name, and not a
	   subroutine call.  "exists &sub()" will generate this error.

       '%s' trapped by operation mask
	   (F) You tried to use an operator from a Safe compartment in which it's disallowed. See
	   Safe.

       Argument "%s" isn't numeric%s
	   (W numeric) The indicated string was fed as an argument to an operator that expected a
	   numeric value instead.  If you're fortunate the message will identify which operator
	   was so unfortunate.

       Array @%s missing the @ in argument %d of %s()
	   (D deprecated) Really old Perl let you omit the @ on array names in some spots.  This
	   is now heavily deprecated.

       assertion botched: %s
	   (P) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.

       Assertion failed: file "%s"
	   (P) A general assertion failed.  The file in question must be examined.

       Assignment to both a list and a scalar
	   (F) If you assign to a conditional operator, the 2nd and 3rd arguments must either
	   both be scalars or both be lists.  Otherwise Perl won't know which context to supply
	   to the right side.

       Attempt to access disallowed key '%s' in a restricted hash
	   (F) The failing code has attempted to get or set a key which is not in the current set
	   of allowed keys of a restricted hash.

       Attempt to clear a restricted hash
	   (F) It is currently not allowed to clear a restricted hash, even if the new hash would
	   contain the same keys as before.  This may change in the future.

       Attempt to delete readonly key '%s' from a restricted hash
	   (F) The failing code attempted to delete a key whose value has been declared readonly
	   from a restricted hash.

       Attempt to delete disallowed key '%s' from a restricted hash
	   (F) The failing code attempted to delete from a restricted hash a key which is not in
	   its key set.

       Attempt to bless into a reference
	   (F) The CLASSNAME argument to the bless() operator is expected to be the name of the
	   package to bless the resulting object into. You've supplied instead a reference to
	   something: perhaps you wrote

	       bless $self, $proto;

	   when you intended

	       bless $self, ref($proto) || $proto;

	   If you actually want to bless into the stringified version of the reference supplied,
	   you need to stringify it yourself, for example by:

	       bless $self, "$proto";

       Attempt to free non-arena SV: 0x%lx
	   (P internal) All SV objects are supposed to be allocated from arenas that will be
	   garbage collected on exit.  An SV was discovered to be outside any of those arenas.

       Attempt to free nonexistent shared string
	   (P internal) Perl maintains a reference counted internal table of strings to optimize
	   the storage and access of hash keys and other strings.  This indicates someone tried
	   to decrement the reference count of a string that can no longer be found in the table.

       Attempt to free temp prematurely
	   (W debugging) Mortalized values are supposed to be freed by the free_tmps() routine.
	   This indicates that something else is freeing the SV before the free_tmps() routine
	   gets a chance, which means that the free_tmps() routine will be freeing an unrefer-
	   enced scalar when it does try to free it.

       Attempt to free unreferenced glob pointers
	   (P internal) The reference counts got screwed up on symbol aliases.

       Attempt to free unreferenced scalar
	   (W internal) Perl went to decrement the reference count of a scalar to see if it would
	   go to 0, and discovered that it had already gone to 0 earlier, and should have been
	   freed, and in fact, probably was freed.  This could indicate that SvREFCNT_dec() was
	   called too many times, or that SvREFCNT_inc() was called too few times, or that the SV
	   was mortalized when it shouldn't have been, or that memory has been corrupted.

       Attempt to join self
	   (F) You tried to join a thread from within itself, which is an impossible task.  You
	   may be joining the wrong thread, or you may need to move the join() to some other
	   thread.

       Attempt to pack pointer to temporary value
	   (W pack) You tried to pass a temporary value (like the result of a function, or a com-
	   puted expression) to the "p" pack() template.  This means the result contains a
	   pointer to a location that could become invalid anytime, even before the end of the
	   current statement.  Use literals or global values as arguments to the "p" pack() tem-
	   plate to avoid this warning.

       Attempt to use reference as lvalue in substr
	   (W substr) You supplied a reference as the first argument to substr() used as an
	   lvalue, which is pretty strange.  Perhaps you forgot to dereference it first.  See
	   "substr" in perlfunc.

       Bad arg length for %s, is %d, should be %s
	   (F) You passed a buffer of the wrong size to one of msgctl(), semctl() or shmctl().
	   In C parlance, the correct sizes are, respectively, sizeof(struct msqid_ds *),
	   sizeof(struct semid_ds *), and sizeof(struct shmid_ds *).

       Bad evalled substitution pattern
	   (F) You've used the "/e" switch to evaluate the replacement for a substitution, but
	   perl found a syntax error in the code to evaluate, most likely an unexpected right
	   brace '}'.

       Bad filehandle: %s
	   (F) A symbol was passed to something wanting a filehandle, but the symbol has no file-
	   handle associated with it.  Perhaps you didn't do an open(), or did it in another
	   package.

       Bad free() ignored
	   (S malloc) An internal routine called free() on something that had never been mal-
	   loc()ed in the first place. Mandatory, but can be disabled by setting environment
	   variable "PERL_BADFREE" to 0.

	   This message can be seen quite often with DB_File on systems with "hard" dynamic link-
	   ing, like "AIX" and "OS/2". It is a bug of "Berkeley DB" which is left unnoticed if
	   "DB" uses forgiving system malloc().

       Bad hash
	   (P) One of the internal hash routines was passed a null HV pointer.

       Bad index while coercing array into hash
	   (F) The index looked up in the hash found as the 0'th element of a pseudo-hash is not
	   legal.  Index values must be at 1 or greater.  See perlref.

       Badly placed ()'s
	   (A) You've accidentally run your script through csh instead of Perl.  Check the #!
	   line, or manually feed your script into Perl yourself.

       Bad name after %s::
	   (F) You started to name a symbol by using a package prefix, and then didn't finish the
	   symbol.  In particular, you can't interpolate outside of quotes, so

	       $var = 'myvar';
	       $sym = mypack::$var;

	   is not the same as

	       $var = 'myvar';
	       $sym = "mypack::$var";

       Bad realloc() ignored
	   (S malloc) An internal routine called realloc() on something that had never been mal-
	   loc()ed in the first place. Mandatory, but can be disabled by setting environment
	   variable "PERL_BADFREE" to 1.

       Bad symbol for array
	   (P) An internal request asked to add an array entry to something that wasn't a symbol
	   table entry.

       Bad symbol for filehandle
	   (P) An internal request asked to add a filehandle entry to something that wasn't a
	   symbol table entry.

       Bad symbol for hash
	   (P) An internal request asked to add a hash entry to something that wasn't a symbol
	   table entry.

       Bareword found in conditional
	   (W bareword) The compiler found a bareword where it expected a conditional, which
	   often indicates that an || or && was parsed as part of the last argument of the previ-
	   ous construct, for example:

	       open FOO || die;

	   It may also indicate a misspelled constant that has been interpreted as a bareword:

	       use constant TYPO => 1;
	       if (TYOP) { print "foo" }

	   The "strict" pragma is useful in avoiding such errors.

       Bareword "%s" not allowed while "strict subs" in use
	   (F) With "strict subs" in use, a bareword is only allowed as a subroutine identifier,
	   in curly brackets or to the left of the "=>" symbol.  Perhaps you need to predeclare a
	   subroutine?

       Bareword "%s" refers to nonexistent package
	   (W bareword) You used a qualified bareword of the form "Foo::", but the compiler saw
	   no other uses of that namespace before that point.  Perhaps you need to predeclare a
	   package?

       BEGIN failed--compilation aborted
	   (F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing a BEGIN subroutine.  Compilation
	   stops immediately and the interpreter is exited.

       BEGIN not safe after errors--compilation aborted
	   (F) Perl found a "BEGIN {}" subroutine (or a "use" directive, which implies a "BEGIN
	   {}") after one or more compilation errors had already occurred.  Since the intended
	   environment for the "BEGIN {}" could not be guaranteed (due to the errors), and since
	   subsequent code likely depends on its correct operation, Perl just gave up.

       \1 better written as $1
	   (W syntax) Outside of patterns, backreferences live on as variables.  The use of back-
	   slashes is grandfathered on the right-hand side of a substitution, but stylistically
	   it's better to use the variable form because other Perl programmers will expect it,
	   and it works better if there are more than 9 backreferences.

       Binary number > 0b11111111111111111111111111111111 non-portable
	   (W portable) The binary number you specified is larger than 2**32-1 (4294967295) and
	   therefore non-portable between systems.  See perlport for more on portability con-
	   cerns.

       bind() on closed socket %s
	   (W closed) You tried to do a bind on a closed socket.  Did you forget to check the
	   return value of your socket() call?	See "bind" in perlfunc.

       binmode() on closed filehandle %s
	   (W unopened) You tried binmode() on a filehandle that was never opened.  Check you
	   control flow and number of arguments.

       Bit vector size > 32 non-portable
	   (W portable) Using bit vector sizes larger than 32 is non-portable.

       Bizarre copy of %s in %s
	   (P) Perl detected an attempt to copy an internal value that is not copyable.

       -P not allowed for setuid/setgid script
	   (F) The script would have to be opened by the C preprocessor by name, which provides a
	   race condition that breaks security.

       Buffer overflow in prime_env_iter: %s
	   (W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS.  While Perl was preparing to iterate over
	   %ENV, it encountered a logical name or symbol definition which was too long, so it was
	   truncated to the string shown.

       Callback called exit
	   (F) A subroutine invoked from an external package via call_sv() exited by calling
	   exit.

       %s() called too early to check prototype
	   (W prototype) You've called a function that has a prototype before the parser saw a
	   definition or declaration for it, and Perl could not check that the call conforms to
	   the prototype.  You need to either add an early prototype declaration for the subrou-
	   tine in question, or move the subroutine definition ahead of the call to get proper
	   prototype checking.	Alternatively, if you are certain that you're calling the func-
	   tion correctly, you may put an ampersand before the name to avoid the warning.  See
	   perlsub.

       Can only compress unsigned integers
	   (F) An argument to pack("w",...) was not an integer.  The BER compressed integer for-
	   mat can only be used with positive integers, and you attempted to compress something
	   else.  See "pack" in perlfunc.

       Cannot compress integer
	   (F) An argument to pack("w",...) was too large to compress.	The BER compressed inte-
	   ger format can only be used with positive integers, and you attempted to compress
	   Infinity or a very large number (> 1e308).  See "pack" in perlfunc.

       Cannot compress negative numbers
	   (F) An argument to pack("w",...) was negative.  The BER compressed integer format can
	   only be used with positive integers.  See "pack" in perlfunc.

       / cannot take a count
	   (F) You had an unpack template indicating a counted-length string, but you have also
	   specified an explicit size for the string.  See "pack" in perlfunc.

       Can't bless non-reference value
	   (F) Only hard references may be blessed.  This is how Perl "enforces" encapsulation of
	   objects.  See perlobj.

       Can't call method "%s" in empty package "%s"
	   (F) You called a method correctly, and it correctly indicated a package functioning as
	   a class, but that package doesn't have ANYTHING defined in it, let alone methods.  See
	   perlobj.

       Can't call method "%s" on an undefined value
	   (F) You used the syntax of a method call, but the slot filled by the object reference
	   or package name contains an undefined value.  Something like this will reproduce the
	   error:

	       $BADREF = undef;
	       process $BADREF 1,2,3;
	       $BADREF->process(1,2,3);

       Can't call method "%s" on unblessed reference
	   (F) A method call must know in what package it's supposed to run.  It ordinarily finds
	   this out from the object reference you supply, but you didn't supply an object refer-
	   ence in this case.  A reference isn't an object reference until it has been blessed.
	   See perlobj.

       Can't call method "%s" without a package or object reference
	   (F) You used the syntax of a method call, but the slot filled by the object reference
	   or package name contains an expression that returns a defined value which is neither
	   an object reference nor a package name.  Something like this will reproduce the error:

	       $BADREF = 42;
	       process $BADREF 1,2,3;
	       $BADREF->process(1,2,3);

       Can't chdir to %s
	   (F) You called "perl -x/foo/bar", but "/foo/bar" is not a directory that you can chdir
	   to, possibly because it doesn't exist.

       Can't check filesystem of script "%s" for nosuid
	   (P) For some reason you can't check the filesystem of the script for nosuid.

       Can't coerce array into hash
	   (F) You used an array where a hash was expected, but the array has no information on
	   how to map from keys to array indices.  You can do that only with arrays that have a
	   hash reference at index 0.

       Can't coerce %s to integer in %s
	   (F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries (typeglobs), can't
	   be forced to stop being what they are.  So you can't say things like:

	       *foo += 1;

	   You CAN say

	       $foo = *foo;
	       $foo += 1;

	   but then $foo no longer contains a glob.

       Can't coerce %s to number in %s
	   (F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries (typeglobs), can't
	   be forced to stop being what they are.

       Can't coerce %s to string in %s
	   (F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol table entries (typeglobs), can't
	   be forced to stop being what they are.

       Can't create pipe mailbox
	   (P) An error peculiar to VMS.  The process is suffering from exhausted quotas or other
	   plumbing problems.

       Can't declare class for non-scalar %s in "%s"
	   (F) Currently, only scalar variables can be declared with a specific class qualifier
	   in a "my" or "our" declaration.  The semantics may be extended for other types of
	   variables in future.

       Can't declare %s in "%s"
	   (F) Only scalar, array, and hash variables may be declared as "my" or "our" variables.
	   They must have ordinary identifiers as names.

       Can't do inplace edit: %s is not a regular file
	   (S inplace) You tried to use the -i switch on a special file, such as a file in /dev,
	   or a FIFO.  The file was ignored.

       Can't do inplace edit on %s: %s
	   (S inplace) The creation of the new file failed for the indicated reason.

       Can't do inplace edit without backup
	   (F) You're on a system such as MS-DOS that gets confused if you try reading from a
	   deleted (but still opened) file.  You have to say "-i.bak", or some such.

       Can't do inplace edit: %s would not be unique
	   (S inplace) Your filesystem does not support filenames longer than 14 characters and
	   Perl was unable to create a unique filename during inplace editing with the -i switch.
	   The file was ignored.

       Can't do {n,m} with n > m in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
	   (F) Minima must be less than or equal to maxima. If you really want your regexp to
	   match something 0 times, just put {0}. The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression
	   about where the problem was discovered. See perlre.

       Can't do setegid!
	   (P) The setegid() call failed for some reason in the setuid emulator of suidperl.

       Can't do seteuid!
	   (P) The setuid emulator of suidperl failed for some reason.

       Can't do setuid
	   (F) This typically means that ordinary perl tried to exec suidperl to do setuid emula-
	   tion, but couldn't exec it.	It looks for a name of the form sperl5.000 in the same
	   directory that the perl executable resides under the name perl5.000, typically
	   /usr/local/bin on Unix machines.  If the file is there, check the execute permissions.
	   If it isn't, ask your sysadmin why he and/or she removed it.

       Can't do waitpid with flags
	   (F) This machine doesn't have either waitpid() or wait4(), so only waitpid() without
	   flags is emulated.

       Can't emulate -%s on #! line
	   (F) The #! line specifies a switch that doesn't make sense at this point.  For exam-
	   ple, it'd be kind of silly to put a -x on the #!  line.

       Can't exec "%s": %s
	   (W exec) A system(), exec(), or piped open call could not execute the named program
	   for the indicated reason.  Typical reasons include: the permissions were wrong on the
	   file, the file wasn't found in $ENV{PATH}, the executable in question was compiled for
	   another architecture, or the #! line in a script points to an interpreter that can't
	   be run for similar reasons.	(Or maybe your system doesn't support #! at all.)

       Can't exec %s
	   (F) Perl was trying to execute the indicated program for you because that's what the
	   #! line said.  If that's not what you wanted, you may need to mention "perl" on the #!
	   line somewhere.

       Can't execute %s
	   (F) You used the -S switch, but the copies of the script to execute found in the PATH
	   did not have correct permissions.

       Can't find an opnumber for "%s"
	   (F) A string of a form "CORE::word" was given to prototype(), but there is no builtin
	   with the name "word".

       Can't find %s character property "%s"
	   (F) You used "\p{}" or "\P{}" but the character property by that name could not be
	   found. Maybe you misspelled the name of the property (remember that the names of char-
	   acter properties consist only of alphanumeric characters), or maybe you forgot the
	   "Is" or "In" prefix?

       Can't find label %s
	   (F) You said to goto a label that isn't mentioned anywhere that it's possible for us
	   to go to.  See "goto" in perlfunc.

       Can't find %s on PATH
	   (F) You used the -S switch, but the script to execute could not be found in the PATH.

       Can't find %s on PATH, '.' not in PATH
	   (F) You used the -S switch, but the script to execute could not be found in the PATH,
	   or at least not with the correct permissions.  The script exists in the current direc-
	   tory, but PATH prohibits running it.

       Can't find string terminator %s anywhere before EOF
	   (F) Perl strings can stretch over multiple lines.  This message means that the closing
	   delimiter was omitted.  Because bracketed quotes count nesting levels, the following
	   is missing its final parenthesis:

	       print q(The character '(' starts a side comment.);

	   If you're getting this error from a here-document, you may have included unseen white-
	   space before or after your closing tag. A good programmer's editor will have a way to
	   help you find these characters.

       Can't find %s property definition %s
	   (F) You may have tried to use "\p" which means a Unicode property (for example
	   "\p{Lu}" is all uppercase letters).	If you did mean to use a Unicode property, see
	   perlunicode for the list of known properties.  If you didn't mean to use a Unicode
	   property, escape the "\p", either by "\\p" (just the "\p") or by "\Q\p" (the rest of
	   the string, until possible "\E").

       Can't fork
	   (F) A fatal error occurred while trying to fork while opening a pipeline.

       Can't get filespec - stale stat buffer?
	   (S) A warning peculiar to VMS.  This arises because of the difference between access
	   checks under VMS and under the Unix model Perl assumes.  Under VMS, access checks are
	   done by filename, rather than by bits in the stat buffer, so that ACLs and other pro-
	   tections can be taken into account.	Unfortunately, Perl assumes that the stat buffer
	   contains all the necessary information, and passes it, instead of the filespec, to the
	   access checking routine.  It will try to retrieve the filespec using the device name
	   and FID present in the stat buffer, but this works only if you haven't made a subse-
	   quent call to the CRTL stat() routine, because the device name is overwritten with
	   each call.  If this warning appears, the name lookup failed, and the access checking
	   routine gave up and returned FALSE, just to be conservative.  (Note: The access check-
	   ing routine knows about the Perl "stat" operator and file tests, so you shouldn't ever
	   see this warning in response to a Perl command; it arises only if some internal code
	   takes stat buffers lightly.)

       Can't get pipe mailbox device name
	   (P) An error peculiar to VMS.  After creating a mailbox to act as a pipe, Perl can't
	   retrieve its name for later use.

       Can't get SYSGEN parameter value for MAXBUF
	   (P) An error peculiar to VMS.  Perl asked $GETSYI how big you want your mailbox buf-
	   fers to be, and didn't get an answer.

       Can't "goto" into the middle of a foreach loop
	   (F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump into the middle of a foreach loop.  You
	   can't get there from here.  See "goto" in perlfunc.

       Can't "goto" out of a pseudo block
	   (F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump out of what might look like a block,
	   except that it isn't a proper block.  This usually occurs if you tried to jump out of
	   a sort() block or subroutine, which is a no-no.  See "goto" in perlfunc.

       Can't goto subroutine from an eval-string
	   (F) The "goto subroutine" call can't be used to jump out of an eval "string".  (You
	   can use it to jump out of an eval {BLOCK}, but you probably don't want to.)

       Can't goto subroutine outside a subroutine
	   (F) The deeply magical "goto subroutine" call can only replace one subroutine call for
	   another.  It can't manufacture one out of whole cloth.  In general you should be call-
	   ing it out of only an AUTOLOAD routine anyway.  See "goto" in perlfunc.

       Can't ignore signal CHLD, forcing to default
	   (W signal) Perl has detected that it is being run with the SIGCHLD signal (sometimes
	   known as SIGCLD) disabled.  Since disabling this signal will interfere with proper
	   determination of exit status of child processes, Perl has reset the signal to its
	   default value.  This situation typically indicates that the parent program under which
	   Perl may be running (e.g. cron) is being very careless.

       Can't "last" outside a loop block
	   (F) A "last" statement was executed to break out of the current block, except that
	   there's this itty bitty problem called there isn't a current block.	Note that an "if"
	   or "else" block doesn't count as a "loopish" block, as doesn't a block given to
	   sort(), map() or grep().  You can usually double the curlies to get the same effect
	   though, because the inner curlies will be considered a block that loops once.  See
	   "last" in perlfunc.

       Can't localize lexical variable %s
	   (F) You used local on a variable name that was previously declared as a lexical vari-
	   able using "my".  This is not allowed.  If you want to localize a package variable of
	   the same name, qualify it with the package name.

       Can't localize pseudo-hash element
	   (F) You said something like "local $ar->{'key'}", where $ar is a reference to a
	   pseudo-hash.  That hasn't been implemented yet, but you can get a similar effect by
	   localizing the corresponding array element directly -- "local $ar->[$ar->[0]{'key'}]".

       Can't localize through a reference
	   (F) You said something like "local $$ref", which Perl can't currently handle, because
	   when it goes to restore the old value of whatever $ref pointed to after the scope of
	   the local() is finished, it can't be sure that $ref will still be a reference.

       Can't locate %s
	   (F) You said to "do" (or "require", or "use") a file that couldn't be found. Perl
	   looks for the file in all the locations mentioned in @INC, unless the file name
	   included the full path to the file.	Perhaps you need to set the PERL5LIB or PERL5OPT
	   environment variable to say where the extra library is, or maybe the script needs to
	   add the library name to @INC.  Or maybe you just misspelled the name of the file.  See
	   "require" in perlfunc and lib.

       Can't locate auto/%s.al in @INC
	   (F) A function (or method) was called in a package which allows autoload, but there is
	   no function to autoload.  Most probable causes are a misprint in a function/method
	   name or a failure to "AutoSplit" the file, say, by doing "make install".

       Can't locate object method "%s" via package "%s"
	   (F) You called a method correctly, and it correctly indicated a package functioning as
	   a class, but that package doesn't define that particular method, nor does any of its
	   base classes.  See perlobj.

       Can't locate PerlIO%s
	   (F) You tried to use in open() a PerlIO layer that does not exist, e.g. open(FH,
	   ">:nosuchlayer", "somefile").

       (perhaps you forgot to load "%s"?)
	   (F) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message "Can't locate
	   object method \"%s\" via package \"%s\"".  It often means that a method requires a
	   package that has not been loaded.

       Can't locate package %s for @%s::ISA
	   (W syntax) The @ISA array contained the name of another package that doesn't seem to
	   exist.

       Can't make list assignment to \%ENV on this system
	   (F) List assignment to %ENV is not supported on some systems, notably VMS.

       Can't modify %s in %s
	   (F) You aren't allowed to assign to the item indicated, or otherwise try to change it,
	   such as with an auto-increment.

       Can't modify nonexistent substring
	   (P) The internal routine that does assignment to a substr() was handed a NULL.

       Can't modify non-lvalue subroutine call
	   (F) Subroutines meant to be used in lvalue context should be declared as such, see
	   "Lvalue subroutines" in perlsub.

       Can't msgrcv to read-only var
	   (F) The target of a msgrcv must be modifiable to be used as a receive buffer.

       Can't "next" outside a loop block
	   (F) A "next" statement was executed to reiterate the current block, but there isn't a
	   current block.  Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't count as a "loopish" block,
	   as doesn't a block given to sort(), map() or grep().  You can usually double the
	   curlies to get the same effect though, because the inner curlies will be considered a
	   block that loops once.  See "next" in perlfunc.

       Can't open %s: %s
	   (S inplace) The implicit opening of a file through use of the "<>" filehandle, either
	   implicitly under the "-n" or "-p" command-line switches, or explicitly, failed for the
	   indicated reason.  Usually this is because you don't have read permission for a file
	   which you named on the command line.

       Can't open a reference
	   (W io) You tried to open a scalar reference for reading or writing, using the 3-arg
	   open() syntax :

	       open FH, '>', $ref;

	   but your version of perl is compiled without perlio, and this form of open is not sup-
	   ported.

       Can't open bidirectional pipe
	   (W pipe) You tried to say "open(CMD, "|cmd|")", which is not supported.  You can try
	   any of several modules in the Perl library to do this, such as IPC::Open2.  Alter-
	   nately, direct the pipe's output to a file using ">", and then read it in under a dif-
	   ferent file handle.

       Can't open error file %s as stderr
	   (F) An error peculiar to VMS.  Perl does its own command line redirection, and
	   couldn't open the file specified after '2>' or '2>>' on the command line for writing.

       Can't open input file %s as stdin
	   (F) An error peculiar to VMS.  Perl does its own command line redirection, and
	   couldn't open the file specified after '<' on the command line for reading.

       Can't open output file %s as stdout
	   (F) An error peculiar to VMS.  Perl does its own command line redirection, and
	   couldn't open the file specified after '>' or '>>' on the command line for writing.

       Can't open output pipe (name: %s)
	   (P) An error peculiar to VMS.  Perl does its own command line redirection, and
	   couldn't open the pipe into which to send data destined for stdout.

       Can't open perl script%s: %s
	   (F) The script you specified can't be opened for the indicated reason.

       Can't read CRTL environ
	   (S) A warning peculiar to VMS.  Perl tried to read an element of %ENV from the CRTL's
	   internal environment array and discovered the array was missing.  You need to figure
	   out where your CRTL misplaced its environ or define PERL_ENV_TABLES (see perlvms) so
	   that environ is not searched.

       Can't redefine active sort subroutine %s
	   (F) Perl optimizes the internal handling of sort subroutines and keeps pointers into
	   them.  You tried to redefine one such sort subroutine when it was currently active,
	   which is not allowed.  If you really want to do this, you should write "sort { &func }
	   @x" instead of "sort func @x".

       Can't "redo" outside a loop block
	   (F) A "redo" statement was executed to restart the current block, but there isn't a
	   current block.  Note that an "if" or "else" block doesn't count as a "loopish" block,
	   as doesn't a block given to sort(), map() or grep().  You can usually double the
	   curlies to get the same effect though, because the inner curlies will be considered a
	   block that loops once.  See "redo" in perlfunc.

       Can't remove %s: %s, skipping file
	   (S inplace) You requested an inplace edit without creating a backup file.  Perl was
	   unable to remove the original file to replace it with the modified file.  The file was
	   left unmodified.

       Can't rename %s to %s: %s, skipping file
	   (S inplace) The rename done by the -i switch failed for some reason, probably because
	   you don't have write permission to the directory.

       Can't reopen input pipe (name: %s) in binary mode
	   (P) An error peculiar to VMS.  Perl thought stdin was a pipe, and tried to reopen it
	   to accept binary data.  Alas, it failed.

       Can't resolve method `%s' overloading `%s' in package `%s'
	   (F|P) Error resolving overloading specified by a method name (as opposed to a subrou-
	   tine reference): no such method callable via the package. If method name is "???",
	   this is an internal error.

       Can't reswap uid and euid
	   (P) The setreuid() call failed for some reason in the setuid emulator of suidperl.

       Can't return %s from lvalue subroutine
	   (F) Perl detected an attempt to return illegal lvalues (such as temporary or readonly
	   values) from a subroutine used as an lvalue.  This is not allowed.

       Can't return %s to lvalue scalar context
	   (F) You tried to return a complete array or hash from an lvalue subroutine, but you
	   called the subroutine in a way that made Perl think you meant to return only one
	   value. You probably meant to write parentheses around the call to the subroutine,
	   which tell Perl that the call should be in list context.

       Can't return outside a subroutine
	   (F) The return statement was executed in mainline code, that is, where there was no
	   subroutine call to return out of.  See perlsub.

       Can't stat script "%s"
	   (P) For some reason you can't fstat() the script even though you have it open already.
	   Bizarre.

       Can't swap uid and euid
	   (P) The setreuid() call failed for some reason in the setuid emulator of suidperl.

       Can't take log of %g
	   (F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the logarithm of a negative number or
	   zero. There's a Math::Complex package that comes standard with Perl, though, if you
	   really want to do that for the negative numbers.

       Can't take sqrt of %g
	   (F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the square root of a negative number.
	   There's a Math::Complex package that comes standard with Perl, though, if you really
	   want to do that.

       Can't undef active subroutine
	   (F) You can't undefine a routine that's currently running.  You can, however, redefine
	   it while it's running, and you can even undef the redefined subroutine while the old
	   routine is running.	Go figure.

       Can't unshift
	   (F) You tried to unshift an "unreal" array that can't be unshifted, such as the main
	   Perl stack.

       Can't upgrade that kind of scalar
	   (P) The internal sv_upgrade routine adds "members" to an SV, making it into a more
	   specialized kind of SV.  The top several SV types are so specialized, however, that
	   they cannot be interconverted.  This message indicates that such a conversion was
	   attempted.

       Can't upgrade to undef
	   (P) The undefined SV is the bottom of the totem pole, in the scheme of upgradability.
	   Upgrading to undef indicates an error in the code calling sv_upgrade.

       Can't use an undefined value as %s reference
	   (F) A value used as either a hard reference or a symbolic reference must be a defined
	   value.  This helps to delurk some insidious errors.

       Can't use anonymous symbol table for method lookup
	   (P) The internal routine that does method lookup was handed a symbol table that
	   doesn't have a name.  Symbol tables can become anonymous for example by undefining
	   stashes: "undef %Some::Package::".

       Can't use bareword ("%s") as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
	   (F) Only hard references are allowed by "strict refs".  Symbolic references are disal-
	   lowed.  See perlref.

       Can't use %! because Errno.pm is not available
	   (F) The first time the %! hash is used, perl automatically loads the Errno.pm module.
	   The Errno module is expected to tie the %! hash to provide symbolic names for $! errno
	   values.

       Can't use %s for loop variable
	   (F) Only a simple scalar variable may be used as a loop variable on a foreach.

       Can't use global %s in "my"
	   (F) You tried to declare a magical variable as a lexical variable.  This is not
	   allowed, because the magic can be tied to only one location (namely the global vari-
	   able) and it would be incredibly confusing to have variables in your program that
	   looked like magical variables but weren't.

       Can't use "my %s" in sort comparison
	   (F) The global variables $a and $b are reserved for sort comparisons.  You mentioned
	   $a or $b in the same line as the <=> or cmp operator, and the variable had earlier
	   been declared as a lexical variable.  Either qualify the sort variable with the pack-
	   age name, or rename the lexical variable.

       Can't use %s ref as %s ref
	   (F) You've mixed up your reference types.  You have to dereference a reference of the
	   type needed.  You can use the ref() function to test the type of the reference, if
	   need be.

       Can't use string ("%s") as %s ref while "strict refs" in use
	   (F) Only hard references are allowed by "strict refs".  Symbolic references are disal-
	   lowed.  See perlref.

       Can't use subscript on %s
	   (F) The compiler tried to interpret a bracketed expression as a subscript.  But to the
	   left of the brackets was an expression that didn't look like an array reference, or
	   anything else subscriptable.

       Can't use \%c to mean $%c in expression
	   (W syntax) In an ordinary expression, backslash is a unary operator that creates a
	   reference to its argument.  The use of backslash to indicate a backreference to a
	   matched substring is valid only as part of a regular expression pattern.  Trying to do
	   this in ordinary Perl code produces a value that prints out looking like SCALAR(0xde-
	   caf).  Use the $1 form instead.

       Can't weaken a nonreference
	   (F) You attempted to weaken something that was not a reference.  Only references can
	   be weakened.

       Can't x= to read-only value
	   (F) You tried to repeat a constant value (often the undefined value) with an assign-
	   ment operator, which implies modifying the value itself.  Perhaps you need to copy the
	   value to a temporary, and repeat that.

       Character in "C" format wrapped
	   (W pack) You said

	       pack("C", $x)

	   where $x is either less than 0 or more than 255; the "C" format is only for encoding
	   native operating system characters (ASCII, EBCDIC, and so on) and not for Unicode
	   characters, so Perl behaved as if you meant

	       pack("C", $x & 255)

	   If you actually want to pack Unicode codepoints, use the "U" format instead.

       Character in "c" format wrapped
	   (W pack) You said

	       pack("c", $x)

	   where $x is either less than -128 or more than 127; the "c" format is only for encod-
	   ing native operating system characters (ASCII, EBCDIC, and so on) and not for Unicode
	   characters, so Perl behaved as if you meant

	       pack("c", $x & 255);

	   If you actually want to pack Unicode codepoints, use the "U" format instead.

       close() on unopened filehandle %s
	   (W unopened) You tried to close a filehandle that was never opened.

       %s: Command not found
	   (A) You've accidentally run your script through csh instead of Perl.  Check the #!
	   line, or manually feed your script into Perl yourself.

       Compilation failed in require
	   (F) Perl could not compile a file specified in a "require" statement.  Perl uses this
	   generic message when none of the errors that it encountered were severe enough to halt
	   compilation immediately.

       Complex regular subexpression recursion limit (%d) exceeded
	   (W regexp) The regular expression engine uses recursion in complex situations where
	   back-tracking is required.  Recursion depth is limited to 32766, or perhaps less in
	   architectures where the stack cannot grow arbitrarily.  ("Simple" and "medium" situa-
	   tions are handled without recursion and are not subject to a limit.)  Try shortening
	   the string under examination; looping in Perl code (e.g. with "while") rather than in
	   the regular expression engine; or rewriting the regular expression so that it is sim-
	   pler or backtracks less.  (See perlfaq2 for information on Mastering Regular Expres-
	   sions.)

       cond_broadcast() called on unlocked variable
	   (W threads) Within a thread-enabled program, you tried to call cond_broadcast() on a
	   variable which wasn't locked. The cond_broadcast() function	is used to wake up
	   another thread that is waiting in a cond_wait(). To ensure that the signal isn't sent
	   before the other thread has a chance to enter the wait, it is usual for the signaling
	   thread to first wait for a lock on variable. This lock attempt will only succeed after
	   the other thread has entered cond_wait() and thus relinquished the lock.

       cond_signal() called on unlocked variable
	   (W threads) Within a thread-enabled program, you tried to call cond_signal() on a
	   variable which wasn't locked. The cond_signal() function  is used to wake up another
	   thread that is waiting in a cond_wait(). To ensure that the signal isn't sent before
	   the other thread has a chance to enter the wait, it is usual for the signaling thread
	   to first wait for a lock on variable. This lock attempt will only succeed after the
	   other thread has entered cond_wait() and thus relinquished the lock.

       connect() on closed socket %s
	   (W closed) You tried to do a connect on a closed socket.  Did you forget to check the
	   return value of your socket() call?	See "connect" in perlfunc.

       Constant(%s)%s: %s
	   (F) The parser found inconsistencies either while attempting to define an overloaded
	   constant, or when trying to find the character name specified in the "\N{...}" escape.
	   Perhaps you forgot to load the corresponding "overload" or "charnames" pragma?  See
	   charnames and overload.

       Constant is not %s reference
	   (F) A constant value (perhaps declared using the "use constant" pragma) is being
	   dereferenced, but it amounts to the wrong type of reference.  The message indicates
	   the type of reference that was expected. This usually indicates a syntax error in
	   dereferencing the constant value.  See "Constant Functions" in perlsub and constant.

       Constant subroutine %s redefined
	   (S) You redefined a subroutine which had previously been eligible for inlining.  See
	   "Constant Functions" in perlsub for commentary and workarounds.

       Constant subroutine %s undefined
	   (W misc) You undefined a subroutine which had previously been eligible for inlining.
	   See "Constant Functions" in perlsub for commentary and workarounds.

       Copy method did not return a reference
	   (F) The method which overloads "=" is buggy. See "Copy Constructor" in overload.

       CORE::%s is not a keyword
	   (F) The CORE:: namespace is reserved for Perl keywords.

       corrupted regexp pointers
	   (P) The regular expression engine got confused by what the regular expression compiler
	   gave it.

       corrupted regexp program
	   (P) The regular expression engine got passed a regexp program without a valid magic
	   number.

       Corrupt malloc ptr 0x%lx at 0x%lx
	   (P) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an internal failure.

       "-p" destination: %s
	   (F) An error occurred during the implicit output invoked by the "-p" command-line
	   switch.  (This output goes to STDOUT unless you've redirected it with select().)

       "-T" and "-B" not implemented on filehandles
	   (F) Perl can't peek at the stdio buffer of filehandles when it doesn't know about your
	   kind of stdio.  You'll have to use a filename instead.

       Deep recursion on subroutine "%s"
	   (W recursion) This subroutine has called itself (directly or indirectly) 100 times
	   more than it has returned.  This probably indicates an infinite recursion, unless
	   you're writing strange benchmark programs, in which case it indicates something else.

       defined(@array) is deprecated
	   (D deprecated) defined() is not usually useful on arrays because it checks for an
	   undefined scalar value.  If you want to see if the array is empty, just use "if
	   (@array) { # not empty }" for example.

       defined(%hash) is deprecated
	   (D deprecated) defined() is not usually useful on hashes because it checks for an
	   undefined scalar value.  If you want to see if the hash is empty, just use "if (%hash)
	   { # not empty }" for example.

       %s defines neither package nor VERSION--version check failed
	   (F) You said something like "use Module 42" but in the Module file there are neither
	   package declarations nor a $VERSION.

       Delimiter for here document is too long
	   (F) In a here document construct like "<<FOO", the label "FOO" is too long for Perl to
	   handle.  You have to be seriously twisted to write code that triggers this error.

       Did not produce a valid header
	   See Server error.

       %s did not return a true value
	   (F) A required (or used) file must return a true value to indicate that it compiled
	   correctly and ran its initialization code correctly.  It's traditional to end such a
	   file with a "1;", though any true value would do.  See "require" in perlfunc.

       (Did you mean &%s instead?)
	   (W) You probably referred to an imported subroutine &FOO as $FOO or some such.

       (Did you mean "local" instead of "our"?)
	   (W misc) Remember that "our" does not localize the declared global variable.  You have
	   declared it again in the same lexical scope, which seems superfluous.

       (Did you mean $ or @ instead of %?)
	   (W) You probably said %hash{$key} when you meant $hash{$key} or @hash{@keys}.  On the
	   other hand, maybe you just meant %hash and got carried away.

       Died
	   (F) You passed die() an empty string (the equivalent of "die """) or you called it
	   with no args and both $@ and $_ were empty.

       Document contains no data
	   See Server error.

       %s does not define %s::VERSION--version check failed
	   (F) You said something like "use Module 42" but the Module did not define a "$VER-
	   SION."

       Don't know how to handle magic of type '%s'
	   (P) The internal handling of magical variables has been cursed.

       do_study: out of memory
	   (P) This should have been caught by safemalloc() instead.

       (Do you need to predeclare %s?)
	   (S) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message "%s found where
	   operator expected".	It often means a subroutine or module name is being referenced
	   that hasn't been declared yet.  This may be because of ordering problems in your file,
	   or because of a missing "sub", "package", "require", or "use" statement.  If you're
	   referencing something that isn't defined yet, you don't actually have to define the
	   subroutine or package before the current location.  You can use an empty "sub foo;" or
	   "package FOO;" to enter a "forward" declaration.

       dump() better written as CORE::dump()
	   (W misc) You used the obsolescent "dump()" built-in function, without fully qualifying
	   it as "CORE::dump()".  Maybe it's a typo.  See "dump" in perlfunc.

       Duplicate free() ignored
	   (S malloc) An internal routine called free() on something that had already been freed.

       elseif should be elsif
	   (S) There is no keyword "elseif" in Perl because Larry thinks it's ugly.  Your code
	   will be interpreted as an attempt to call a method named "elseif" for the class
	   returned by the following block.  This is unlikely to be what you want.

       Empty %s
	   (F) "\p" and "\P" are used to introduce a named Unicode property, as described in per-
	   lunicode and perlre. You used "\p" or "\P" in a regular expression without specifying
	   the property name.

       entering effective %s failed
	   (F) While under the "use filetest" pragma, switching the real and effective uids or
	   gids failed.

       Error converting file specification %s
	   (F) An error peculiar to VMS.  Because Perl may have to deal with file specifications
	   in either VMS or Unix syntax, it converts them to a single form when it must operate
	   on them directly.  Either you've passed an invalid file specification to Perl, or
	   you've found a case the conversion routines don't handle.  Drat.

       %s: Eval-group in insecure regular expression
	   (F) Perl detected tainted data when trying to compile a regular expression that con-
	   tains the "(?{ ... })" zero-width assertion, which is unsafe.  See "(?{ code })" in
	   perlre, and perlsec.

       %s: Eval-group not allowed at run time
	   (F) Perl tried to compile a regular expression containing the "(?{ ... })" zero-width
	   assertion at run time, as it would when the pattern contains interpolated values.
	   Since that is a security risk, it is not allowed.  If you insist, you may still do
	   this by explicitly building the pattern from an interpolated string at run time and
	   using that in an eval().  See "(?{ code })" in perlre.

       %s: Eval-group not allowed, use re 'eval'
	   (F) A regular expression contained the "(?{ ... })" zero-width assertion, but that
	   construct is only allowed when the "use re 'eval'" pragma is in effect.  See "(?{ code
	   })" in perlre.

       Excessively long <> operator
	   (F) The contents of a <> operator may not exceed the maximum size of a Perl identi-
	   fier.  If you're just trying to glob a long list of filenames, try using the glob()
	   operator, or put the filenames into a variable and glob that.

       exec? I'm not *that* kind of operating system
	   (F) The "exec" function is not implemented in MacPerl. See perlport.

       Execution of %s aborted due to compilation errors
	   (F) The final summary message when a Perl compilation fails.

       Exiting eval via %s
	   (W exiting) You are exiting an eval by unconventional means, such as a goto, or a loop
	   control statement.

       Exiting format via %s
	   (W exiting) You are exiting a format by unconventional means, such as a goto, or a
	   loop control statement.

       Exiting pseudo-block via %s
	   (W exiting) You are exiting a rather special block construct (like a sort block or
	   subroutine) by unconventional means, such as a goto, or a loop control statement.  See
	   "sort" in perlfunc.

       Exiting subroutine via %s
	   (W exiting) You are exiting a subroutine by unconventional means, such as a goto, or a
	   loop control statement.

       Exiting substitution via %s
	   (W exiting) You are exiting a substitution by unconventional means, such as a return,
	   a goto, or a loop control statement.

       Explicit blessing to '' (assuming package main)
	   (W misc) You are blessing a reference to a zero length string.  This has the effect of
	   blessing the reference into the package main.  This is usually not what you want.
	   Consider providing a default target package, e.g. bless($ref, $p || 'MyPackage');

       %s: Expression syntax
	   (A) You've accidentally run your script through csh instead of Perl.  Check the #!
	   line, or manually feed your script into Perl yourself.

       %s failed--call queue aborted
	   (F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing a CHECK, INIT, or END subrou-
	   tine.  Processing of the remainder of the queue of such routines has been prematurely
	   ended.

       False [] range "%s" in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
	   (W regexp) A character class range must start and end at a literal character, not
	   another character class like "\d" or "[:alpha:]".  The "-" in your false range is
	   interpreted as a literal "-".  Consider quoting the "-", "\-".  The <-- HERE shows in
	   the regular expression about where the problem was discovered.  See perlre.

       Fatal VMS error at %s, line %d
	   (P) An error peculiar to VMS.  Something untoward happened in a VMS system service or
	   RTL routine; Perl's exit status should provide more details.  The filename in "at %s"
	   and the line number in "line %d" tell you which section of the Perl source code is
	   distressed.

       fcntl is not implemented
	   (F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement fcntl().  What is this, a PDP-11 or
	   something?

       Filehandle %s opened only for input
	   (W io) You tried to write on a read-only filehandle.  If you intended it to be a read-
	   write filehandle, you needed to open it with "+<" or "+>" or "+>>" instead of with "<"
	   or nothing.	If you intended only to write the file, use ">" or ">>".  See "open" in
	   perlfunc.

       Filehandle %s opened only for output
	   (W io) You tried to read from a filehandle opened only for writing, If you intended it
	   to be a read/write filehandle, you needed to open it with "+<" or "+>" or "+>>"
	   instead of with "<" or nothing.  If you intended only to read from the file, use "<".
	   See "open" in perlfunc.  Another possibility is that you attempted to open
	   filedescriptor 0 (also known as STDIN) for output (maybe you closed STDIN earlier?).

       Filehandle %s reopened as %s only for input
	   (W io) You opened for reading a filehandle that got the same filehandle id as STDOUT
	   or STDERR. This occured because you closed STDOUT or STDERR previously.

       Filehandle STDIN reopened as %s only for output
	   (W io) You opened for writing a filehandle that got the same filehandle id as STDIN.
	   This occured because you closed STDIN previously.

       Final $ should be \$ or $name
	   (F) You must now decide whether the final $ in a string was meant to be a literal dol-
	   lar sign, or was meant to introduce a variable name that happens to be missing.  So
	   you have to put either the backslash or the name.

       Final @ should be \@ or @name
	   (F) You must now decide whether the final @ in a string was meant to be a literal "at"
	   sign, or was meant to introduce a variable name that happens to be missing.	So you
	   have to put either the backslash or the name.

       flock() on closed filehandle %s
	   (W closed) The filehandle you're attempting to flock() got itself closed some time
	   before now.	Check your control flow.  flock() operates on filehandles.  Are you
	   attempting to call flock() on a dirhandle by the same name?

       Quantifier follows nothing in regex;
	   marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/

	   (F) You started a regular expression with a quantifier. Backslash it if you meant it
	   literally. The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
	   discovered. See perlre.

       Format not terminated
	   (F) A format must be terminated by a line with a solitary dot.  Perl got to the end of
	   your file without finding such a line.

       Format %s redefined
	   (W redefine) You redefined a format.  To suppress this warning, say

	       {
		   no warnings 'redefine';
		   eval "format NAME =...";
	       }

       Found = in conditional, should be ==
	   (W syntax) You said

	       if ($foo = 123)

	   when you meant

	       if ($foo == 123)

	   (or something like that).

       %s found where operator expected
	   (S) The Perl lexer knows whether to expect a term or an operator.  If it sees what it
	   knows to be a term when it was expecting to see an operator, it gives you this warn-
	   ing.  Usually it indicates that an operator or delimiter was omitted, such as a semi-
	   colon.

       gdbm store returned %d, errno %d, key "%s"
	   (S) A warning from the GDBM_File extension that a store failed.

       gethostent not implemented
	   (F) Your C library apparently doesn't implement gethostent(), probably because if it
	   did, it'd feel morally obligated to return every hostname on the Internet.

       get%sname() on closed socket %s
	   (W closed) You tried to get a socket or peer socket name on a closed socket.  Did you
	   forget to check the return value of your socket() call?

       getpwnam returned invalid UIC %#o for user "%s"
	   (S) A warning peculiar to VMS.  The call to "sys$getuai" underlying the "getpwnam"
	   operator returned an invalid UIC.

       getsockopt() on closed socket %s
	   (W closed) You tried to get a socket option on a closed socket.  Did you forget to
	   check the return value of your socket() call?  See "getsockopt" in perlfunc.

       Global symbol "%s" requires explicit package name
	   (F) You've said "use strict vars", which indicates that all variables must either be
	   lexically scoped (using "my"), declared beforehand using "our", or explicitly quali-
	   fied to say which package the global variable is in (using "::").

       glob failed (%s)
	   (W glob) Something went wrong with the external program(s) used for "glob" and
	   "<*.c>".  Usually, this means that you supplied a "glob" pattern that caused the
	   external program to fail and exit with a nonzero status.  If the message indicates
	   that the abnormal exit resulted in a coredump, this may also mean that your csh (C
	   shell) is broken.  If so, you should change all of the csh-related variables in con-
	   fig.sh:  If you have tcsh, make the variables refer to it as if it were csh (e.g.
	   "full_csh='/usr/bin/tcsh'"); otherwise, make them all empty (except that "d_csh"
	   should be 'undef') so that Perl will think csh is missing.  In either case, after
	   editing config.sh, run "./Configure -S" and rebuild Perl.

       Glob not terminated
	   (F) The lexer saw a left angle bracket in a place where it was expecting a term, so
	   it's looking for the corresponding right angle bracket, and not finding it.	Chances
	   are you left some needed parentheses out earlier in the line, and you really meant a
	   "less than".

       Got an error from DosAllocMem
	   (P) An error peculiar to OS/2.  Most probably you're using an obsolete version of
	   Perl, and this should not happen anyway.

       goto must have label
	   (F) Unlike with "next" or "last", you're not allowed to goto an unspecified destina-
	   tion.  See "goto" in perlfunc.

       %s-group starts with a count
	   (F) In pack/unpack a ()-group started with a count.	A count is supposed to follow
	   something: a template character or a ()-group.

       %s had compilation errors
	   (F) The final summary message when a "perl -c" fails.

       Had to create %s unexpectedly
	   (S internal) A routine asked for a symbol from a symbol table that ought to have
	   existed already, but for some reason it didn't, and had to be created on an emergency
	   basis to prevent a core dump.

       Hash %%s missing the % in argument %d of %s()
	   (D deprecated) Really old Perl let you omit the % on hash names in some spots.  This
	   is now heavily deprecated.

       %s has too many errors
	   (F) The parser has given up trying to parse the program after 10 errors.  Further
	   error messages would likely be uninformative.

       Hexadecimal number > 0xffffffff non-portable
	   (W portable) The hexadecimal number you specified is larger than 2**32-1 (4294967295)
	   and therefore non-portable between systems.	See perlport for more on portability con-
	   cerns.

       Identifier too long
	   (F) Perl limits identifiers (names for variables, functions, etc.) to about 250 char-
	   acters for simple names, and somewhat more for compound names (like $A::B).	You've
	   exceeded Perl's limits.  Future versions of Perl are likely to eliminate these arbi-
	   trary limitations.

       Illegal binary digit %s
	   (F) You used a digit other than 0 or 1 in a binary number.

       Illegal binary digit %s ignored
	   (W digit) You may have tried to use a digit other than 0 or 1 in a binary number.
	   Interpretation of the binary number stopped before the offending digit.

       Illegal character %s (carriage return)
	   (F) Perl normally treats carriage returns in the program text as it would any other
	   whitespace, which means you should never see this error when Perl was built using
	   standard options.  For some reason, your version of Perl appears to have been built
	   without this support.  Talk to your Perl administrator.

       Illegal character in prototype for %s : %s
	   (W syntax) An illegal character was found in a prototype declaration.  Legal charac-
	   ters in prototypes are $, @, %, *, ;, [, ], &, and \.

       Illegal declaration of anonymous subroutine
	   (F) When using the "sub" keyword to construct an anonymous subroutine, you must always
	   specify a block of code. See perlsub.

       Illegal division by zero
	   (F) You tried to divide a number by 0.  Either something was wrong in your logic, or
	   you need to put a conditional in to guard against meaningless input.

       Illegal hexadecimal digit %s ignored
	   (W digit) You may have tried to use a character other than 0 - 9 or A - F, a - f in a
	   hexadecimal number.	Interpretation of the hexadecimal number stopped before the ille-
	   gal character.

       Illegal modulus zero
	   (F) You tried to divide a number by 0 to get the remainder.	Most numbers don't take
	   to this kindly.

       Illegal number of bits in vec
	   (F) The number of bits in vec() (the third argument) must be a power of two from 1 to
	   32 (or 64, if your platform supports that).

       Illegal octal digit %s
	   (F) You used an 8 or 9 in an octal number.

       Illegal octal digit %s ignored
	   (W digit) You may have tried to use an 8 or 9 in an octal number.  Interpretation of
	   the octal number stopped before the 8 or 9.

       Illegal switch in PERL5OPT: %s
	   (X) The PERL5OPT environment variable may only be used to set the following switches:
	   -[DIMUdmtw].

       Ill-formed CRTL environ value "%s"
	   (W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS.  Perl tried to read the CRTL's internal envi-
	   ron array, and encountered an element without the "=" delimiter used to separate keys
	   from values.  The element is ignored.

       Ill-formed message in prime_env_iter: |%s|
	   (W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS.  Perl tried to read a logical name or CLI sym-
	   bol definition when preparing to iterate over %ENV, and didn't see the expected delim-
	   iter between key and value, so the line was ignored.

       (in cleanup) %s
	   (W misc) This prefix usually indicates that a DESTROY() method raised the indicated
	   exception.  Since destructors are usually called by the system at arbitrary points
	   during execution, and often a vast number of times, the warning is issued only once
	   for any number of failures that would otherwise result in the same message being
	   repeated.

	   Failure of user callbacks dispatched using the "G_KEEPERR" flag could also result in
	   this warning.  See "G_KEEPERR" in perlcall.

       In EBCDIC the v-string components cannot exceed 2147483647
	   (F) An error peculiar to EBCDIC.  Internally, v-strings are stored as Unicode code
	   points, and encoded in EBCDIC as UTF-EBCDIC.  The UTF-EBCDIC encoding is limited to
	   code points no larger than 2147483647 (0x7FFFFFFF).

       Insecure dependency in %s
	   (F) You tried to do something that the tainting mechanism didn't like.  The tainting
	   mechanism is turned on when you're running setuid or setgid, or when you specify -T to
	   turn it on explicitly.  The tainting mechanism labels all data that's derived directly
	   or indirectly from the user, who is considered to be unworthy of your trust.  If any
	   such data is used in a "dangerous" operation, you get this error.  See perlsec for
	   more information.

       Insecure directory in %s
	   (F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or setgid script if
	   $ENV{PATH} contains a directory that is writable by the world.  See perlsec.

       Insecure $ENV{%s} while running %s
	   (F) You can't use system(), exec(), or a piped open in a setuid or setgid script if
	   any of $ENV{PATH}, $ENV{IFS}, $ENV{CDPATH}, $ENV{ENV}, $ENV{BASH_ENV} or $ENV{TERM}
	   are derived from data supplied (or potentially supplied) by the user.  The script must
	   set the path to a known value, using trustworthy data.  See perlsec.

       Integer overflow in %s number
	   (W overflow) The hexadecimal, octal or binary number you have specified either as a
	   literal or as an argument to hex() or oct() is too big for your architecture, and has
	   been converted to a floating point number.  On a 32-bit architecture the largest hexa-
	   decimal, octal or binary number representable without overflow is 0xFFFFFFFF,
	   037777777777, or 0b11111111111111111111111111111111 respectively.  Note that Perl
	   transparently promotes all numbers to a floating point representation internally--sub-
	   ject to loss of precision errors in subsequent operations.

       Internal disaster in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
	   (P) Something went badly wrong in the regular expression parser.  The <-- HERE shows
	   in the regular expression about where the problem was discovered.

       Internal inconsistency in tracking vforks
	   (S) A warning peculiar to VMS.  Perl keeps track of the number of times you've called
	   "fork" and "exec", to determine whether the current call to "exec" should affect the
	   current script or a subprocess (see "exec LIST" in perlvms).  Somehow, this count has
	   become scrambled, so Perl is making a guess and treating this "exec" as a request to
	   terminate the Perl script and execute the specified command.

       Internal urp in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
	   (P) Something went badly awry in the regular expression parser. The <-- HERE shows in
	   the regular expression about where the problem was discovered.

       %s (...) interpreted as function
	   (W syntax) You've run afoul of the rule that says that any list operator followed by
	   parentheses turns into a function, with all the list operators arguments found inside
	   the parentheses.  See "Terms and List Operators (Leftward)" in perlop.

       Invalid %s attribute: %s
	   The indicated attribute for a subroutine or variable was not recognized by Perl or by
	   a user-supplied handler.  See attributes.

       Invalid %s attributes: %s
	   The indicated attributes for a subroutine or variable were not recognized by Perl or
	   by a user-supplied handler.	See attributes.

       Invalid conversion in %s: "%s"
	   (W printf) Perl does not understand the given format conversion.  See "sprintf" in
	   perlfunc.

       Invalid [] range "%s" in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
	   (F) The range specified in a character class had a minimum character greater than the
	   maximum character.  One possibility is that you forgot the "{}" from your ending
	   "\x{}" - "\x" without the curly braces can go only up to "ff".  The <-- HERE shows in
	   the regular expression about where the problem was discovered.  See perlre.

       Invalid range "%s" in transliteration operator
	   (F) The range specified in the tr/// or y/// operator had a minimum character greater
	   than the maximum character.	See perlop.

       Invalid separator character %s in attribute list
	   (F) Something other than a colon or whitespace was seen between the elements of an
	   attribute list.  If the previous attribute had a parenthesised parameter list, perhaps
	   that list was terminated too soon.  See attributes.

       Invalid type in pack: '%s'
	   (F) The given character is not a valid pack type.  See "pack" in perlfunc.  (W pack)
	   The given character is not a valid pack type but used to be silently ignored.

       Invalid type in unpack: '%s'
	   (F) The given character is not a valid unpack type.	See "unpack" in perlfunc.  (W
	   unpack) The given character is not a valid unpack type but used to be silently
	   ignored.

       ioctl is not implemented
	   (F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement ioctl(), which is pretty strange for a
	   machine that supports C.

       ioctl() on unopened %s
	   (W unopened) You tried ioctl() on a filehandle that was never opened.  Check you con-
	   trol flow and number of arguments.

       IO::Socket::atmark not implemented on this architecture
	   (F) Your machine doesn't implement the sockatmark() functionality, neither as a system
	   call or an ioctl call (SIOCATMARK).

       `%s' is not a code reference
	   (W overload) The second (fourth, sixth, ...) argument of overload::constant needs to
	   be a code reference. Either an anonymous subroutine, or a reference to a subroutine.

       `%s' is not an overloadable type
	   (W overload) You tried to overload a constant type the overload package is unaware of.

       junk on end of regexp
	   (P) The regular expression parser is confused.

       Label not found for "last %s"
	   (F) You named a loop to break out of, but you're not currently in a loop of that name,
	   not even if you count where you were called from.  See "last" in perlfunc.

       Label not found for "next %s"
	   (F) You named a loop to continue, but you're not currently in a loop of that name, not
	   even if you count where you were called from.  See "last" in perlfunc.

       Label not found for "redo %s"
	   (F) You named a loop to restart, but you're not currently in a loop of that name, not
	   even if you count where you were called from.  See "last" in perlfunc.

       leaving effective %s failed
	   (F) While under the "use filetest" pragma, switching the real and effective uids or
	   gids failed.

       listen() on closed socket %s
	   (W closed) You tried to do a listen on a closed socket.  Did you forget to check the
	   return value of your socket() call?	See "listen" in perlfunc.

       lstat() on filehandle %s
	   (W io) You tried to do an lstat on a filehandle.  What did you mean by that?  lstat()
	   makes sense only on filenames.  (Perl did a fstat() instead on the filehandle.)

       Lvalue subs returning %s not implemented yet
	   (F) Due to limitations in the current implementation, array and hash values cannot be
	   returned in subroutines used in lvalue context.  See "Lvalue subroutines" in perlsub.

       Lookbehind longer than %d not implemented in regex;
	   marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/

	   (F) There is currently a limit on the length of string which lookbehind can handle.
	   This restriction may be eased in a future release. The <-- HERE shows in the regular
	   expression about where the problem was discovered.

       Malformed PERLLIB_PREFIX
	   (F) An error peculiar to OS/2.  PERLLIB_PREFIX should be of the form

	       prefix1;prefix2

	   or
	       prefix1 prefix2

	   with nonempty prefix1 and prefix2.  If "prefix1" is indeed a prefix of a builtin
	   library search path, prefix2 is substituted.  The error may appear if components are
	   not found, or are too long.	See "PERLLIB_PREFIX" in perlos2.

       Malformed prototype for %s: %s
	   (F) You tried to use a function with a malformed prototype.	The syntax of function
	   prototypes is given a brief compile-time check for obvious errors like invalid charac-
	   ters.  A more rigorous check is run when the function is called.

       Malformed UTF-8 character (%s)
	   Perl detected something that didn't comply with UTF-8 encoding rules.

	   One possible cause is that you read in data that you thought to be in UTF-8 but it
	   wasn't (it was for example legacy 8-bit data).  Another possibility is careless use of
	   utf8::upgrade().

       Malformed UTF-16 surrogate
	   Perl thought it was reading UTF-16 encoded character data but while doing it Perl met
	   a malformed Unicode surrogate.

       %s matches null string many times in regex;
	   marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/

	   (W regexp) The pattern you've specified would be an infinite loop if the regular
	   expression engine didn't specifically check for that.  The <-- HERE shows in the regu-
	   lar expression about where the problem was discovered.  See perlre.

       "%s" may clash with future reserved word
	   (W) This warning may be due to running a perl5 script through a perl4 interpreter,
	   especially if the word that is being warned about is "use" or "my".

       % may only be used in unpack
	   (F) You can't pack a string by supplying a checksum, because the checksumming process
	   loses information, and you can't go the other way.  See "unpack" in perlfunc.

       Method for operation %s not found in package %s during blessing
	   (F) An attempt was made to specify an entry in an overloading table that doesn't
	   resolve to a valid subroutine.  See overload.

       Method %s not permitted
	   See Server error.

       Might be a runaway multi-line %s string starting on line %d
	   (S) An advisory indicating that the previous error may have been caused by a missing
	   delimiter on a string or pattern, because it eventually ended earlier on the current
	   line.

       Misplaced _ in number
	   (W syntax) An underscore (underbar) in a numeric constant did not separate two digits.

       Missing %sbrace%s on \N{}
	   (F) Wrong syntax of character name literal "\N{charname}" within double-quotish con-
	   text.

       Missing comma after first argument to %s function
	   (F) While certain functions allow you to specify a filehandle or an "indirect object"
	   before the argument list, this ain't one of them.

       Missing command in piped open
	   (W pipe) You used the "open(FH, "| command")" or "open(FH, "command |")" construction,
	   but the command was missing or blank.

       Missing control char name in \c
	   (F) A double-quoted string ended with "\c", without the required control character
	   name.

       Missing name in "my sub"
	   (F) The reserved syntax for lexically scoped subroutines requires that they have a
	   name with which they can be found.

       Missing $ on loop variable
	   (F) Apparently you've been programming in csh too much.  Variables are always men-
	   tioned with the $ in Perl, unlike in the shells, where it can vary from one line to
	   the next.

       (Missing operator before %s?)
	   (S) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message "%s found where
	   operator expected".	Often the missing operator is a comma.

       Missing right brace on %s
	   (F) Missing right brace in "\p{...}" or "\P{...}".

       Missing right curly or square bracket
	   (F) The lexer counted more opening curly or square brackets than closing ones.  As a
	   general rule, you'll find it's missing near the place you were last editing.

       (Missing semicolon on previous line?)
	   (S) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with the message "%s found where
	   operator expected".	Don't automatically put a semicolon on the previous line just
	   because you saw this message.

       Modification of a read-only value attempted
	   (F) You tried, directly or indirectly, to change the value of a constant.  You didn't,
	   of course, try "2 = 1", because the compiler catches that.  But an easy way to do the
	   same thing is:

	       sub mod { $_[0] = 1 }
	       mod(2);

	   Another way is to assign to a substr() that's off the end of the string.

	   Yet another way is to assign to a "foreach" loop VAR when VAR is aliased to a constant
	   in the look LIST:

		   $x = 1;
		   foreach my $n ($x, 2) {
		       $n *= 2; # modifies the $x, but fails on attempt to modify the 2
		   }

       Modification of non-creatable array value attempted, %s
	   (F) You tried to make an array value spring into existence, and the subscript was
	   probably negative, even counting from end of the array backwards.

       Modification of non-creatable hash value attempted, %s
	   (P) You tried to make a hash value spring into existence, and it couldn't be created
	   for some peculiar reason.

       Module name must be constant
	   (F) Only a bare module name is allowed as the first argument to a "use".

       Module name required with -%c option
	   (F) The "-M" or "-m" options say that Perl should load some module, but you omitted
	   the name of the module.  Consult perlrun for full details about "-M" and "-m".

       More than one argument to open
	   (F) The "open" function has been asked to open multiple files. This can happen if you
	   are trying to open a pipe to a command that takes a list of arguments, but have for-
	   gotten to specify a piped open mode.  See "open" in perlfunc for details.

       msg%s not implemented
	   (F) You don't have System V message IPC on your system.

       Multidimensional syntax %s not supported
	   (W syntax) Multidimensional arrays aren't written like $foo[1,2,3].	They're written
	   like $foo[1][2][3], as in C.

       / must be followed by a*, A* or Z*
	   (F) You had a pack template indicating a counted-length string, Currently the only
	   things that can have their length counted are a*, A* or Z*.	See "pack" in perlfunc.

       / must be followed by a, A or Z
	   (F) You had an unpack template indicating a counted-length string, which must be fol-
	   lowed by one of the letters a, A or Z to indicate what sort of string is to be
	   unpacked.  See "pack" in perlfunc.

       / must follow a numeric type
	   (F) You had an unpack template that contained a '#', but this did not follow some
	   numeric unpack specification.  See "pack" in perlfunc.

       "my sub" not yet implemented
	   (F) Lexically scoped subroutines are not yet implemented.  Don't try that yet.

       "my" variable %s can't be in a package
	   (F) Lexically scoped variables aren't in a package, so it doesn't make sense to try to
	   declare one with a package qualifier on the front.  Use local() if you want to local-
	   ize a package variable.

       Name "%s::%s" used only once: possible typo
	   (W once) Typographical errors often show up as unique variable names.  If you had a
	   good reason for having a unique name, then just mention it again somehow to suppress
	   the message.  The "our" declaration is provided for this purpose.

       Negative length
	   (F) You tried to do a read/write/send/recv operation with a buffer length that is less
	   than 0.  This is difficult to imagine.

       Negative offset to vec in lvalue context
	   (F) When "vec" is called in an lvalue context, the second argument must be greater
	   than or equal to zero.

       Nested quantifiers in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
	   (F) You can't quantify a quantifier without intervening parentheses. So things like **
	   or +* or ?* are illegal. The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the
	   problem was discovered.

	   Note that the minimal matching quantifiers, "*?", "+?", and "??" appear to be nested
	   quantifiers, but aren't.  See perlre.

       %s never introduced
	   (S internal) The symbol in question was declared but somehow went out of scope before
	   it could possibly have been used.

       No %s allowed while running setuid
	   (F) Certain operations are deemed to be too insecure for a setuid or setgid script to
	   even be allowed to attempt.	Generally speaking there will be another way to do what
	   you want that is, if not secure, at least securable.  See perlsec.

       No -e allowed in setuid scripts
	   (F) A setuid script can't be specified by the user.

       No comma allowed after %s
	   (F) A list operator that has a filehandle or "indirect object" is not allowed to have
	   a comma between that and the following arguments.  Otherwise it'd be just another one
	   of the arguments.

	   One possible cause for this is that you expected to have imported a constant to your
	   name space with use or import while no such importing took place, it may for example
	   be that your operating system does not support that particular constant. Hopefully you
	   did use an explicit import list for the constants you expect to see, please see "use"
	   in perlfunc and "import" in perlfunc. While an explicit import list would probably
	   have caught this error earlier it naturally does not remedy the fact that your operat-
	   ing system still does not support that constant. Maybe you have a typo in the con-
	   stants of the symbol import list of use or import or in the constant name at the line
	   where this error was triggered?

       No command into which to pipe on command line
	   (F) An error peculiar to VMS.  Perl handles its own command line redirection, and
	   found a '|' at the end of the command line, so it doesn't know where you want to pipe
	   the output from this command.

       No DB::DB routine defined
	   (F) The currently executing code was compiled with the -d switch, but for some reason
	   the perl5db.pl file (or some facsimile thereof) didn't define a routine to be called
	   at the beginning of each statement.	Which is odd, because the file should have been
	   required automatically, and should have blown up the require if it didn't parse right.

       No dbm on this machine
	   (P) This is counted as an internal error, because every machine should supply dbm
	   nowadays, because Perl comes with SDBM.  See SDBM_File.

       No DBsub routine
	   (F) The currently executing code was compiled with the -d switch, but for some reason
	   the perl5db.pl file (or some facsimile thereof) didn't define a DB::sub routine to be
	   called at the beginning of each ordinary subroutine call.

       No error file after 2> or 2>> on command line
	   (F) An error peculiar to VMS.  Perl handles its own command line redirection, and
	   found a '2>' or a '2>>' on the command line, but can't find the name of the file to
	   which to write data destined for stderr.

       No input file after < on command line
	   (F) An error peculiar to VMS.  Perl handles its own command line redirection, and
	   found a '<' on the command line, but can't find the name of the file from which to
	   read data for stdin.

       No #! line
	   (F) The setuid emulator requires that scripts have a well-formed #! line even on
	   machines that don't support the #! construct.

       "no" not allowed in expression
	   (F) The "no" keyword is recognized and executed at compile time, and returns no useful
	   value.  See perlmod.

       No output file after > on command line
	   (F) An error peculiar to VMS.  Perl handles its own command line redirection, and
	   found a lone '>' at the end of the command line, so it doesn't know where you wanted
	   to redirect stdout.

       No output file after > or >> on command line
	   (F) An error peculiar to VMS.  Perl handles its own command line redirection, and
	   found a '>' or a '>>' on the command line, but can't find the name of the file to
	   which to write data destined for stdout.

       No package name allowed for variable %s in "our"
	   (F) Fully qualified variable names are not allowed in "our" declarations, because that
	   doesn't make much sense under existing semantics.  Such syntax is reserved for future
	   extensions.

       No Perl script found in input
	   (F) You called "perl -x", but no line was found in the file beginning with #! and con-
	   taining the word "perl".

       No setregid available
	   (F) Configure didn't find anything resembling the setregid() call for your system.

       No setreuid available
	   (F) Configure didn't find anything resembling the setreuid() call for your system.

       No space allowed after -%c
	   (F) The argument to the indicated command line switch must follow immediately after
	   the switch, without intervening spaces.

       No %s specified for -%c
	   (F) The indicated command line switch needs a mandatory argument, but you haven't
	   specified one.

       No such class %s
	   (F) You provided a class qualifier in a "my" or "our" declaration, but this class
	   doesn't exist at this point in your program.

       No such pipe open
	   (P) An error peculiar to VMS.  The internal routine my_pclose() tried to close a pipe
	   which hadn't been opened.  This should have been caught earlier as an attempt to close
	   an unopened filehandle.

       No such pseudo-hash field "%s"
	   (F) You tried to access an array as a hash, but the field name used is not defined.
	   The hash at index 0 should map all valid field names to array indices for that to
	   work.

       No such pseudo-hash field "%s" in variable %s of type %s
	   (F) You tried to access a field of a typed variable where the type does not know about
	   the field name.  The field names are looked up in the %FIELDS hash in the type package
	   at compile time.  The %FIELDS hash is %usually set up with the 'fields' pragma.

       No such signal: SIG%s
	   (W signal) You specified a signal name as a subscript to %SIG that was not recognized.
	   Say "kill -l" in your shell to see the valid signal names on your system.

       Not a CODE reference
	   (F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a code value (that is, a subroutine),
	   but found a reference to something else instead.  You can use the ref() function to
	   find out what kind of ref it really was.  See also perlref.

       Not a format reference
	   (F) I'm not sure how you managed to generate a reference to an anonymous format, but
	   this indicates you did, and that it didn't exist.

       Not a GLOB reference
	   (F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a "typeglob" (that is, a symbol table
	   entry that looks like *foo), but found a reference to something else instead.  You can
	   use the ref() function to find out what kind of ref it really was.  See perlref.

       Not a HASH reference
	   (F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a hash value, but found a reference to
	   something else instead.  You can use the ref() function to find out what kind of ref
	   it really was.  See perlref.

       Not an ARRAY reference
	   (F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to an array value, but found a reference
	   to something else instead.  You can use the ref() function to find out what kind of
	   ref it really was.  See perlref.

       Not a perl script
	   (F) The setuid emulator requires that scripts have a well-formed #! line even on
	   machines that don't support the #! construct.  The line must mention perl.

       Not a SCALAR reference
	   (F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a scalar value, but found a reference
	   to something else instead.  You can use the ref() function to find out what kind of
	   ref it really was.  See perlref.

       Not a subroutine reference
	   (F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a code value (that is, a subroutine),
	   but found a reference to something else instead.  You can use the ref() function to
	   find out what kind of ref it really was.  See also perlref.

       Not a subroutine reference in overload table
	   (F) An attempt was made to specify an entry in an overloading table that doesn't some-
	   how point to a valid subroutine.  See overload.

       Not enough arguments for %s
	   (F) The function requires more arguments than you specified.

       Not enough format arguments
	   (W syntax) A format specified more picture fields than the next line supplied.  See
	   perlform.

       %s: not found
	   (A) You've accidentally run your script through the Bourne shell instead of Perl.
	   Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into Perl yourself.

       %s not allowed in length fields
	   (F) The count in the (un)pack template may be replaced by "[TEMPLATE]" only if "TEM-
	   PLATE" always matches the same amount of packed bytes.  Redesign the template.

       no UTC offset information; assuming local time is UTC
	   (S) A warning peculiar to VMS.  Perl was unable to find the local timezone offset, so
	   it's assuming that local system time is equivalent to UTC.  If it's not, define the
	   logical name SYS$TIMEZONE_DIFFERENTIAL to translate to the number of seconds which
	   need to be added to UTC to get local time.

       Null filename used
	   (F) You can't require the null filename, especially because on many machines that
	   means the current directory!  See "require" in perlfunc.

       NULL OP IN RUN
	   (P debugging) Some internal routine called run() with a null opcode pointer.

       Null picture in formline
	   (F) The first argument to formline must be a valid format picture specification.  It
	   was found to be empty, which probably means you supplied it an uninitialized value.
	   See perlform.

       Null realloc
	   (P) An attempt was made to realloc NULL.

       NULL regexp argument
	   (P) The internal pattern matching routines blew it big time.

       NULL regexp parameter
	   (P) The internal pattern matching routines are out of their gourd.

       Number too long
	   (F) Perl limits the representation of decimal numbers in programs to about 250 charac-
	   ters.  You've exceeded that length.	Future versions of Perl are likely to eliminate
	   this arbitrary limitation.  In the meantime, try using scientific notation (e.g. "1e6"
	   instead of "1_000_000").

       Octal number in vector unsupported
	   (F) Numbers with a leading 0 are not currently allowed in vectors.  The octal number
	   interpretation of such numbers may be supported in a future version.

       Octal number > 037777777777 non-portable
	   (W portable) The octal number you specified is larger than 2**32-1 (4294967295) and
	   therefore non-portable between systems.  See perlport for more on portability con-
	   cerns.

	   See also perlport for writing portable code.

       Odd number of arguments for overload::constant
	   (W overload) The call to overload::constant contained an odd number of arguments. The
	   arguments should come in pairs.

       Odd number of elements in anonymous hash
	   (W misc) You specified an odd number of elements to initialize a hash, which is odd,
	   because hashes come in key/value pairs.

       Odd number of elements in hash assignment
	   (W misc) You specified an odd number of elements to initialize a hash, which is odd,
	   because hashes come in key/value pairs.

       Offset outside string
	   (F) You tried to do a read/write/send/recv operation with an offset pointing outside
	   the buffer.	This is difficult to imagine.  The sole exception to this is that "sys-
	   read()"ing past the buffer will extend the buffer and zero pad the new area.

       -%s on unopened filehandle %s
	   (W unopened) You tried to invoke a file test operator on a filehandle that isn't open.
	   Check your control flow.  See also "-X" in perlfunc.

       %s() on unopened %s
	   (W unopened) An I/O operation was attempted on a filehandle that was never initial-
	   ized.  You need to do an open(), a sysopen(), or a socket() call, or call a construc-
	   tor from the FileHandle package.

       oops: oopsAV
	   (S internal) An internal warning that the grammar is screwed up.

       oops: oopsHV
	   (S internal) An internal warning that the grammar is screwed up.

       Operation `%s': no method found, %s
	   (F) An attempt was made to perform an overloaded operation for which no handler was
	   defined.  While some handlers can be autogenerated in terms of other handlers, there
	   is no default handler for any operation, unless "fallback" overloading key is speci-
	   fied to be true.  See overload.

       Operator or semicolon missing before %s
	   (S ambiguous) You used a variable or subroutine call where the parser was expecting an
	   operator.  The parser has assumed you really meant to use an operator, but this is
	   highly likely to be incorrect.  For example, if you say "*foo *foo" it will be inter-
	   preted as if you said "*foo * 'foo'".

       "our" variable %s redeclared
	   (W misc) You seem to have already declared the same global once before in the current
	   lexical scope.

       Out of memory!
	   (X) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was insufficient remaining mem-
	   ory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the request.  Perl has no option but to exit imme-
	   diately.

       Out of memory during "large" request for %s
	   (F) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was insufficient remaining mem-
	   ory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the request. However, the request was judged large
	   enough (compile-time default is 64K), so a possibility to shut down by trapping this
	   error is granted.

       Out of memory during request for %s
	   (X|F) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there was insufficient remaining
	   memory (or virtual memory) to satisfy the request.

	   The request was judged to be small, so the possibility to trap it depends on the way
	   perl was compiled.  By default it is not trappable.	However, if compiled for this,
	   Perl may use the contents of $^M as an emergency pool after die()ing with this mes-
	   sage.  In this case the error is trappable once, and the error message will include
	   the line and file where the failed request happened.

       Out of memory during ridiculously large request
	   (F) You can't allocate more than 2^31+"small amount" bytes.	This error is most likely
	   to be caused by a typo in the Perl program. e.g., $arr[time] instead of $arr[$time].

       Out of memory for yacc stack
	   (F) The yacc parser wanted to grow its stack so it could continue parsing, but real-
	   loc() wouldn't give it more memory, virtual or otherwise.

       @ outside of string
	   (F) You had a pack template that specified an absolute position outside the string
	   being unpacked.  See "pack" in perlfunc.

       %s package attribute may clash with future reserved word: %s
	   (W reserved) A lowercase attribute name was used that had a package-specific handler.
	   That name might have a meaning to Perl itself some day, even though it doesn't yet.
	   Perhaps you should use a mixed-case attribute name, instead.  See attributes.

       page overflow
	   (W io) A single call to write() produced more lines than can fit on a page.	See perl-
	   form.

       panic: %s
	   (P) An internal error.

       panic: ck_grep
	   (P) Failed an internal consistency check trying to compile a grep.

       panic: ck_split
	   (P) Failed an internal consistency check trying to compile a split.

       panic: corrupt saved stack index
	   (P) The savestack was requested to restore more localized values than there are in the
	   savestack.

       panic: del_backref
	   (P) Failed an internal consistency check while trying to reset a weak reference.

       panic: die %s
	   (P) We popped the context stack to an eval context, and then discovered it wasn't an
	   eval context.

       panic: pp_match%s
	   (P) The internal pp_match() routine was called with invalid operational data.

       panic: do_subst
	   (P) The internal pp_subst() routine was called with invalid operational data.

       panic: do_trans_%s
	   (P) The internal do_trans routines were called with invalid operational data.

       panic: frexp
	   (P) The library function frexp() failed, making printf("%f") impossible.

       panic: goto
	   (P) We popped the context stack to a context with the specified label, and then dis-
	   covered it wasn't a context we know how to do a goto in.

       panic: INTERPCASEMOD
	   (P) The lexer got into a bad state at a case modifier.

       panic: INTERPCONCAT
	   (P) The lexer got into a bad state parsing a string with brackets.

       panic: kid popen errno read
	   (F) forked child returned an incomprehensible message about its errno.

       panic: last
	   (P) We popped the context stack to a block context, and then discovered it wasn't a
	   block context.

       panic: leave_scope clearsv
	   (P) A writable lexical variable became read-only somehow within the scope.

       panic: leave_scope inconsistency
	   (P) The savestack probably got out of sync.	At least, there was an invalid enum on
	   the top of it.

       panic: magic_killbackrefs
	   (P) Failed an internal consistency check while trying to reset all weak references to
	   an object.

       panic: malloc
	   (P) Something requested a negative number of bytes of malloc.

       panic: mapstart
	   (P) The compiler is screwed up with respect to the map() function.

       panic: null array
	   (P) One of the internal array routines was passed a null AV pointer.

       panic: pad_alloc
	   (P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating and freeing
	   temporaries and lexicals from.

       panic: pad_free curpad
	   (P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating and freeing
	   temporaries and lexicals from.

       panic: pad_free po
	   (P) An invalid scratch pad offset was detected internally.

       panic: pad_reset curpad
	   (P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating and freeing
	   temporaries and lexicals from.

       panic: pad_sv po
	   (P) An invalid scratch pad offset was detected internally.

       panic: pad_swipe curpad
	   (P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad it was allocating and freeing
	   temporaries and lexicals from.

       panic: pad_swipe po
	   (P) An invalid scratch pad offset was detected internally.

       panic: pp_iter
	   (P) The foreach iterator got called in a non-loop context frame.

       panic: pp_split
	   (P) Something terrible went wrong in setting up for the split.

       panic: realloc
	   (P) Something requested a negative number of bytes of realloc.

       panic: restartop
	   (P) Some internal routine requested a goto (or something like it), and didn't supply
	   the destination.

       panic: return
	   (P) We popped the context stack to a subroutine or eval context, and then discovered
	   it wasn't a subroutine or eval context.

       panic: scan_num
	   (P) scan_num() got called on something that wasn't a number.

       panic: sv_insert
	   (P) The sv_insert() routine was told to remove more string than there was string.

       panic: top_env
	   (P) The compiler attempted to do a goto, or something weird like that.

       panic: yylex
	   (P) The lexer got into a bad state while processing a case modifier.

       panic: utf16_to_utf8: odd bytelen
	   (P) Something tried to call utf16_to_utf8 with an odd (as opposed to even) byte
	   length.

       Parentheses missing around "%s" list
	   (W parenthesis) You said something like

	       my $foo, $bar = @_;

	   when you meant

	       my ($foo, $bar) = @_;

	   Remember that "my", "our", and "local" bind tighter than comma.

       Perl %s required--this is only version %s, stopped
	   (F) The module in question uses features of a version of Perl more recent than the
	   currently running version.  How long has it been since you upgraded, anyway?  See
	   "require" in perlfunc.

       PERL_SH_DIR too long
	   (F) An error peculiar to OS/2. PERL_SH_DIR is the directory to find the "sh"-shell in.
	   See "PERL_SH_DIR" in perlos2.

       perl: warning: Setting locale failed.
	   (S) The whole warning message will look something like:

		   perl: warning: Setting locale failed.
		   perl: warning: Please check that your locale settings:
			   LC_ALL = "En_US",
			   LANG = (unset)
		       are supported and installed on your system.
		   perl: warning: Falling back to the standard locale ("C").

	   Exactly what were the failed locale settings varies.  In the above the settings were
	   that the LC_ALL was "En_US" and the LANG had no value.  This error means that Perl
	   detected that you and/or your operating system supplier and/or system administrator
	   have set up the so-called locale system but Perl could not use those settings.  This
	   was not dead serious, fortunately: there is a "default locale" called "C" that Perl
	   can and will use, the script will be run.  Before you really fix the problem, however,
	   you will get the same error message each time you run Perl.	How to really fix the
	   problem can be found in perllocale section LOCALE PROBLEMS.

       perlio: argument list not closed for layer "%s"
	   (W layer) When pushing a layer with arguments onto the Perl I/O system you forgot the
	   ) that closes the argument list.  (Layers take care of transforming data between
	   external and internal representations.)  Perl stopped parsing the layer list at this
	   point and did not attempt to push this layer.  If your program didn't explicitly
	   request the failing operation, it may be the result of the value of the environment
	   variable PERLIO.

       perlio: invalid separator character %s in layer specification list %s
	   (W layer) When pushing layers onto the Perl I/O system, something other than a colon
	   or whitespace was seen between the elements of a layer list.  If the previous
	   attribute had a parenthesised parameter list, perhaps that list was terminated too
	   soon.

       perlio: unknown layer "%s"
	   (W layer) An attempt was made to push an unknown layer onto the Perl I/O system.
	   (Layers take care of transforming data between external and internal representations.)
	   Note that some layers, such as "mmap", are not supported in all environments.  If your
	   program didn't explicitly request the failing operation, it may be the result of the
	   value of the environment variable PERLIO.

       Permission denied
	   (F) The setuid emulator in suidperl decided you were up to no good.

       pid %x not a child
	   (W exec) A warning peculiar to VMS.	Waitpid() was asked to wait for a process which
	   isn't a subprocess of the current process.  While this is fine from VMS' perspective,
	   it's probably not what you intended.

       P must have an explicit size
	   (F) The unpack format P must have an explicit size, not "*".

       POSIX syntax [%s] belongs inside character classes in regex;
	   marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/

	   (W regexp) The character class constructs [: :], [= =], and [. .]  go inside character
	   classes, the [] are part of the construct, for example: /[012[:alpha:]345]/.  Note
	   that [= =] and [. .] are not currently implemented; they are simply placeholders for
	   future extensions and will cause fatal errors.  The <-- HERE shows in the regular
	   expression about where the problem was discovered.  See perlre.

       POSIX syntax [. .] is reserved for future extensions in regex;
	   marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/

	   (F regexp) Within regular expression character classes ([]) the syntax beginning with
	   "[." and ending with ".]" is reserved for future extensions.  If you need to represent
	   those character sequences inside a regular expression character class, just quote the
	   square brackets with the backslash: "\[." and ".\]".  The <-- HERE shows in the regu-
	   lar expression about where the problem was discovered.  See perlre.

       POSIX syntax [= =] is reserved for future extensions in regex;
	   marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/

	   (F) Within regular expression character classes ([]) the syntax beginning with "[="
	   and ending with "=]" is reserved for future extensions.  If you need to represent
	   those character sequences inside a regular expression character class, just quote the
	   square brackets with the backslash: "\[=" and "=\]".  The <-- HERE shows in the regu-
	   lar expression about where the problem was discovered.  See perlre.

       POSIX class [:%s:] unknown in regex;
	   marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/

	   (F) The class in the character class [: :] syntax is unknown.  The <-- HERE shows in
	   the regular expression about where the problem was discovered.  Note that the POSIX
	   character classes do not have the "is" prefix the corresponding C interfaces have: in
	   other words, it's "[[:print:]]", not "isprint".  See perlre.

       POSIX getpgrp can't take an argument
	   (F) Your system has POSIX getpgrp(), which takes no argument, unlike the BSD version,
	   which takes a pid.

       Possible attempt to put comments in qw() list
	   (W qw) qw() lists contain items separated by whitespace; as with literal strings, com-
	   ment characters are not ignored, but are instead treated as literal data.  (You may
	   have used different delimiters than the parentheses shown here; braces are also fre-
	   quently used.)

	   You probably wrote something like this:

	       @list = qw(
		   a # a comment
		   b # another comment
	       );

	   when you should have written this:

	       @list = qw(
		   a
		   b
	       );

	   If you really want comments, build your list the old-fashioned way, with quotes and
	   commas:

	       @list = (
		   'a',    # a comment
		   'b',    # another comment
	       );

       Possible attempt to separate words with commas
	   (W qw) qw() lists contain items separated by whitespace; therefore commas aren't
	   needed to separate the items.  (You may have used different delimiters than the paren-
	   theses shown here; braces are also frequently used.)

	   You probably wrote something like this:

	       qw! a, b, c !;

	   which puts literal commas into some of the list items.  Write it without commas if you
	   don't want them to appear in your data:

	       qw! a b c !;

       Possible memory corruption: %s overflowed 3rd argument
	   (F) An ioctl() or fcntl() returned more than Perl was bargaining for.  Perl guesses a
	   reasonable buffer size, but puts a sentinel byte at the end of the buffer just in
	   case.  This sentinel byte got clobbered, and Perl assumes that memory is now cor-
	   rupted.  See "ioctl" in perlfunc.

       Possible precedence problem on bitwise %c operator
	   (W precedence) Your program uses a bitwise logical operator in conjunction with a
	   numeric comparison operator, like this :

	       if ($x & $y == 0) { ... }

	   This expression is actually equivalent to "$x & ($y == 0)", due to the higher prece-
	   dence of "==". This is probably not what you want. (If you really meant to write this,
	   disable the warning, or, better, write "$x & ($y == 0 ? 1 : 0)").

       Possible unintended interpolation of %s in string
	   (W ambiguous) You said something like `@foo' in a double-quoted string but there was
	   no array @foo in scope at the time. If you wanted a literal @foo, then write it as
	   \@foo; otherwise find out what happened to the array you apparently lost track of.

       Possible Y2K bug: %s
	   (W y2k) You are concatenating the number 19 with another number, which could be a
	   potential Year 2000 problem.

       pragma "attrs" is deprecated, use "sub NAME : ATTRS" instead
	   (D deprecated) You have written something like this:

	       sub doit
	       {
		   use attrs qw(locked);
	       }

	   You should use the new declaration syntax instead.

	       sub doit : locked
	       {
		   ...

	   The "use attrs" pragma is now obsolete, and is only provided for backward-compatibil-
	   ity. See "Subroutine Attributes" in perlsub.

       Precedence problem: open %s should be open(%s)
	   (S precedence) The old irregular construct

	       open FOO || die;

	   is now misinterpreted as

	       open(FOO || die);

	   because of the strict regularization of Perl 5's grammar into unary and list opera-
	   tors.  (The old open was a little of both.)	You must put parentheses around the file-
	   handle, or use the new "or" operator instead of "||".

       Premature end of script headers
	   See Server error.

       printf() on closed filehandle %s
	   (W closed) The filehandle you're writing to got itself closed sometime before now.
	   Check your control flow.

       print() on closed filehandle %s
	   (W closed) The filehandle you're printing on got itself closed sometime before now.
	   Check your control flow.

       Process terminated by SIG%s
	   (W) This is a standard message issued by OS/2 applications, while *nix applications
	   die in silence.  It is considered a feature of the OS/2 port.  One can easily disable
	   this by appropriate sighandlers, see "Signals" in perlipc.  See also "Process termi-
	   nated by SIGTERM/SIGINT" in perlos2.

       Prototype mismatch: %s vs %s
	   (S prototype) The subroutine being declared or defined had previously been declared or
	   defined with a different function prototype.

       Prototype not terminated
	   (F) You've omitted the closing parenthesis in a function prototype definition.

       Pseudo-hashes are deprecated
	   (D deprecated)  Pseudo-hashes were deprecated in Perl 5.8.0 and they will be removed
	   in Perl 5.10.0, see perl58delta for more details.

       Quantifier in {,} bigger than %d in regex;
	   marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/

	   (F) There is currently a limit to the size of the min and max values of the {min,max}
	   construct. The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
	   discovered. See perlre.

       Quantifier unexpected on zero-length expression;
	   marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/

	   (W regexp) You applied a regular expression quantifier in a place where it makes no
	   sense, such as on a zero-width assertion.  Try putting the quantifier inside the
	   assertion instead.  For example, the way to match "abc" provided that it is followed
	   by three repetitions of "xyz" is "/abc(?=(?:xyz){3})/", not "/abc(?=xyz){3}/".

	   The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was discovered.

       Range iterator outside integer range
	   (F) One (or both) of the numeric arguments to the range operator ".."  are outside the
	   range which can be represented by integers internally.  One possible workaround is to
	   force Perl to use magical string increment by prepending "0" to your numbers.

       read() on closed filehandle %s
	   (W closed) You tried to read from a closed filehandle.

       read() on unopened filehandle %s
	   (W unopened) You tried to read from a filehandle that was never opened.

       readline() on closed filehandle %s
	   (W closed) The filehandle you're reading from got itself closed sometime before now.
	   Check your control flow.

       Reallocation too large: %lx
	   (F) You can't allocate more than 64K on an MS-DOS machine.

       realloc() of freed memory ignored
	   (S malloc) An internal routine called realloc() on something that had already been
	   freed.

       Recompile perl with -DDEBUGGING to use -D switch
	   (F debugging) You can't use the -D option unless the code to produce the desired out-
	   put is compiled into Perl, which entails some overhead, which is why it's currently
	   left out of your copy.

       Recursive inheritance detected in package '%s'
	   (F) More than 100 levels of inheritance were used.  Probably indicates an unintended
	   loop in your inheritance hierarchy.

       Recursive inheritance detected while looking for method %s
	   (F) More than 100 levels of inheritance were encountered while invoking a method.
	   Probably indicates an unintended loop in your inheritance hierarchy.

       Reference found where even-sized list expected
	   (W misc) You gave a single reference where Perl was expecting a list with an even num-
	   ber of elements (for assignment to a hash). This usually means that you used the anon
	   hash constructor when you meant to use parens. In any case, a hash requires key/value
	   pairs.

	       %hash = { one => 1, two => 2, };    # WRONG
	       %hash = [ qw/ an anon array / ];    # WRONG
	       %hash = ( one => 1, two => 2, );    # right
	       %hash = qw( one 1 two 2 );		   # also fine

       Reference is already weak
	   (W misc) You have attempted to weaken a reference that is already weak.  Doing so has
	   no effect.

       Reference miscount in sv_replace()
	   (W internal) The internal sv_replace() function was handed a new SV with a reference
	   count of other than 1.

       Reference to nonexistent group in regex;
	   marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/

	   (F) You used something like "\7" in your regular expression, but there are not at
	   least seven sets of capturing parentheses in the expression. If you wanted to have the
	   character with value 7 inserted into the regular expression, prepend a zero to make
	   the number at least two digits: "\07"

	   The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was discovered.

       regexp memory corruption
	   (P) The regular expression engine got confused by what the regular expression compiler
	   gave it.

       Regexp out of space
	   (P) A "can't happen" error, because safemalloc() should have caught it earlier.

       Repeat count in pack overflows
	   (F) You can't specify a repeat count so large that it overflows your signed integers.
	   See "pack" in perlfunc.

       Repeat count in unpack overflows
	   (F) You can't specify a repeat count so large that it overflows your signed integers.
	   See "unpack" in perlfunc.

       Reversed %s= operator
	   (W syntax) You wrote your assignment operator backwards.  The = must always comes
	   last, to avoid ambiguity with subsequent unary operators.

       Runaway format
	   (F) Your format contained the ~~ repeat-until-blank sequence, but it produced 200
	   lines at once, and the 200th line looked exactly like the 199th line.  Apparently you
	   didn't arrange for the arguments to exhaust themselves, either by using ^ instead of @
	   (for scalar variables), or by shifting or popping (for array variables).  See perl-
	   form.

       Scalar value @%s[%s] better written as $%s[%s]
	   (W syntax) You've used an array slice (indicated by @) to select a single element of
	   an array.  Generally it's better to ask for a scalar value (indicated by $).  The dif-
	   ference is that $foo[&bar] always behaves like a scalar, both when assigning to it and
	   when evaluating its argument, while @foo[&bar] behaves like a list when you assign to
	   it, and provides a list context to its subscript, which can do weird things if you're
	   expecting only one subscript.

	   On the other hand, if you were actually hoping to treat the array element as a list,
	   you need to look into how references work, because Perl will not magically convert
	   between scalars and lists for you.  See perlref.

       Scalar value @%s{%s} better written as $%s{%s}
	   (W syntax) You've used a hash slice (indicated by @) to select a single element of a
	   hash.  Generally it's better to ask for a scalar value (indicated by $).  The differ-
	   ence is that $foo{&bar} always behaves like a scalar, both when assigning to it and
	   when evaluating its argument, while @foo{&bar} behaves like a list when you assign to
	   it, and provides a list context to its subscript, which can do weird things if you're
	   expecting only one subscript.

	   On the other hand, if you were actually hoping to treat the hash element as a list,
	   you need to look into how references work, because Perl will not magically convert
	   between scalars and lists for you.  See perlref.

       Scalars leaked: %d
	   (P) Something went wrong in Perl's internal bookkeeping of scalars: not all scalar
	   variables were deallocated by the time Perl exited.	What this usually indicates is a
	   memory leak, which is of course bad, especially if the Perl program is intended to be
	   long-running.

       Script is not setuid/setgid in suidperl
	   (F) Oddly, the suidperl program was invoked on a script without a setuid or setgid bit
	   set.  This doesn't make much sense.

       Search pattern not terminated
	   (F) The lexer couldn't find the final delimiter of a // or m{} construct.  Remember
	   that bracketing delimiters count nesting level.  Missing the leading "$" from a vari-
	   able $m may cause this error.

	   Note that since Perl 5.9.0 a // can also be the defined-or construct, not just the
	   empty search pattern.  Therefore code written in Perl 5.9.0 or later that uses the //
	   as the defined-or can be misparsed by pre-5.9.0 Perls as a non-terminated search pat-
	   tern.

       %sseek() on unopened filehandle
	   (W unopened) You tried to use the seek() or sysseek() function on a filehandle that
	   was either never opened or has since been closed.

       select not implemented
	   (F) This machine doesn't implement the select() system call.

       Self-ties of arrays and hashes are not supported
	   (F) Self-ties are of arrays and hashes are not supported in the current implementa-
	   tion.

       Semicolon seems to be missing
	   (W semicolon) A nearby syntax error was probably caused by a missing semicolon, or
	   possibly some other missing operator, such as a comma.

       semi-panic: attempt to dup freed string
	   (S internal) The internal newSVsv() routine was called to duplicate a scalar that had
	   previously been marked as free.

       sem%s not implemented
	   (F) You don't have System V semaphore IPC on your system.

       send() on closed socket %s
	   (W closed) The socket you're sending to got itself closed sometime before now.  Check
	   your control flow.

       Sequence (? incomplete in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
	   (F) A regular expression ended with an incomplete extension (?. The <-- HERE shows in
	   the regular expression about where the problem was discovered. See perlre.

       Sequence (?{...}) not terminated or not {}-balanced in regex;
	   marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/

	   (F) If the contents of a (?{...}) clause contains braces, they must balance for Perl
	   to properly detect the end of the clause. The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression
	   about where the problem was discovered. See perlre.

       Sequence (?%s...) not implemented in regex;
	   marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/

	   (F) A proposed regular expression extension has the character reserved but has not yet
	   been written. The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
	   discovered. See perlre.

       Sequence (?%s...) not recognized in regex;
	   marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/

	   (F) You used a regular expression extension that doesn't make sense.  The <-- HERE
	   shows in the regular expression about where the problem was discovered.  See perlre.

       Sequence (?#... not terminated in regex;
	   marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/

	   (F) A regular expression comment must be terminated by a closing parenthesis.  Embed-
	   ded parentheses aren't allowed.  The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about
	   where the problem was discovered. See perlre.

       500 Server error
	   See Server error.

       Server error
	   This is the error message generally seen in a browser window when trying to run a CGI
	   program (including SSI) over the web. The actual error text varies widely from server
	   to server. The most frequently-seen variants are "500 Server error", "Method (some-
	   thing) not permitted", "Document contains no data", "Premature end of script headers",
	   and "Did not produce a valid header".

	   This is a CGI error, not a Perl error.

	   You need to make sure your script is executable, is accessible by the user CGI is run-
	   ning the script under (which is probably not the user account you tested it under),
	   does not rely on any environment variables (like PATH) from the user it isn't running
	   under, and isn't in a location where the CGI server can't find it, basically, more or
	   less.  Please see the following for more information:

		   http://www.perl.org/CGI_MetaFAQ.html
		   http://www.htmlhelp.org/faq/cgifaq.html
		   http://www.w3.org/Security/Faq/

	   You should also look at perlfaq9.

       setegid() not implemented
	   (F) You tried to assign to $), and your operating system doesn't support the setegid()
	   system call (or equivalent), or at least Configure didn't think so.

       seteuid() not implemented
	   (F) You tried to assign to $>, and your operating system doesn't support the seteuid()
	   system call (or equivalent), or at least Configure didn't think so.

       setpgrp can't take arguments
	   (F) Your system has the setpgrp() from BSD 4.2, which takes no arguments, unlike POSIX
	   setpgid(), which takes a process ID and process group ID.

       setrgid() not implemented
	   (F) You tried to assign to $(, and your operating system doesn't support the setrgid()
	   system call (or equivalent), or at least Configure didn't think so.

       setruid() not implemented
	   (F) You tried to assign to $<, and your operating system doesn't support the setruid()
	   system call (or equivalent), or at least Configure didn't think so.

       setsockopt() on closed socket %s
	   (W closed) You tried to set a socket option on a closed socket.  Did you forget to
	   check the return value of your socket() call?  See "setsockopt" in perlfunc.

       Setuid/gid script is writable by world
	   (F) The setuid emulator won't run a script that is writable by the world, because the
	   world might have written on it already.

       shm%s not implemented
	   (F) You don't have System V shared memory IPC on your system.

       <> should be quotes
	   (F) You wrote "require <file>" when you should have written "require 'file'".

       /%s/ should probably be written as "%s"
	   (W syntax) You have used a pattern where Perl expected to find a string, as in the
	   first argument to "join".  Perl will treat the true or false result of matching the
	   pattern against $_ as the string, which is probably not what you had in mind.

       shutdown() on closed socket %s
	   (W closed) You tried to do a shutdown on a closed socket.  Seems a bit superfluous.

       SIG%s handler "%s" not defined
	   (W signal) The signal handler named in %SIG doesn't, in fact, exist.  Perhaps you put
	   it into the wrong package?

       sort is now a reserved word
	   (F) An ancient error message that almost nobody ever runs into anymore.  But before
	   sort was a keyword, people sometimes used it as a filehandle.

       Sort subroutine didn't return a numeric value
	   (F) A sort comparison routine must return a number.	You probably blew it by not using
	   "<=>" or "cmp", or by not using them correctly.  See "sort" in perlfunc.

       Sort subroutine didn't return single value
	   (F) A sort comparison subroutine may not return a list value with more or less than
	   one element.  See "sort" in perlfunc.

       splice() offset past end of array
	   (W misc) You attempted to specify an offset that was past the end of the array passed
	   to splice(). Splicing will instead commence at the end of the array, rather than past
	   it. If this isn't what you want, try explicitly pre-extending the array by assigning
	   $#array = $offset. See "splice" in perlfunc.

       Split loop
	   (P) The split was looping infinitely.  (Obviously, a split shouldn't iterate more
	   times than there are characters of input, which is what happened.) See "split" in
	   perlfunc.

       Statement unlikely to be reached
	   (W exec) You did an exec() with some statement after it other than a die().	This is
	   almost always an error, because exec() never returns unless there was a failure.  You
	   probably wanted to use system() instead, which does return.	To suppress this warning,
	   put the exec() in a block by itself.

       stat() on unopened filehandle %s
	   (W unopened) You tried to use the stat() function on a filehandle that was either
	   never opened or has since been closed.

       Stub found while resolving method `%s' overloading %s
	   (P) Overloading resolution over @ISA tree may be broken by importation stubs.  Stubs
	   should never be implicitly created, but explicit calls to "can" may break this.

       Subroutine %s redefined
	   (W redefine) You redefined a subroutine.  To suppress this warning, say

	       {
		   no warnings 'redefine';
		   eval "sub name { ... }";
	       }

       Substitution loop
	   (P) The substitution was looping infinitely.  (Obviously, a substitution shouldn't
	   iterate more times than there are characters of input, which is what happened.)  See
	   the discussion of substitution in "Quote and Quote-like Operators" in perlop.

       Substitution pattern not terminated
	   (F) The lexer couldn't find the interior delimiter of an s/// or s{}{} construct.
	   Remember that bracketing delimiters count nesting level.  Missing the leading "$" from
	   variable $s may cause this error.

       Substitution replacement not terminated
	   (F) The lexer couldn't find the final delimiter of an s/// or s{}{} construct.  Remem-
	   ber that bracketing delimiters count nesting level.	Missing the leading "$" from
	   variable $s may cause this error.

       substr outside of string
	   (W substr),(F) You tried to reference a substr() that pointed outside of a string.
	   That is, the absolute value of the offset was larger than the length of the string.
	   See "substr" in perlfunc.  This warning is fatal if substr is used in an lvalue con-
	   text (as the left hand side of an assignment or as a subroutine argument for example).

       suidperl is no longer needed since %s
	   (F) Your Perl was compiled with -DSETUID_SCRIPTS_ARE_SECURE_NOW, but a version of the
	   setuid emulator somehow got run anyway.

       Switch (?(condition)... contains too many branches in regex;
	   marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/

	   (F) A (?(condition)if-clause|else-clause) construct can have at most two branches (the
	   if-clause and the else-clause). If you want one or both to contain alternation, such
	   as using "this|that|other", enclose it in clustering parentheses:

	       (?(condition)(?:this|that|other)|else-clause)

	   The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was discovered.
	   See perlre.

       Switch condition not recognized in regex;
	   marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/

	   (F) If the argument to the (?(...)if-clause|else-clause) construct is a number, it can
	   be only a number. The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem
	   was discovered. See perlre.

       switching effective %s is not implemented
	   (F) While under the "use filetest" pragma, we cannot switch the real and effective
	   uids or gids.

       syntax error
	   (F) Probably means you had a syntax error.  Common reasons include:

	       A keyword is misspelled.
	       A semicolon is missing.
	       A comma is missing.
	       An opening or closing parenthesis is missing.
	       An opening or closing brace is missing.
	       A closing quote is missing.

	   Often there will be another error message associated with the syntax error giving more
	   information.  (Sometimes it helps to turn on -w.)  The error message itself often
	   tells you where it was in the line when it decided to give up.  Sometimes the actual
	   error is several tokens before this, because Perl is good at understanding random
	   input.  Occasionally the line number may be misleading, and once in a blue moon the
	   only way to figure out what's triggering the error is to call "perl -c" repeatedly,
	   chopping away half the program each time to see if the error went away.  Sort of the
	   cybernetic version of 20 questions.

       syntax error at line %d: `%s' unexpected
	   (A) You've accidentally run your script through the Bourne shell instead of Perl.
	   Check the #! line, or manually feed your script into Perl yourself.

       syntax error in file %s at line %d, next 2 tokens "%s"
	   (F) This error is likely to occur if you run a perl5 script through a perl4 inter-
	   preter, especially if the next 2 tokens are "use strict" or "my $var" or "our $var".

       %s syntax OK
	   (F) The final summary message when a "perl -c" succeeds.

       sysread() on closed filehandle %s
	   (W closed) You tried to read from a closed filehandle.

       sysread() on unopened filehandle %s
	   (W unopened) You tried to read from a filehandle that was never opened.

       System V %s is not implemented on this machine
	   (F) You tried to do something with a function beginning with "sem", "shm", or "msg"
	   but that System V IPC is not implemented in your machine.  In some machines the func-
	   tionality can exist but be unconfigured.  Consult your system support.

       syswrite() on closed filehandle %s
	   (W closed) The filehandle you're writing to got itself closed sometime before now.
	   Check your control flow.

       Target of goto is too deeply nested
	   (F) You tried to use "goto" to reach a label that was too deeply nested for Perl to
	   reach.  Perl is doing you a favor by refusing.

       tell() on unopened filehandle
	   (W unopened) You tried to use the tell() function on a filehandle that was either
	   never opened or has since been closed.

       That use of $[ is unsupported
	   (F) Assignment to $[ is now strictly circumscribed, and interpreted as a compiler
	   directive.  You may say only one of

	       $[ = 0;
	       $[ = 1;
	       ...
	       local $[ = 0;
	       local $[ = 1;
	       ...

	   This is to prevent the problem of one module changing the array base out from under
	   another module inadvertently.  See "$[" in perlvar.

       The crypt() function is unimplemented due to excessive paranoia
	   (F) Configure couldn't find the crypt() function on your machine, probably because
	   your vendor didn't supply it, probably because they think the U.S. Government thinks
	   it's a secret, or at least that they will continue to pretend that it is.  And if you
	   quote me on that, I will deny it.

       The %s function is unimplemented
	   The function indicated isn't implemented on this architecture, according to the prob-
	   ings of Configure.

       The stat preceding %s wasn't an lstat
	   (F) It makes no sense to test the current stat buffer for symbolic linkhood if the
	   last stat that wrote to the stat buffer already went past the symlink to get to the
	   real file.  Use an actual filename instead.

       This Perl can't reset CRTL environ elements (%s)
       This Perl can't set CRTL environ elements (%s=%s)
	   (W internal) Warnings peculiar to VMS.  You tried to change or delete an element of
	   the CRTL's internal environ array, but your copy of Perl wasn't built with a CRTL that
	   contained the setenv() function.  You'll need to rebuild Perl with a CRTL that does,
	   or redefine PERL_ENV_TABLES (see perlvms) so that the environ array isn't the target
	   of the change to %ENV which produced the warning.

       thread failed to start: %s
	   (F) The entry point function of threads->create() failed for some reason.

       5.005 threads are deprecated
	   (D deprecated)  The 5.005-style threads (activated by "use Thread;") are deprecated
	   and one should use the new ithreads instead, see perl58delta for more details.

       times not implemented
	   (F) Your version of the C library apparently doesn't do times().  I suspect you're not
	   running on Unix.

       To%s: illegal mapping '%s'
	   (F) You tried to define a customized To-mapping for lc(), lcfirst, uc(), or ucfirst()
	   (or their string-inlined versions), but you specified an illegal mapping.  See
	   "User-Defined Character Properties" in perlunicode.

       Too few args to syscall
	   (F) There has to be at least one argument to syscall() to specify the system call to
	   call, silly dilly.

       Too late for "-T" option
	   (X) The #! line (or local equivalent) in a Perl script contains the -T option, but
	   Perl was not invoked with -T in its command line.  This is an error because, by the
	   time Perl discovers a -T in a script, it's too late to properly taint everything from
	   the environment.  So Perl gives up.

	   If the Perl script is being executed as a command using the #!  mechanism (or its
	   local equivalent), this error can usually be fixed by editing the #! line so that the
	   -T option is a part of Perl's first argument: e.g. change "perl -n -T" to "perl -T
	   -n".

	   If the Perl script is being executed as "perl scriptname", then the -T option must
	   appear on the command line: "perl -T scriptname".

       Too late for "-%s" option
	   (X) The #! line (or local equivalent) in a Perl script contains the -M or -m option.
	   This is an error because -M and -m options are not intended for use inside scripts.
	   Use the "use" pragma instead.

       Too late to run %s block
	   (W void) A CHECK or INIT block is being defined during run time proper, when the
	   opportunity to run them has already passed.	Perhaps you are loading a file with
	   "require" or "do" when you should be using "use" instead.  Or perhaps you should put
	   the "require" or "do" inside a BEGIN block.

       Too many args to syscall
	   (F) Perl supports a maximum of only 14 args to syscall().

       Too many arguments for %s
	   (F) The function requires fewer arguments than you specified.

       Too many )'s
       Too many ('s
	   (A) You've accidentally run your script through csh instead of Perl.  Check the #!
	   line, or manually feed your script into Perl yourself.

       Trailing \ in regex m/%s/
	   (F) The regular expression ends with an unbackslashed backslash.  Backslash it.   See
	   perlre.

       Transliteration pattern not terminated
	   (F) The lexer couldn't find the interior delimiter of a tr/// or tr[][] or y/// or
	   y[][] construct.  Missing the leading "$" from variables $tr or $y may cause this
	   error.

       Transliteration replacement not terminated
	   (F) The lexer couldn't find the final delimiter of a tr/// or tr[][] construct.

       truncate not implemented
	   (F) Your machine doesn't implement a file truncation mechanism that Configure knows
	   about.

       Type of arg %d to %s must be %s (not %s)
	   (F) This function requires the argument in that position to be of a certain type.
	   Arrays must be @NAME or "@{EXPR}".  Hashes must be %NAME or "%{EXPR}".  No implicit
	   dereferencing is allowed--use the {EXPR} forms as an explicit dereference.  See perl-
	   ref.

       umask not implemented
	   (F) Your machine doesn't implement the umask function and you tried to use it to
	   restrict permissions for yourself (EXPR & 0700).

       Unable to create sub named "%s"
	   (F) You attempted to create or access a subroutine with an illegal name.

       Unbalanced context: %d more PUSHes than POPs
	   (W internal) The exit code detected an internal inconsistency in how many execution
	   contexts were entered and left.

       Unbalanced saves: %d more saves than restores
	   (W internal) The exit code detected an internal inconsistency in how many values were
	   temporarily localized.

       Unbalanced scopes: %d more ENTERs than LEAVEs
	   (W internal) The exit code detected an internal inconsistency in how many blocks were
	   entered and left.

       Unbalanced tmps: %d more allocs than frees
	   (W internal) The exit code detected an internal inconsistency in how many mortal
	   scalars were allocated and freed.

       Undefined format "%s" called
	   (F) The format indicated doesn't seem to exist.  Perhaps it's really in another pack-
	   age?  See perlform.

       Undefined sort subroutine "%s" called
	   (F) The sort comparison routine specified doesn't seem to exist.  Perhaps it's in a
	   different package?  See "sort" in perlfunc.

       Undefined subroutine &%s called
	   (F) The subroutine indicated hasn't been defined, or if it was, it has since been
	   undefined.

       Undefined subroutine called
	   (F) The anonymous subroutine you're trying to call hasn't been defined, or if it was,
	   it has since been undefined.

       Undefined subroutine in sort
	   (F) The sort comparison routine specified is declared but doesn't seem to have been
	   defined yet.  See "sort" in perlfunc.

       Undefined top format "%s" called
	   (F) The format indicated doesn't seem to exist.  Perhaps it's really in another pack-
	   age?  See perlform.

       Undefined value assigned to typeglob
	   (W misc) An undefined value was assigned to a typeglob, a la "*foo = undef".  This
	   does nothing.  It's possible that you really mean "undef *foo".

       %s: Undefined variable
	   (A) You've accidentally run your script through csh instead of Perl.  Check the #!
	   line, or manually feed your script into Perl yourself.

       unexec of %s into %s failed!
	   (F) The unexec() routine failed for some reason.  See your local FSF representative,
	   who probably put it there in the first place.

       Unicode character %s is illegal
	   (W utf8) Certain Unicode characters have been designated off-limits by the Unicode
	   standard and should not be generated.  If you really know what you are doing you can
	   turn off this warning by "no warnings 'utf8';".

       Unknown BYTEORDER
	   (F) There are no byte-swapping functions for a machine with this byte order.

       Unknown "re" subpragma '%s' (known ones are: %s)
	   You tried to use an unknown subpragma of the "re" pragma.

       Unknown switch condition (?(%.2s in regex;
	   marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/

	   (F) The condition part of a (?(condition)if-clause|else-clause) construct is not
	   known. The condition may be lookahead or lookbehind (the condition is true if the
	   lookahead or lookbehind is true), a (?{...})  construct (the condition is true if the
	   code evaluates to a true value), or a number (the condition is true if the set of cap-
	   turing parentheses named by the number matched).

	   The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was discovered.
	   See perlre.

       Unknown open() mode '%s'
	   (F) The second argument of 3-argument open() is not among the list of valid modes:
	   "<", ">", ">>", "+<", "+>", "+>>", "-|", "|-", "<&", ">&".

       Unknown process %x sent message to prime_env_iter: %s
	   (P) An error peculiar to VMS.  Perl was reading values for %ENV before iterating over
	   it, and someone else stuck a message in the stream of data Perl expected.  Someone's
	   very confused, or perhaps trying to subvert Perl's population of %ENV for nefarious
	   purposes.

       Unknown warnings category '%s'
	   (F) An error issued by the "warnings" pragma. You specified a warnings category that
	   is unknown to perl at this point.

	   Note that if you want to enable a warnings category registered by a module (e.g. "use
	   warnings 'File::Find'"), you must have imported this module first.

       unmatched [ in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
	   (F) The brackets around a character class must match. If you wish to include a closing
	   bracket in a character class, backslash it or put it first. The <-- HERE shows in the
	   regular expression about where the problem was discovered. See perlre.

       unmatched ( in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
	   (F) Unbackslashed parentheses must always be balanced in regular expressions. If
	   you're a vi user, the % key is valuable for finding the matching parenthesis. The <--
	   HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was discovered. See
	   perlre.

       Unmatched right %s bracket
	   (F) The lexer counted more closing curly or square brackets than opening ones, so
	   you're probably missing a matching opening bracket.	As a general rule, you'll find
	   the missing one (so to speak) near the place you were last editing.

       Unquoted string "%s" may clash with future reserved word
	   (W reserved) You used a bareword that might someday be claimed as a reserved word.
	   It's best to put such a word in quotes, or capitalize it somehow, or insert an under-
	   bar into it.  You might also declare it as a subroutine.

       Unrecognized character %s
	   (F) The Perl parser has no idea what to do with the specified character in your Perl
	   script (or eval).  Perhaps you tried to run a compressed script, a binary program, or
	   a directory as a Perl program.

       /%s/: Unrecognized escape \\%c in character class passed through
	   (W regexp) You used a backslash-character combination which is not recognized by Perl
	   inside character classes.  The character was understood literally.

       Unrecognized escape \\%c passed through in regex;
	   marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/

	   (W regexp) You used a backslash-character combination which is not recognized by Perl.
	   This combination appears in an interpolated variable or a "'"-delimited regular
	   expression. The character was understood literally. The <-- HERE shows in the regular
	   expression about where the escape was discovered.

       Unrecognized escape \\%c passed through
	   (W misc) You used a backslash-character combination which is not recognized by Perl.

       Unrecognized signal name "%s"
	   (F) You specified a signal name to the kill() function that was not recognized.  Say
	   "kill -l" in your shell to see the valid signal names on your system.

       Unrecognized switch: -%s  (-h will show valid options)
	   (F) You specified an illegal option to Perl.  Don't do that.  (If you think you didn't
	   do that, check the #! line to see if it's supplying the bad switch on your behalf.)

       Unsuccessful %s on filename containing newline
	   (W newline) A file operation was attempted on a filename, and that operation failed,
	   PROBABLY because the filename contained a newline, PROBABLY because you forgot to
	   chomp() it off.  See "chomp" in perlfunc.

       Unsupported directory function "%s" called
	   (F) Your machine doesn't support opendir() and readdir().

       Unsupported function %s
	   (F) This machine doesn't implement the indicated function, apparently.  At least, Con-
	   figure doesn't think so.

       Unsupported function fork
	   (F) Your version of executable does not support forking.

	   Note that under some systems, like OS/2, there may be different flavors of Perl exe-
	   cutables, some of which may support fork, some not. Try changing the name you call
	   Perl by to "perl_", "perl__", and so on.

       Unsupported script encoding
	   (F) Your program file begins with a Unicode Byte Order Mark (BOM) which declares it to
	   be in a Unicode encoding that Perl cannot yet read.

       Unsupported socket function "%s" called
	   (F) Your machine doesn't support the Berkeley socket mechanism, or at least that's
	   what Configure thought.

       Unterminated attribute list
	   (F) The lexer found something other than a simple identifier at the start of an
	   attribute, and it wasn't a semicolon or the start of a block.  Perhaps you terminated
	   the parameter list of the previous attribute too soon.  See attributes.

       Unterminated attribute parameter in attribute list
	   (F) The lexer saw an opening (left) parenthesis character while parsing an attribute
	   list, but the matching closing (right) parenthesis character was not found.	You may
	   need to add (or remove) a backslash character to get your parentheses to balance.  See
	   attributes.

       Unterminated compressed integer
	   (F) An argument to unpack("w",...) was incompatible with the BER compressed integer
	   format and could not be converted to an integer.  See "pack" in perlfunc.

       Unterminated <> operator
	   (F) The lexer saw a left angle bracket in a place where it was expecting a term, so
	   it's looking for the corresponding right angle bracket, and not finding it.	Chances
	   are you left some needed parentheses out earlier in the line, and you really meant a
	   "less than".

       untie attempted while %d inner references still exist
	   (W untie) A copy of the object returned from "tie" (or "tied") was still valid when
	   "untie" was called.

       Useless (?%s) - use /%s modifier in regex;
	   marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/

	   (W regexp) You have used an internal modifier such as (?o) that has no meaning unless
	   applied to the entire regexp:

	       if ($string =~ /(?o)$pattern/) { ... }

	   must be written as

	       if ($string =~ /$pattern/o) { ... }

	   The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was discovered.
	   See perlre.

       Useless (?-%s) - don't use /%s modifier in regex;
	   marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/

	   (W regexp) You have used an internal modifier such as (?-o) that has no meaning unless
	   removed from the entire regexp:

	       if ($string =~ /(?-o)$pattern/o) { ... }

	   must be written as

	       if ($string =~ /$pattern/) { ... }

	   The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was discovered.
	   See perlre.

       Useless use of %s in void context
	   (W void) You did something without a side effect in a context that does nothing with
	   the return value, such as a statement that doesn't return a value from a block, or the
	   left side of a scalar comma operator.  Very often this points not to stupidity on your
	   part, but a failure of Perl to parse your program the way you thought it would.  For
	   example, you'd get this if you mixed up your C precedence with Python precedence and
	   said

	       $one, $two = 1, 2;

	   when you meant to say

	       ($one, $two) = (1, 2);

	   Another common error is to use ordinary parentheses to construct a list reference when
	   you should be using square or curly brackets, for example, if you say

	       $array = (1,2);

	   when you should have said

	       $array = [1,2];

	   The square brackets explicitly turn a list value into a scalar value, while parenthe-
	   ses do not.	So when a parenthesized list is evaluated in a scalar context, the comma
	   is treated like C's comma operator, which throws away the left argument, which is not
	   what you want.  See perlref for more on this.

	   This warning will not be issued for numerical constants equal to 0 or 1 since they are
	   often used in statements like

	       1 while sub_with_side_effects() ;

	   String constants that would normally evaluate to 0 or 1 are warned about.

       Useless use of "re" pragma
	   (W) You did "use re;" without any arguments.   That isn't very useful.

       Useless use of sort in scalar context
	   (W void) You used sort in scalar context, as in :

	       my $x = sort @y;

	   This is not very useful, and perl currently optimizes this away.

       Useless use of %s with no values
	   (W syntax) You used the push() or unshift() function with no arguments apart from the
	   array, like "push(@x)" or "unshift(@foo)". That won't usually have any effect on the
	   array, so is completely useless. It's possible in principle that push(@tied_array)
	   could have some effect if the array is tied to a class which implements a PUSH method.
	   If so, you can write it as "push(@tied_array,())" to avoid this warning.

       "use" not allowed in expression
	   (F) The "use" keyword is recognized and executed at compile time, and returns no use-
	   ful value.  See perlmod.

       Use of bare << to mean <<"" is deprecated
	   (D deprecated) You are now encouraged to use the explicitly quoted form if you wish to
	   use an empty line as the terminator of the here-document.

       Use of /c modifier is meaningless in s///
	   (W regexp) You used the /c modifier in a substitution.  The /c modifier is not
	   presently meaningful in substitutions.

       Use of /c modifier is meaningless without /g
	   (W regexp) You used the /c modifier with a regex operand, but didn't use the /g modi-
	   fier.  Currently, /c is meaningful only when /g is used.  (This may change in the
	   future.)

       Use of /g modifier is meaningless in split
	   (W regexp) You used the /g modifier on the pattern for a "split" operator.  Since
	   "split" always tries to match the pattern repeatedly, the "/g" has no effect.

       Use of *glob{FILEHANDLE} is deprecated
	   (D deprecated) You are now encouraged to use the shorter *glob{IO} form to access the
	   filehandle slot within a typeglob.

       Use of chdir('') or chdir(undef) as chdir() deprecated
	   (D deprecated) chdir() with no arguments is documented to change to $ENV{HOME} or
	   $ENV{LOGDIR}.  chdir(undef) and chdir('') share this behavior, but that has been dep-
	   recated.  In future versions they will simply fail.

	   Be careful to check that what you pass to chdir() is defined and not blank, else you
	   might find yourself in your home directory.

       Use of implicit split to @_ is deprecated
	   (D deprecated) It makes a lot of work for the compiler when you clobber a subroutine's
	   argument list, so it's better if you assign the results of a split() explicitly to an
	   array (or list).

       Use of inherited AUTOLOAD for non-method %s() is deprecated
	   (D deprecated) As an (ahem) accidental feature, "AUTOLOAD" subroutines are looked up
	   as methods (using the @ISA hierarchy) even when the subroutines to be autoloaded were
	   called as plain functions (e.g.  "Foo::bar()"), not as methods (e.g. "Foo->bar()" or
	   "$obj->bar()").

	   This bug will be rectified in future by using method lookup only for methods'
	   "AUTOLOAD"s.  However, there is a significant base of existing code that may be using
	   the old behavior.  So, as an interim step, Perl currently issues an optional warning
	   when non-methods use inherited "AUTOLOAD"s.

	   The simple rule is:	Inheritance will not work when autoloading non-methods.  The sim-
	   ple fix for old code is:  In any module that used to depend on inheriting "AUTOLOAD"
	   for non-methods from a base class named "BaseClass", execute "*AUTOLOAD = \&Base-
	   Class::AUTOLOAD" during startup.

	   In code that currently says "use AutoLoader; @ISA = qw(AutoLoader);" you should remove
	   AutoLoader from @ISA and change "use AutoLoader;" to "use AutoLoader 'AUTOLOAD';".

       Use of -l on filehandle %s
	   (W io) A filehandle represents an opened file, and when you opened the file it already
	   went past any symlink you are presumably trying to look for.  The operation returned
	   "undef".  Use a filename instead.

       Use of "package" with no arguments is deprecated
	   (D deprecated) You used the "package" keyword without specifying a package name. So no
	   namespace is current at all. Using this can cause many otherwise reasonable constructs
	   to fail in baffling ways. "use strict;" instead.

       Use of %s in printf format not supported
	   (F) You attempted to use a feature of printf that is accessible from only C.  This
	   usually means there's a better way to do it in Perl.

       Use of $* is deprecated
	   (D deprecated) This variable magically turned on multi-line pattern matching, both for
	   you and for any luckless subroutine that you happen to call.  You should use the new
	   "//m" and "//s" modifiers now to do that without the dangerous action-at-a-distance
	   effects of $*.

       Use of %s is deprecated
	   (D deprecated) The construct indicated is no longer recommended for use, generally
	   because there's a better way to do it, and also because the old way has bad side
	   effects.

       Use of $# is deprecated
	   (D deprecated) This was an ill-advised attempt to emulate a poorly defined awk fea-
	   ture.  Use an explicit printf() or sprintf() instead.

       Use of reference "%s" as array index
	   (W misc) You tried to use a reference as an array index; this probably isn't what you
	   mean, because references in numerical context tend to be huge numbers, and so usually
	   indicates programmer error.

	   If you really do mean it, explicitly numify your reference, like so: $array[0+$ref].
	   This warning is not given for overloaded objects, either, because you can overload the
	   numification and stringification operators and then you assumedly know what you are
	   doing.

       Use of reserved word "%s" is deprecated
	   (D deprecated) The indicated bareword is a reserved word.  Future versions of perl may
	   use it as a keyword, so you're better off either explicitly quoting the word in a man-
	   ner appropriate for its context of use, or using a different name altogether.  The
	   warning can be suppressed for subroutine names by either adding a "&" prefix, or using
	   a package qualifier, e.g. "&our()", or "Foo::our()".

       Use of tainted arguments in %s is deprecated
	   (W taint, deprecated) You have supplied "system()" or "exec()" with multiple arguments
	   and at least one of them is tainted.  This used to be allowed but will become a fatal
	   error in a future version of perl.  Untaint your arguments.	See perlsec.

       Use of uninitialized value%s
	   (W uninitialized) An undefined value was used as if it were already defined.  It was
	   interpreted as a "" or a 0, but maybe it was a mistake.  To suppress this warning
	   assign a defined value to your variables.

	   To help you figure out what was undefined, perl tells you what operation you used the
	   undefined value in.	Note, however, that perl optimizes your program and the operation
	   displayed in the warning may not necessarily appear literally in your program.  For
	   example, "that $foo" is usually optimized into ""that " . $foo", and the warning will
	   refer to the "concatenation (.)" operator, even though there is no "." in your pro-
	   gram.

       Using a hash as a reference is deprecated
	   (D deprecated) You tried to use a hash as a reference, as in "%foo->{"bar"}" or
	   "%$ref->{"hello"}".	Versions of perl <= 5.6.1 used to allow this syntax, but
	   shouldn't have. It is now deprecated, and will be removed in a future version.

       Using an array as a reference is deprecated
	   (D deprecated) You tried to use an array as a reference, as in "@foo->[23]" or
	   "@$ref->[99]".  Versions of perl <= 5.6.1 used to allow this syntax, but shouldn't
	   have. It is now deprecated, and will be removed in a future version.

       UTF-16 surrogate %s
	   (W utf8) You tried to generate half of an UTF-16 surrogate by requesting a Unicode
	   character between the code points 0xD800 and 0xDFFF (inclusive).  That range is
	   reserved exclusively for the use of UTF-16 encoding (by having two 16-bit UCS-2 char-
	   acters); but Perl encodes its characters in UTF-8, so what you got is a very illegal
	   character.  If you really know what you are doing you can turn off this warning by "no
	   warnings 'utf8';".

       Value of %s can be "0"; test with defined()
	   (W misc) In a conditional expression, you used <HANDLE>, <*> (glob), "each()", or
	   "readdir()" as a boolean value.  Each of these constructs can return a value of "0";
	   that would make the conditional expression false, which is probably not what you
	   intended.  When using these constructs in conditional expressions, test their values
	   with the "defined" operator.

       Value of CLI symbol "%s" too long
	   (W misc) A warning peculiar to VMS.	Perl tried to read the value of an %ENV element
	   from a CLI symbol table, and found a resultant string longer than 1024 characters.
	   The return value has been truncated to 1024 characters.

       Variable "%s" is not imported%s
	   (F) While "use strict" in effect, you referred to a global variable that you appar-
	   ently thought was imported from another module, because something else of the same
	   name (usually a subroutine) is exported by that module.  It usually means you put the
	   wrong funny character on the front of your variable.

       "%s" variable %s masks earlier declaration in same %s
	   (W misc) A "my" or "our" variable has been redeclared in the current scope or state-
	   ment, effectively eliminating all access to the previous instance.  This is almost
	   always a typographical error.  Note that the earlier variable will still exist until
	   the end of the scope or until all closure referents to it are destroyed.

       Variable "%s" may be unavailable
	   (W closure) An inner (nested) anonymous subroutine is inside a named subroutine, and
	   outside that is another subroutine; and the anonymous (innermost) subroutine is refer-
	   encing a lexical variable defined in the outermost subroutine.  For example:

	      sub outermost { my $a; sub middle { sub { $a } } }

	   If the anonymous subroutine is called or referenced (directly or indirectly) from the
	   outermost subroutine, it will share the variable as you would expect.  But if the
	   anonymous subroutine is called or referenced when the outermost subroutine is not
	   active, it will see the value of the shared variable as it was before and during the
	   *first* call to the outermost subroutine, which is probably not what you want.

	   In these circumstances, it is usually best to make the middle subroutine anonymous,
	   using the "sub {}" syntax.  Perl has specific support for shared variables in nested
	   anonymous subroutines; a named subroutine in between interferes with this feature.

       Variable syntax
	   (A) You've accidentally run your script through csh instead of Perl.  Check the #!
	   line, or manually feed your script into Perl yourself.

       Variable "%s" will not stay shared
	   (W closure) An inner (nested) named subroutine is referencing a lexical variable
	   defined in an outer subroutine.

	   When the inner subroutine is called, it will probably see the value of the outer sub-
	   routine's variable as it was before and during the *first* call to the outer subrou-
	   tine; in this case, after the first call to the outer subroutine is complete, the
	   inner and outer subroutines will no longer share a common value for the variable.  In
	   other words, the variable will no longer be shared.

	   Furthermore, if the outer subroutine is anonymous and references a lexical variable
	   outside itself, then the outer and inner subroutines will never share the given vari-
	   able.

	   This problem can usually be solved by making the inner subroutine anonymous, using the
	   "sub {}" syntax.  When inner anonymous subs that reference variables in outer subrou-
	   tines are called or referenced, they are automatically rebound to the current values
	   of such variables.

       Variable length lookbehind not implemented in regex;
	   marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/

	   (F) Lookbehind is allowed only for subexpressions whose length is fixed and known at
	   compile time. The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where the problem was
	   discovered. See perlre.

       Version number must be a constant number
	   (P) The attempt to translate a "use Module n.n LIST" statement into its equivalent
	   "BEGIN" block found an internal inconsistency with the version number.

       v-string in use/require is non-portable
	   (W portable) The use of v-strings is non-portable to older, pre-5.6, Perls.	If you
	   want your scripts to be backward portable, use the floating point version number: for
	   example, instead of "use 5.6.1" say "use 5.006_001".  This of course won't help: the
	   older Perls won't suddenly start understanding newer features, but at least they will
	   show a sensible error message indicating the required minimum version.

       Warning: something's wrong
	   (W) You passed warn() an empty string (the equivalent of "warn """) or you called it
	   with no args and $_ was empty.

       Warning: unable to close filehandle %s properly
	   (S) The implicit close() done by an open() got an error indication on the close().
	   This usually indicates your file system ran out of disk space.

       Warning: Use of "%s" without parentheses is ambiguous
	   (S ambiguous) You wrote a unary operator followed by something that looks like a
	   binary operator that could also have been interpreted as a term or unary operator.
	   For instance, if you know that the rand function has a default argument of 1.0, and
	   you write

	       rand + 5;

	   you may THINK you wrote the same thing as

	       rand() + 5;

	   but in actual fact, you got

	       rand(+5);

	   So put in parentheses to say what you really mean.

       Wide character in %s
	   (W utf8) Perl met a wide character (>255) when it wasn't expecting one.  This warning
	   is by default on for I/O (like print) but can be turned off by "no warnings 'utf8';".
	   You are supposed to explicitly mark the filehandle with an encoding, see open and
	   "binmode" in perlfunc.

       write() on closed filehandle %s
	   (W closed) The filehandle you're writing to got itself closed sometime before now.
	   Check your control flow.

       X outside of string
	   (F) You had a pack template that specified a relative position before the beginning of
	   the string being unpacked.  See "pack" in perlfunc.

       x outside of string
	   (F) You had a pack template that specified a relative position after the end of the
	   string being unpacked.  See "pack" in perlfunc.

       Xsub "%s" called in sort
	   (F) The use of an external subroutine as a sort comparison is not yet supported.

       Xsub called in sort
	   (F) The use of an external subroutine as a sort comparison is not yet supported.

       YOU HAVEN'T DISABLED SET-ID SCRIPTS IN THE KERNEL YET!
	   (F) And you probably never will, because you probably don't have the sources to your
	   kernel, and your vendor probably doesn't give a rip about what you want.  Your best
	   bet is to put a setuid C wrapper around your script.

       You need to quote "%s"
	   (W syntax) You assigned a bareword as a signal handler name.  Unfortunately, you
	   already have a subroutine of that name declared, which means that Perl 5 will try to
	   call the subroutine when the assignment is executed, which is probably not what you
	   want.  (If it IS what you want, put an & in front.)

perl v5.8.0				    2003-02-18				      PERLDIAG(1)


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