grops - PostScript driver for groff
grops [ -glmv ] [ -bn ] [ -cn ] [ -Fdir ] [ -ppapersize ] [ -Pprologue ] [ -wn ]
[ files... ]
It is possible to have whitespace between a command line option and its parameter.
grops translates the output of GNU troff to PostScript. Normally grops should be invoked
by using the groff command with a -Tps option. (Actually, this is the default for groff.)
If no files are given, grops will read the standard input. A filename of - will also
cause grops to read the standard input. PostScript output is written to the standard out-
put. When grops is run by groff options can be passed to grops using the groff -P option.
-bn Workaround broken spoolers and previewers. Normally grops produces output that
conforms the Document Structuring Conventions version 3.0. Unfortunately some
spoolers and previewers can't handle such output. The value of n controls what
grops does to its output acceptable to such programs. A value of 0 will cause
grops not to employ any workarounds. Add 1 if no %%BeginDocumentSetup and %%End-
DocumentSetup comments should be generated; this is needed for early versions of
TranScript that get confused by anything between the %%EndProlog comment and the
first %%Page comment. Add 2 if lines in included files beginning with %! should
be stripped out; this is needed for Sun's pageview previewer. Add 4 if %%Page,
%%Trailer and %%EndProlog comments should be stripped out of included files; this
is needed for spoolers that don't understand the %%BeginDocument and %%EndDocument
comments. Add 8 if the first line of the PostScript output should be %!PS-
Adobe-2.0 rather than %!PS-Adobe-3.0; this is needed when using Sun's Newsprint
with a printer that requires page reversal. The default value can be specified by
command in the DESC file. Otherwise the default value is 0.
-cn Print n copies of each page.
-Fdir Prepend directory dir/devname to the search path for prologue, font, and device
description files; name is the name of the device, usually ps.
-g Guess the page length. This generates PostScript code that guesses the page
length. The guess will be correct only if the imageable area is vertically cen-
tered on the page. This option allows you to generate documents that can be
printed both on letter (8.5x11) paper and on A4 paper without change.
-l Print the document in landscape format.
-m Turn manual feed on for the document.
Set physical dimension of output medium. This overrides the papersize and paper-
length commands in the DESC file; it accepts the same arguments as the papersize
Use the file prologue-file (in the font path) as the prologue instead of the
default prologue file prologue. This option overrides the environment variable
-wn Lines should be drawn using a thickness of n thousandths of an em. If this option
is not given, the line thickness defaults to 0.04 em.
-v Print the version number.
There are styles called R, I, B, and BI mounted at font positions 1 to 4. The fonts are
grouped into families A, BM, C, H, HN, N, P and T having members in each of these styles:
There is also the following font which is not a member of a family:
There are also some special fonts called SS and S. Zapf Dingbats is available as ZD and a
reversed version of ZapfDingbats (with symbols pointing in the opposite direction) is
available as ZDR; most characters in these fonts are unnamed and must be accessed using
The default color for \m and \M is black; for colors defined in the `rgb' color space,
setrgbcolor is used, for `cmy' and `cmyk' setcmykcolor, and for `gray' setgray.
grops understands various X commands produced using the \X escape sequence; grops will
only interpret commands that begin with a ps: tag.
\X'ps: exec code'
This executes the arbitrary PostScript commands in code. The PostScript current-
point will be set to the position of the \X command before executing code. The
origin will be at the top left corner of the page, and y coordinates will increase
down the page. A procedure u will be defined that converts groff units to the
coordinate system in effect. For example,
.nr x 1i
\X'ps: exec \nx u 0 rlineto stroke'
will draw a horizontal line one inch long. code may make changes to the graphics
state, but any changes will persist only to the end of the page. A dictionary con-
taining the definitions specified by the def and mdef will be on top of the dictio-
nary stack. If your code adds definitions to this dictionary, you should allocate
space for them using \X'ps mdef n'. Any definitions will persist only until the
end of the page. If you use the \Y escape sequence with an argument that names a
macro, code can extend over multiple lines. For example,
.nr x 1i
\nx u 0 rlineto
is another way to draw a horizontal line one inch long.
\X'ps: file name'
This is the same as the exec command except that the PostScript code is read from
\X'ps: def code'
Place a PostScript definition contained in code in the prologue. There should be
at most one definition per \X command. Long definitions can be split over several
\X commands; all the code arguments are simply joined together separated by new-
lines. The definitions are placed in a dictionary which is automatically pushed on
the dictionary stack when an exec command is executed. If you use the \Y escape
sequence with an argument that names a macro, code can extend over multiple lines.
\X'ps: mdef n code'
Like def, except that code may contain up to n definitions. grops needs to know
how many definitions code contains so that it can create an appropriately sized
PostScript dictionary to contain them.
\X'ps: import file llx lly urx ury width [ height ]'
Import a PostScript graphic from file. The arguments llx, lly, urx, and ury give
the bounding box of the graphic in the default PostScript coordinate system; they
should all be integers; llx and lly are the x and y coordinates of the lower left
corner of the graphic; urx and ury are the x and y coordinates of the upper right
corner of the graphic; width and height are integers that give the desired width
and height in groff units of the graphic. The graphic will be scaled so that it
has this width and height and translated so that the lower left corner of the
graphic is located at the position associated with \X command. If the height argu-
ment is omitted it will be scaled uniformly in the x and y directions so that it
has the specified width. Note that the contents of the \X command are not inter-
preted by troff; so vertical space for the graphic is not automatically added, and
the width and height arguments are not allowed to have attached scaling indicators.
If the PostScript file complies with the Adobe Document Structuring Conventions and
contains a %%BoundingBox comment, then the bounding box can be automatically
extracted from within groff by using the psbb request.
The -mps macros (which are automatically loaded when grops is run by the groff com-
mand) include a PSPIC macro which allows a picture to be easily imported. This has
.PSPIC [-L|-R|-I n] file [width [height]]
file is the name of the file containing the illustration; width and height give the
desired width and height of the graphic. The width and height arguments may have
scaling indicators attached; the default scaling indicator is i. This macro will
scale the graphic uniformly in the x and y directions so that it is no more than
width wide and height high. By default, the graphic will be horizontally centered.
The -L and -R cause the graphic to be left-aligned and right-aligned respectively.
The -I option causes the graphic to be indented by n.
No output will be generated for text and drawing commands that are bracketed with
these \X commands. These commands are intended for use when output from troff will
be previewed before being processed with grops; if the previewer is unable to dis-
play certain characters or other constructs, then other substitute characters or
constructs can be used for previewing by bracketing them with these \X commands.
For example, gxditview is not able to display a proper \(em character because the
standard X11 fonts do not provide it; this problem can be overcome by executing the
.char \(em \X'ps: invis'\
\Z'\v'-.25m'\h'.05m'\D'l .9m 0'\h'.05m''\
In this case, gxditview will be unable to display the \(em character and will draw
the line, whereas grops will print the \(em character and ignore the line.
The input to grops must be in the format output by troff(1). This is described in
groff_out(5). In addition the device and font description files for the device used must
meet certain requirements. The device and font description files supplied for ps device
meet all these requirements. afmtodit(1) can be used to create font files from AFM files.
The resolution must be an integer multiple of 72 times the sizescale. The ps device uses
a resolution of 72000 and a sizescale of 1000. The device description file should contain
which says that output should be generated which is suitable for printing on a page whose
length is n machine units. Common values are 792000 for letter paper and 841890 for paper
in A4 format. Alternatively, it can contain
to specify a paper size; see groff_font(5) for more information. Each font description
file must contain a command
which says that the PostScript name of the font is psname. It may also contain a command
which says that the PostScript font should be reencoded using the encoding described in
enc_file; this file should consist of a sequence of lines of the form:
where pschar is the PostScript name of the character, and code is its position in the
encoding expressed as a decimal integer. Lines starting with # and blank lines are
ignored. The code for each character given in the font file must correspond to the code
for the character in encoding file, or to the code in the default encoding for the font if
the PostScript font is not to be reencoded. This code can be used with the \N escape
sequence in troff to select the character, even if the character does not have a groff
name. Every character in the font file must exist in the PostScript font, and the widths
given in the font file must match the widths used in the PostScript font. grops will
assume that a character with a groff name of space is blank (makes no marks on the page);
it can make use of such a character to generate more efficient and compact PostScript out-
grops can automatically include the downloadable fonts necessary to print the document.
Any downloadable fonts which should, when required, be included by grops must be listed in
the file /usr/share/groff/1.18.1/font/devps/download; this should consist of lines of the
where font is the PostScript name of the font, and filename is the name of the file con-
taining the font; lines beginning with # and blank lines are ignored; fields may be sepa-
rated by tabs or spaces; filename will be searched for using the same mechanism that is
used for groff font metric files. The download file itself will also be searched for
using this mechanism; currently, only the first found file in the font path is used.
If the file containing a downloadable font or imported document conforms to the Adobe Doc-
ument Structuring Conventions, then grops will interpret any comments in the files suffi-
ciently to ensure that its own output is conforming. It will also supply any needed font
resources that are listed in the download file as well as any needed file resources. It
is also able to handle inter-resource dependencies. For example, suppose that you have a
downloadable font called Garamond, and also a downloadable font called Garamond-Outline
which depends on Garamond (typically it would be defined to copy Garamond's font dictio-
nary, and change the PaintType), then it is necessary for Garamond to be appear before
Garamond-Outline in the PostScript document. grops will handle this automatically pro-
vided that the downloadable font file for Garamond-Outline indicates its dependence on
Garamond by means of the Document Structuring Conventions, for example by beginning with
the following lines
%%DocumentNeededResources: font Garamond
%%IncludeResource: font Garamond
In this case both Garamond and Garamond-Outline would need to be listed in the download
file. A downloadable font should not include its own name in a %%DocumentSup-
grops will not interpret %%DocumentFonts comments. The %%DocumentNeededResources, %%Docu-
mentSuppliedResources, %%IncludeResource, %%BeginResource and %%EndResource comments (or
possibly the old %%DocumentNeededFonts, %%DocumentSuppliedFonts, %%IncludeFont, %%Begin-
Font and %%EndFont comments) should be used.
TrueType fonts can be used with grops if converted first to Type 42 format, an especial
PostScript wrapper equivalent to the PFA format mentioned in pfbtops(1). There are sev-
eral different methods to generate a type42 wrapper and most of them involve the use of a
PostScript interpreter such as Ghostscript -- see gs(1). Yet, the easiest method involves
the use of the application ttftot42. This program uses freetype(3) (version 1.3.1) to
generate type42 font wrappers and well-formed AFM files that can be fed to the afmtodit(1)
script to create appropriate metric files. The resulting font wrappers should be added to
the download file. ttftot42 source code can be downloaded from ftp://www.giga.or.at/pub/
If this is set to foo, then grops will use the file foo (in the font path) instead
of the default prologue file prologue. The option -P overrides this environment
/usr/share/groff/1.18.1/font/devps/DESC Device description file.
/usr/share/groff/1.18.1/font/devps/F Font description file for font F.
/usr/share/groff/1.18.1/font/devps/download List of downloadable fonts.
/usr/share/groff/1.18.1/font/devps/text.enc Encoding used for text fonts.
/usr/share/groff/1.18.1/tmac/ps.tmac Macros for use with grops; automatically
loaded by troffrc
/usr/share/groff/1.18.1/tmac/pspic.tmac Definition of PSPIC macro, automatically
loaded by ps.tmac.
/usr/share/groff/1.18.1/tmac/psold.tmac Macros to disable use of characters not
present in older PostScript printers (e.g.
`eth' or `thorn').
/tmp/gropsXXXXXX Temporary file.
afmtodit(1), groff(1), troff(1), psbb(1), groff_out(5), groff_font(5), groff_char(7)
Groff Version 1.18.1 16 August 2002 GROPS(1)