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RedHat 9 (Linux i386) - man page for netpbm (redhat section 1)

netpbm(1)										netpbm(1)

NAME
       netpbm - package of graphics manipulation programs and libraries

DESCRIPTION
       Netpbm is a package of graphics programs and programming libraries.

       There  are  over  220  separate	programs in the package, most of which have "pbm", "pgm",
       "ppm", or "pnm" in their names.	For example, pnmscale and giftopnm.

       For example, you might use pnmscale to shrink an image by 10%.  Or use pnmcomp to  overlay
       one  image  on  top of another.	Or use pbmtext to create an image of text.  Or reduce the
       number of colors in an image with pnmquant.

The Netpbm Formats
       All of the programs work with a set of  graphics  formats  called  the  "netpbm"  formats.
       Specifically,  these  formats  are pbm(5), pgm(5), ppm(5), and pam(5).  The first three of
       these are sometimes known generically as pnm.  Many of the Netpbm programs convert from	a
       Netpbm format to another format or vice versa.  This is so you can use the Netpbm programs
       to work on graphics of any format.  It is also common to use a combination of Netpbm  pro-
       grams to convert from one non-Netpbm format to another non-Netpbm format.  Netpbm has con-
       verters for over 80 graphics formats, and as a package Netpbm lets you  do  more  graphics
       format conversions than any other computer graphics facility.

       The Netpbm formats are all raster formats, i.e. they describe an image as a matrix of rows
       and columns of pixels.  In the PBM format, the pixels are black and  white.   In  the  PGM
       format,	pixels are shades of gray.  In the PPM format, the pixels are in full color.  The
       PAM format is more sophisticated.  A replacement for all three of the  other  formats,  it
       can  represent  matrices  of  general  data  including but not limited to black and white,
       grayscale, and color images.

       Programs designed to work with PBM images have "pbm" in their names.  Programs designed to
       work with PGM, PPM, and PAM images similarly have "pgm", "ppm", and "pam" in their names.

       All  Netpbm  programs  designed to read PGM images see PBM images as if they were PGM too.
       All Netpbm programs designed to read PPM images see PGM and PBM images  as  if  they  were
       PPM.  See the section "Implied Format Conversion" below.

       Programs  that have "pnm" in their names read PBM, PGM, and PPM but unlike "ppm" programs,
       they distinguish between them and their function depends on the format.	For example, pnm-
       togif  creates  a black and white GIF output image if its input is PBM or PGM, but a color
       GIF output image if its input is PPM.  And pnmscale produces an output image of	the  same
       format as the input.  A ppmscale program would read all three PNM input formats, but would
       see them all as PPM and would always generate PPM output.

       If it seems wasteful to you to have three separate PNM formats, be aware that there  is	a
       historical  reason  for it.  In the beginning, there were only PBMs.  PGMs came later, and
       then PPMs.  Much later came PAM, which realizes the possibility of having just one  aggre-
       gate format.

       The formats are described in the man pages pbm(5), pgm(5), ppm(5), and pam(5),

Implied Format Conversion
       A program that uses the PGM library to read an image can read a PBM image as well as a PGM
       image.  The program sees the PBM image as if it were the equivalent PGM image, with a max-
       val of 255.

       A program that uses the PPM library to read an image can read a PGM image as well as a PPM
       image and a PBM image as well as a PGM image.  The program sees the PBM or PGM image as if
       it were the equivalent PPM image, with a maxval of 255 in the PBM case and the same maxval
       as the PGM in the PGM case.

The Netpbm Programs
       The Netpbm programs are generally useful run by a person from a	command  shell,  but  are
       also  designed to be used by programs.  A common characteristic of Netpbm programs is that
       they are simple, fundamental building blocks.  They are	most  powerful	when  stacked  in
       pipelines.   Netpbm  programs  do not use graphical user interfaces (in fact, none of them
       display graphics at all, except for a very simple Linux Svgalib displayer) and do not seek
       input from a user.

       Each of these programs has its own man page.

Common Options
       There  are  a  few  options  that are present on all programs that are based on the Netpbm
       libraries, including virtually all Netpbm programs.  These are not mentioned in the  indi-
       vidual man pages for the programs.

       -quiet Suppress	all  informational  messages  that  would otherwise be issued to Standard
	      Error.  (To be precise, this only works to the extent that the program in  question
	      implements  the  Netpbm  convention  of  issuing all informational messages via the
	      pm_message() service of the Netpbm libraries).

       -version
	      Instead of doing anything else, report the version of  the  libpbm  library  linked
	      with  the  program (it may have been linked statically into the program, or dynami-
	      cally linked at run time).  Normally, the Netpbm programs  and  the  libraries  are
	      installed  at  the  same time, so this tells you the version of the program and all
	      the other Netpbm libraries and files it uses as well.

	      Here is a directory of the Netpbm programs.  You can also use man -k to search  for
	      a program that does what you want.

   Converters
       ppmtompeg
	      convert series of PPM frames to an MPEG movie

       jpegtopnm
	      convert JFIF/JPEG/EXIF file to Netpbm format

       pnmtojpeg
	      convert PPM to JPEG/JFIF/EXIF format

       anytopnm
	      convert any graphics format to Netpbm format

       bmptoppm
	      convert Windows or OS/2 Bitmap file to PPM

       ppmtobmp
	      convert PPM to Windows or OS/2 Bitmap file

       winicontoppm
	      convert Windows icon file to PPM

       ppmtowinicon
	      convert PPM to Windows icon file

       giftopnm
	      convert GIF to portable anymap

       ppmtogif
	      convert PPM to GIF

       pnmtopng
	      convert Netpbm format to Portable Network Graphics

       pngtopnm
	      convert PNG (Portable Network Graphics) to Netpbm formats

       palmtopnm
	      convert Palm pixmap to Netpbm formats

       pnmtopalm
	      convert Netpbm formats to Palm pixmap

       jbigtopbm
	      convert JBIG BIE (compressed bitmap) to PBM

       pamtopnm
	      convert a PAM image to PBM, PGM, or PPM

       pbmtojbig
	      convert PBM to JBIG BIE (compressed bitmap)

       pnmtofiasco
	      convert Netpbm image to Fiasco (wfa) highly compressed format

       fiascotopnm
	      convert Fiasco (wfa) highly compressed format to Netpbm image

       hpcdtoppm
	      convert photo CD to PPM

       pbmtonokia
	      convert PBM to Nokia Smart Messaging Format (SMF)

       pbmtowbmp
	      convert PBM to WAP (Wireless App Protocol) Wireless Bitmap

       wbmptopbm
	      convert WAP (Wireless App Protocol) Wireless Bitmap to PBM

       neotoppm
	      convert Atari Neochrome (.neo) image to PPM

       ppmtoneo
	      convert PPM image to Atari Neochrome (.neo)

       pbmtomda
	      convert from PBM to Microdesign (for Amstrad PCWs)

       mdatopbm
	      convert from Microdesign (for Amstrad PCWs) to PBM

       atktopbm
	      convert Andrew Toolkit raster object to PBM

       pbmtoatk
	      convert PBM to Andrew Toolkit raster object

       brushtopbm
	      convert Xerox doodle brushes to PBM

       cmuwmtopbm
	      convert CMU window manager format to PBM

       g3topbm
	      convert Group 3 FAX to PBM

       pbmtog3
	      convert PBM to Group 3 FAX

       icontopbm
	      convert Sun icon to PBM

       pbmtoicon
	      convert PBM to Sun icon

       gemtopnm
	      convert GEM .img format to PBM or pixmap

       macptopbm
	      convert MacPaint to PBM

       pbmtomacp
	      convert PBM to MacPaint

       mgrtopbm
	      convert MGR format to PBM

       pbmtomgr
	      convert PBM to MGR format

       pi3topbm
	      convert Atari Degas .pi3 to PBM

       pbmtopi3
	      convert PBM to Atari Degas .pi3

       xbmtopbm
	      convert X10 or X11 bitmap to PBM

       pbmtoxbm
	      convert PBM to X11 bitmap

       pbmtox10bm
	      convert PBM to X10 bitmap

       ybmtopbm
	      convert Bennet Yee "face" file into PBM

       pbmtoybm
	      convert PBM into Bennet Yee "face" file

       pbmto10x
	      convert PBM to Gemini 10x printer graphics

       pbmtoascii
	      convert PBM to ASCII graphic form

       asciitopgm
	      convert ASCII character graphics to PGM

       pbmtobbnbg
	      convert PBM to BBN BitGraph graphics

       pbmtocmuwm
	      convert PBM to CMU window manager format

       pbmtoepson
	      convert PBM to Epson printer graphics

       pbmtogem
	      convert PBM into GEM .img file

       pbmtogo
	      convert PBM to GraphOn graphics

       pbmtolj
	      convert PBM to HP LaserJet black and white graphics

       ppmtolj
	      convert PPM to HP LaserJet color graphics (PCL)

       pjtoppm
	      convert HP PaintJet file to PPM

       ppmtopj
	      convert PPM to HP PaintJet file

       thinkjettopbm
	      convert HP Thinkjet printer stream to PBM

       pbmtoplot
	      convert PBM into Unix plot(5) file

       pbmtoptx
	      convert PBM to Printronix graphics

       pbmtozinc
	      convert PBM to Zinc Interface Library icon

       fitstopnm
	      convert FITS format to portable anymap

       pnmtofits
	      convert Netpbm formats to FITS format

       fstopgm
	      convert Usenix FaceSaver(tm) format to PGM

       pgmtofs
	      convert PGM to Usenix FaceSaver(tm) format

       hipstopgm
	      convert HIPS format to PGM

       lispmtopgm
	      convert a Lisp Machine bitmap file into PGM format

       pgmtolispm
	      convert PGM into Lisp Machine format

       pnmtops
	      convert Netpbm formats to Postscript

       pstopnm
	      convert Postscript to Netpbm formats

       psidtopgm
	      convert PostScript "image" data to PGM

       pbmtolps
	      convert PBM image to Postscript using lines

       pbmtoepsi
	      convert a PBM image to encapsulated Postscript preview bitmap

       pbmtopsg3
	      convert PBM images to Postscript using G3 fax compression.

       rawtopgm
	      convert raw grayscale bytes to PGM

       pgmtopbm
	      convert PGM to PBM

       gouldtoppm
	      convert Gould scanner file to PPM

       ilbmtoppm
	      convert IFF ILBM to PPM

       ppmtoilbm
	      convert PPM to IFF ILBM

       imgtoppm
	      convert Img-whatnot to PPM

       mtvtoppm
	      convert MTV ray-tracer output to PPM

       pcxtoppm
	      convert PC Paintbrush format to PPM

       pgmtoppm
	      colorize a portable graymap into a PPM

       pi1toppm
	      convert Atari Degas .pi1 to PPM

       ppmtopi1
	      convert PPM to Atari Degas .pi1

       picttoppm
	      convert Macintosh PICT to PPM

       ppmtopict
	      convert PPM to Macintosh PICT

       qrttoppm
	      convert QRT ray-tracer output to PPM

       rawtoppm
	      convert raw RGB bytes to PPM

       sldtoppm
	      convert an AutoCAD slide file into a PPM

       spctoppm
	      convert Atari compressed Spectrum to PPM

       sputoppm
	      convert Atari uncompressed Spectrum to PPM

       tgatoppm
	      convert TrueVision Targa file to PPM

       ppmtotga
	      convert PPM to TrueVision Targa file

       ximtoppm
	      convert Xim to PPM

       xpmtoppm
	      convert XPM format to PPM

       ppmtoxpm
	      convert PPM to XPM format

       yuvtoppm
	      convert Abekas YUV format to PPM

       eyuvtoppm
	      convert Encoder/Berkeley YUV format to PPM

       ppmtoeyuv
	      convert PPM to Encoder/Berkeley YUV format

       ppmtoyuv
	      convert PPM to Abekas YUV format

       ppmtoyuvsplit
	      convert PPM to 3 subsampled raw YUV files

       yuvsplittoppm
	      merge 3 subsampled raw YUV files to one PPM

       ppmtoacad
	      convert PPM to AutoCAD database or slide

       ppmtoicr
	      convert PPM to NCSA ICR graphics

       ppmtopcx
	      convert PPM to PC Paintbrush format

       ppmtopgm
	      convert PPM to portable graymap

       ppmtopuzz
	      convert PPM to X11 "puzzle" file

       rasttopnm
	      convert Sun raster file to Netpbm formats

       pnmtorast
	      convert Netpbm formats to Sun raster file

       tifftopnm
	      convert TIFF file to portable anymap

       pnmtotiff
	      convert Netpbm formats to TIFF RGB file

       pnmtotiffcmyk
	      convert Netpbm formats to TIFF CMYK file

       xwdtopnm
	      convert X10 or X11 window dump to Netpbm formats

       pnmtoxwd
	      convert Netpbm formats to X11 window dump

       pnmtoplainpnm
	      convert regular Netpbm format image into plain Netpbm format

       pbmtopgm
	      convert PBM file to PGM by averaging areas

       411toppm
	      convert 411 (Sony Mavica) to PPM

       ppmtosixel
	      convert PPM to DEC sixel format

       ppmtouil
	      convert PPM to Motif UIL icon file

       sbigtopgm
	      convert Santa Barbara Instrument Group CCD file to PGM

       vidtoppm
	      convert Parallax XVideo JPEG to sequence of PPM files

       pnmtorle
	      convert PNM to Utah Raster Toolkit (urt/rle) file

       rletopnm
	      convert Utah Raster Toolkit (urt/rle) file to PNM

       ppmtoleaf
	      convert PPM to Interleaf

       leaftoppm
	      convert Interleaf to PPM

       bioradtopgm
	      convert Biorad confocal image to PGM

       pbmtoln03
	      convert PGM image to Dec LN03+ Sixel image

       pbmtopk
	      convert PBM image to packed format (PK) font

       pktopbm
	      convert packed format (PK) font to PBM image

   Image Generators
       All of these generate Netpbm format output.

       pbmmake
	      create a blank PBM image of a specified size

       ppmmake
	      create a PPM image of a specified size and color

       pgmramp
	      generate a grayscale ramp

       ppmpat create a pretty PPM image

       ppmrainbow
	      create a spectrum-like image with colors fading together.

       pgmnoise
	      create a PGM image of white noise

       pbmtext
	      render text into a PBM image

       pbmupc create a Universal Product Code PBM image

       ppmcie generate a CIE color map PPM image

       pbmpage
	      create a printer test pattern page in PBM format

       ppmcolors
	      create a color map (PPM image) containing all possible colors of given maxval

   Image Editors
       All of these work on the Netpbm formats

       ppmlabel
	      Add text to an image

       pnmshadow
	      add a shadow to an image so it looks like it's floating

       ppmbrighten
	      brighten or dim an image -- change saturation and value

       ppmdim dim an image - different way from ppmbrighten

       pbmreduce
	      reduce a PBM N times, using Floyd-Steinberg

       pgmnorm
	      normalize contrast in a PGM image

       ppmnorm
	      normalize contrast in a PPM image

       pbmpscale
	      enlarge a PBM image with edge smoothing

       pnmscale
	      scale an image with high precision

       pnmscalefixed
	      scale an image quickly with low precision

       pnmenlarge
	      enlarge an image N times

       ppmdither
	      ordered dither for color images

       pnmcolormap
	      Choose the N best colors to represent an image; create a colormap

       pnmremap
	      Replace colors in an image with those from a color map

       ppmquant
	      quantize colors in a color image down to fewer colors

       pnmquant
	      quantize colors/shades in a color or grayscale image down to fewer

       ppmquantall
	      quantize colors on many files

       ppmrelief
	      run a Laplacian Relief filter on a PPM

       pnmarith
	      perform arithmetic on two images

       pnmcat concatenate images

       pnmpad add borders to an image

       pnmcomp
	      create composite (overlay) of images

       ppmmix mix (overlay) two images.

       pnmcrop
	      crop all like-colored borders off an image

       pamcut select a rectangular region from an image

       pnmcut obsolete version of pamcut (kept because it may have fewer bugs)

       pamdeinterlace
	      remove every other row from an image

       pamchannel
	      extract a single plane (channel, e.g. R, G, or B) from an image

       pnmdepth
	      change the maxval in an image

       pnmflip
	      perform one or more flip operations on an image

       pamstretch
	      scale up an image by inserting interpolated pixels

       pamstretch-gen
	      scale by non-integer values using pamstretch and pnmscale

       pnminvert
	      invert an image

       pnmgamma
	      perform gamma correction on an image

       pnmhisteq
	      histogram equalize image to increase contrast

       pnmmargin
	      add a margin to an image

       pnmpaste
	      paste a rectangle into an image

       pnmrotate
	      rotate an image

       pnmshear
	      shear an image

       pnmsmooth
	      smooth am image

       pnmtile
	      replicate an image into a specified size

       pbmclean
	      remove lone pixels (snow) from a PBM image

       pnmalias
	      antialias an image

       ppmchange
	      change all of one color to another in PPM image

       ppmshift
	      shift lines of PPM image left or right a random amount

       ppmspread
	      move pixels of PPM image a random amount

       pnmconvol
	      general MxN convolution on an image

       rgb3toppm
	      combine three portable graymaps into one PPM

       ppmtorgb3
	      separate a PPM into three portable graymaps

       pbmlife
	      apply Conway's rules of Life to a PBM image

       ppmdist
	      map colors to high contrast grayscales arbitrarily

       ppmntsc
	      adjust colors so they are legal for NTSC or PAL television

   Image Analyzers
       These all work on the Netpbm formats as input.

       pnmfile
	      describe an image's vital characteristics

       pnmpsnr
	      measure difference between two images

       pgmedge
	      edge-detect a PGM image

       pgmenhance
	      edge-enhance a PGM image

       pgmslice
	      print grayscale values for a row or column of a PGM image

       pgmtexture
	      calculate textural features on a PGM image

       pgmhist
	      print a histogram of the values in a PGM image

       ppmhist
	      print a histogram of a PPM

       pnmhistmap
	      draw a histogram of a PGM or PPM

       ppmtomap
	      generate a map of all colors in an image

       ppm3d  generate a blue/green 3D glasses image from two images

   Miscellaneous
       ppmsvgalib
	      display a PPM image on a Linux virtual console using Svgalib

       pbmmask
	      create a mask bitmap from a regular bitmap

       ppmcolormask
	      create mask of areas of a certain color in an image

       pnmsplit
	      split a multi-image Netpbm file into multiple 1-image files

       pnmindex
	      build a visual index of a bunch of Netpbm images

       pcdindex
	      build a visual index of a photo CD from PCD overview file

       pnmmontage
	      build multiple Netpbm images into a single montage image

       pgmbentley
	      Bentleyize a PGM image

       pgmcrater
	      create cratered terrain by fractal forgery

       pamoil turn a PNM or PAM image into an oil painting

       ppmforge
	      fractal forgeries of clouds, planets, and starry skies

       pgmkernel
	      generate a convolution kernel

       ppmtv  Make an image lined so it looks like an old TV

       pbmto4425
	      Display PBM image on AT&T 4425 ASCII terminal with gfx chars

   Uncatalogued As Yet
       pnmnlfilt

       pnmtoddif

       pnmtosgi

       pnmtosir

       ppmflash

       ppmqvga

       ppmtomitsu

       ppmtopjxl

       sgitopnm

       sirtopnm

       spottopgm

       xvminitoppm

       zeisstopnm

The Netpbm Libraries
       The  Netpbm programming libraries, libpbm(3), libpgm(3), libppm(3), and libpnm(3), make it
       easy to write programs that manipulate graphic images.  Their main function is to read and
       write  files  in the Netpbm format, and because the Netpbm package contains converters for
       all the popular graphics formats, if your program reads and writes the Netpbm formats, you
       can use it with any formats.

       But  the  libraries  also  contain  some  utility functions, such as character drawing and
       RGB/YCrCb conversion.

       The libraries have the conventional C linkage.  Virtually all programs in the Netpbm pack-
       age are based on the Netpbm libraries.

   Application Notes
       As  a collection of primitive tools, the power of Netpbm is multiplied by the power of all
       the other unix tools you can use with them.  These notes remind you of some  of	the  more
       useful ways to do this.	Often, when people want to add high level functions to the Netpbm
       tools, they have overlooked some existing tool that, in combination with  Netpbm,  already
       does it.

       Often, you need to apply some conversion or edit to a whole bunch of files.

       As  a  rule,  Netpbm  programs take one input file and produce one output file, usually on
       Standard Output.  This is for flexibility, since you so often have to pipeline many  tools
       together.

       Here  is  an  example of a shell command to convert all your of PNG files (named *.png) to
       JPEG files named *.jpg:

       for i in *.png; do pngtopnm $i | ppmtojpeg >`basename $i .png`.jpg; done

       Or you might just generate a stream of individual shell commands, one per file,	with  awk
       or perl.  Here's how to brighten 30 YUV images that make up one second of a movie, keeping
       the images in the same files:

       ls *.yuv .br | perl -ne 'chomp;
       print yuvtoppm $_ | ppmbrighten -v 100 | ppmtoyuv >tmp$$.yuv; ,
       mv tmp$$.yuv $_0
       ' .br | sh

       The tools find (with the -exec option) and xargs are also useful for  simple  manipulation
       of groups of files.

       Some  shells'  "process substitution" facility can help where a non-Netpbm program expects
       you to identify a disk file for input and you want it to use the result of a Netpbm manip-
       ulation.   Say printcmyk takes the filename of a Tiff CMYK file as input and what you have
       is a PNG file abc.png.  Try:

       printcmyk <({ pngtopnm abc.png | pnmtotiffcmyk ; })

       It works in the other direction too, if you have a program that makes you name its  output
       file and you want the output to go through a Netpbm tool.

   Other Graphics Software
       Netpbm  contains  primitive  building  blocks.	It  certainly  is not a complete graphics
       library.

       The first thing you will want to make use  of  any  of  these  tools  is  a  viewer.   (On
       GNU/Linux,  you	can use ppmsvgalib in a pinch, but it is pretty limiting).  zgv is a good
       full service viewer to use on a GNU/Linux system with the SVGALIB graphics display  driver
       library.  You can find zgv at ftp://ftp.ibiblio.org/pub/Linux/apps/graphics/viewers/svga .

       zgv  even  has  a feature in it wherein you can visually crop an image and write an output
       file of the cropped image using pnmcut.	See the -s option to zgv.

       For the X inclined, there is also xzgv.	 See  ftp://metalab.unc.edu/pub/Linux/apps/graph-
       ics/viewers/X.

       xloadimage and its extension xli are also common ways to display a graphic image in X.

       ImageMagick  is	like  a visual version of Netpbm.  Using the X/Window system on Unix, you
       can do basic editing of images and lots of format conversions.  The package  does  include
       at  least  some non-visual tools.  Convert, Mogrify, Montage, and Animate are popular pro-
       grams from the ImageMagick package.  ImageMagick runs on Unix, Windows, Windows NT, Macin-
       tosh, and VMS.

       The Gimp is a visual image editor for Unix and X, in the same category as the more famous,
       less  capable,  and  much  more	expensive  Adobe  Photoshop,  etc.  for   Windows.    See
       http://www.gimp.org.

       The  file  program  looks  at a file and tells you what kind of file it is.  It recognizes
       most of the graphics formats with which Netpbm deals, so it is pretty handy  for  graphics
       work.  Netpbm's anytopnm program depends on file.  See ftp://ftp.astron.com/pub/file.

       The Utah Raster Toolkit serves a lot of the same purpose as Netpbm, but without the empha-
       sis on format conversions.  This package is based on the RLE format, which you can convert
       to  and from the Netpbm formats.  http://www.cs.utah.edu/research/projects/alpha1/urt.html
       gives some information on the Utah Raster Toolkit, but does not tell where to get it.

       There are some Netpbm-like graphics tools distributed by the Army High Performance Comput-
       ing  Research Center at http://www.arc.umn.edu/gvl-software/media-tools.html.  These oper-
       ate directly on non-Netpbm format images, so they aren't included in the  Netpbm  package.
       However, you can use them with any image format by using the Netpbm format converters.

       Ivtools is a suite of free X Windows drawing editors for Postscript, Tex, and web graphics
       production, as well as an embeddable and extendable vector graphic  shell.   It	uses  the
       Netpbm facilities.  See http://www.ivtools.org.

       Ilib is a C subroutine library with functions for adding text to an image (as you might do
       at a higher level with pbmtext, pnmcomp, etc.).	It works with Netpbm  input  and  output.
       Find  it  at  http://www.radix.net/~cknudsen/Ilib.  Netpbm also includes character drawing
       functions in the libppm library, but they do not have as fancy font capabilities (see ppm-
       label for an example of use of the Netpbm character drawing functions).

       GD  is  a  library  of graphics routines that is part of PHP.  It has a subset of Netpbm's
       functions and has been found to resize images more slowly and with less quality.

       pnm2ppa converts to HP's "Winprinter" format (for HP 710, 720, 820, 1000, etc).	It  is	a
       superset  of  Netpbm's  pbmtoppa  and  handles,	notably, color.  However, it is more of a
       printer driver than a Netpbm-style primitive graphics building block.  See  http://source-
       forge.net/project/?group_id=1322.

       The program morph morphs one image into another.  It uses Targa format images, but you can
       use tgatoppm and ppmtotga to deal with that format.  You have to use the graphical  (X/Tk)
       Xmorph  to create the mesh files that you must feed to morph.  morph is part of the Xmorph
       package.  See http://www.colorado-research.com/~gourlay/software/Graphics/Xmorph.

       To create an animated GIF, or extract a frame from one, use gifsicle.   gifsicle  converts
       between animated GIF and still GIF, and you can use ppmtogif and giftopnm to connect up to
       all the Netpbm utilities.  See http://www.lcdf.org/gifsicle.

       To convert an image of text to text (optical character recongition - OCR), use gocr (think
       of it as an inverse of pbmtext).  See http://altmark.nat.uni-magdeburg.de/~jschulen/ocr/.

       http://schaik.com/pngsuite  contains  a	PNG  test  suite  --  a whole bunch of PNG images
       exploiting the various features of the PNG format.

       Another version of pnmtopng/pngtopnm is at  http://www.schaik.com/png/pnmtopng.html.   The
       version	in  Netpbm was actually based on that package a long time ago, and you can expect
       to find better exploitation of the PNG format, especially  recent  enhancements,  in  that
       package.   It  may be a little less consistent with the Netpbm project and less exploitive
       of recent Netpbm format enhancements, though.

       jpegtran Does some of the same transformations as Netpbm is  famous  for,  but  does  them
       specifically on JPEG files and does them without loss of information.  By contrast, if you
       were to use Netpbm, you would first decompress the  JPEG  image	to  Netpbm  format,  then
       transform  the  image,  then  compress it back to JPEG format.  In that recompression, you
       lose a little image information because JPEG is a lossy compression.  jpegtran comes  with
       the Independent Jpeg Group's (http://www.ijg.org) JPEG library.

       Some  tools  to	deal with EXIF files (see also Netpbm's jpegtopnm and pnmtojpeg): To dump
       (interpret) an EXIF header: Exifdump ((http://topo.math.u-psud.fr/~bousch/exifdump.py)  or
       Jhead (http://www.sentex.net/~mwandel/jhead).

       A Python EXIF library and dumper:  http://pyexif.sourceforge.net.

       Latex2html  converts Latex document source to HTML document source.  Part of that involves
       graphics, and Latex2html uses Netpbm tools for some of that.  But Latex2html  through  its
       history has had some rather esoteric codependencies with Netpbm.  Older Latex2html doesn't
       work with current Netpbm.  Latex2html-99.2beta8 works, though.

   Other Graphics Formats
       People never seem to tire of inventing new graphics formats,  often  completely	redundant
       with pre-existing ones.	Netpbm cannot keep up with them.  Here is a list of a few that we
       know Netpbm does not handle (yet).

	 CAL (originated by US Department Of Defense, favored by  architects).	 http://www.land-
       field.com/faqs/graphics/fileformats-faq/part3/section-24.html

	 array formats dx, general, netcdf, CDF, hdf, cm

	 CGM+

	 Windows  Meta	File  (.WMF).	Libwmf	converts from WMF to things like Latex, PDF, PNG.
       Some of these can be input to Netpbm.

	 Microsoft Word, RTF.  Microsoft keeps a proprietary hold on these formats.  Any software
       you see that can handle them is likely to cost money.

HISTORY
       Netpbm  has  a  long  history, starting with Jef Poskanzer's Pbmplus package in 1988.  The
       file HISTORY in the Netpbm source code  contains  a  historical	overview  as  well  as	a
       detailed history release by release.

AUTHOR
       Netpbm  is  based  on  the Pbmplus package by Jef Poskanzer, first distributed in 1988 and
       maintained by him until 1991.  But the package contains work by countless  other  authors,
       added since Jef's original work.  In fact, the name is derived from the fact that the work
       was contributed by people all over the world via the Internet, when such collaboration was
       still novel enough to merit naming the package after it.

       Bryan  Henderson has been maintaining Netpbm since 1999.  In addition to packaging work by
       others, Bryan has also written a significant amount of new material for the package.

											netpbm(1)


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