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GROPS(1)										 GROPS(1)

       grops - PostScript driver for groff

       grops [ -glmv ] [ -bn ] [ -cn ] [ -Fdir ] [ -ppapersize ] [ -Pprologue ] [ -wn ]
	     [ files... ]

       It is possible to have whitespace between a command line option and its parameter.

       grops translates the output of GNU troff to PostScript.	Normally grops should be  invoked
       by using the groff command with a -Tps option.  (Actually, this is the default for groff.)
       If no files are given, grops will read the standard input.  A  filename	of  -  will  also
       cause grops to read the standard input.	PostScript output is written to the standard out-
       put.  When grops is run by groff options can be passed to grops using the groff -P option.

       -bn    Workaround broken spoolers and previewers.  Normally  grops  produces  output  that
	      conforms	the  Document  Structuring  Conventions  version 3.0.  Unfortunately some
	      spoolers and previewers can't handle such output.  The value  of	n  controls  what
	      grops  does  to  its  output  acceptable to such programs.  A value of 0 will cause
	      grops not to employ any workarounds.  Add 1 if no %%BeginDocumentSetup  and  %%End-
	      DocumentSetup  comments  should  be generated; this is needed for early versions of
	      TranScript that get confused by anything between the %%EndProlog	comment  and  the
	      first  %%Page  comment.  Add 2 if lines in included files beginning with %!  should
	      be stripped out; this is needed for Sun's pageview previewer.   Add  4  if  %%Page,
	      %%Trailer  and  %%EndProlog comments should be stripped out of included files; this
	      is needed for spoolers that don't understand the %%BeginDocument and  %%EndDocument
	      comments.   Add  8  if  the  first  line	of  the PostScript output should be %!PS-
	      Adobe-2.0 rather than %!PS-Adobe-3.0; this is needed  when  using  Sun's	Newsprint
	      with  a printer that requires page reversal.  The default value can be specified by

		     broken n

	      command in the DESC file.  Otherwise the default value is 0.

       -cn    Print n copies of each page.

       -Fdir  Prepend directory dir/devname to the search path for  prologue,  font,  and  device
	      description files; name is the name of the device, usually ps.

       -g     Guess  the  page	length.   This	generates  PostScript  code that guesses the page
	      length.  The guess will be correct only if the imageable area  is  vertically  cen-
	      tered  on  the  page.   This  option  allows  you to generate documents that can be
	      printed both on letter (8.5x11) paper and on A4 paper without change.

       -l     Print the document in landscape format.

       -m     Turn manual feed on for the document.

	      Set physical dimension of output medium.	This overrides the papersize  and  paper-
	      length  commands	in  the DESC file; it accepts the same arguments as the papersize

	      Use the file prologue-file (in the font  path)  as  the  prologue  instead  of  the
	      default  prologue  file  prologue.   This option overrides the environment variable

       -wn    Lines should be drawn using a thickness of n thousandths of an em.  If this  option
	      is not given, the line thickness defaults to 0.04 em.

       -v     Print the version number.

       There  are  styles called R, I, B, and BI mounted at font positions 1 to 4.  The fonts are
       grouped into families A, BM, C, H, HN, N, P and T having members in each of these styles:

	      AR     AvantGarde-Book

	      AI     AvantGarde-BookOblique

	      AB     AvantGarde-Demi

	      ABI    AvantGarde-DemiOblique

	      BMR    Bookman-Light

	      BMI    Bookman-LightItalic

	      BMB    Bookman-Demi

	      BMBI   Bookman-DemiItalic

	      CR     Courier

	      CI     Courier-Oblique

	      CB     Courier-Bold

	      CBI    Courier-BoldOblique

	      HR     Helvetica

	      HI     Helvetica-Oblique

	      HB     Helvetica-Bold

	      HBI    Helvetica-BoldOblique

	      HNR    Helvetica-Narrow

	      HNI    Helvetica-Narrow-Oblique

	      HNB    Helvetica-Narrow-Bold

	      HNBI   Helvetica-Narrow-BoldOblique

	      NR     NewCenturySchlbk-Roman

	      NI     NewCenturySchlbk-Italic

	      NB     NewCenturySchlbk-Bold

	      NBI    NewCenturySchlbk-BoldItalic

	      PR     Palatino-Roman

	      PI     Palatino-Italic

	      PB     Palatino-Bold

	      PBI    Palatino-BoldItalic

	      TR     Times-Roman

	      TI     Times-Italic

	      TB     Times-Bold

	      TBI    Times-BoldItalic

       There is also the following font which is not a member of a family:

	      ZCMI   ZapfChancery-MediumItalic

       There are also some special fonts called SS and S.  Zapf Dingbats is available as ZD and a
       reversed  version  of  ZapfDingbats  (with  symbols pointing in the opposite direction) is
       available as ZDR; most characters in these fonts are unnamed and must  be  accessed  using

       The  default  color  for  \m and \M is black; for colors defined in the `rgb' color space,
       setrgbcolor is used, for `cmy' and `cmyk' setcmykcolor, and for `gray' setgray.

       grops understands various X commands produced using the \X  escape  sequence;  grops  will
       only interpret commands that begin with a ps: tag.

       \X'ps: exec code'
	      This  executes  the arbitrary PostScript commands in code.  The PostScript current-
	      point will be set to the position of the \X command  before  executing  code.   The
	      origin  will be at the top left corner of the page, and y coordinates will increase
	      down the page.  A procedure u will be defined that  converts  groff  units  to  the
	      coordinate system in effect.  For example,

		     .nr x 1i
		     \X'ps: exec \nx u 0 rlineto stroke'

	      will  draw  a horizontal line one inch long.  code may make changes to the graphics
	      state, but any changes will persist only to the end of the page.	A dictionary con-
	      taining the definitions specified by the def and mdef will be on top of the dictio-
	      nary stack.  If your code adds definitions to this dictionary, you should  allocate
	      space  for  them	using \X'ps mdef n'.  Any definitions will persist only until the
	      end of the page.	If you use the \Y escape sequence with an argument that  names	a
	      macro, code can extend over multiple lines.  For example,

		     .nr x 1i
		     .de y
		     ps: exec
		     \nx u 0 rlineto

	      is another way to draw a horizontal line one inch long.

       \X'ps: file name'
	      This  is	the same as the exec command except that the PostScript code is read from
	      file name.

       \X'ps: def code'
	      Place a PostScript definition contained in code in the prologue.	There  should  be
	      at  most one definition per \X command.  Long definitions can be split over several
	      \X commands; all the code arguments are simply joined together  separated  by  new-
	      lines.  The definitions are placed in a dictionary which is automatically pushed on
	      the dictionary stack when an exec command is executed.  If you use  the  \Y  escape
	      sequence with an argument that names a macro, code can extend over multiple lines.

       \X'ps: mdef n code'
	      Like  def,  except  that code may contain up to n definitions.  grops needs to know
	      how many definitions code contains so that it can  create  an  appropriately  sized
	      PostScript dictionary to contain them.

       \X'ps: import file llx lly urx ury width [ height ]'
	      Import  a  PostScript graphic from file.	The arguments llx, lly, urx, and ury give
	      the bounding box of the graphic in the default PostScript coordinate  system;  they
	      should  all  be integers; llx and lly are the x and y coordinates of the lower left
	      corner of the graphic; urx and ury are the x and y coordinates of the  upper  right
	      corner  of  the  graphic; width and height are integers that give the desired width
	      and height in groff units of the graphic.  The graphic will be scaled  so  that  it
	      has  this  width	and  height  and  translated so that the lower left corner of the
	      graphic is located at the position associated with \X command.  If the height argu-
	      ment  is	omitted  it will be scaled uniformly in the x and y directions so that it
	      has the specified width.	Note that the contents of the \X command are  not  inter-
	      preted  by troff; so vertical space for the graphic is not automatically added, and
	      the width and height arguments are not allowed to have attached scaling indicators.
	      If the PostScript file complies with the Adobe Document Structuring Conventions and
	      contains a %%BoundingBox comment,  then  the  bounding  box  can	be  automatically
	      extracted from within groff by using the psbb request.

	      The -mps macros (which are automatically loaded when grops is run by the groff com-
	      mand) include a PSPIC macro which allows a picture to be easily imported.  This has
	      the format

		     .PSPIC [-L|-R|-I n] file [width [height]]

	      file is the name of the file containing the illustration; width and height give the
	      desired width and height of the graphic.	The width and height arguments	may  have
	      scaling  indicators  attached; the default scaling indicator is i.  This macro will
	      scale the graphic uniformly in the x and y directions so that it is  no  more  than
	      width wide and height high.  By default, the graphic will be horizontally centered.
	      The -L and -R cause the graphic to be left-aligned and right-aligned  respectively.
	      The -I option causes the graphic to be indented by n.

       \X'ps: invis'
       \X'ps: endinvis'
	      No  output  will be generated for text and drawing commands that are bracketed with
	      these \X commands.  These commands are intended for use when output from troff will
	      be  previewed before being processed with grops; if the previewer is unable to dis-
	      play certain characters or other constructs, then other  substitute  characters  or
	      constructs can be used for previewing by bracketing them with these \X commands.

	      For  example,  gxditview is not able to display a proper \(em character because the
	      standard X11 fonts do not provide it; this problem can be overcome by executing the
	      following request

		     .char \(em \X'ps: invis'\
		     \Z'\v'-.25m'\h'.05m'\D'l .9m 0'\h'.05m''\
		     \X'ps: endinvis'\(em

	      In  this case, gxditview will be unable to display the \(em character and will draw
	      the line, whereas grops will print the \(em character and ignore the line.

       The input to grops must be in the  format  output  by  troff(1).   This	is  described  in
       groff_out(5).   In addition the device and font description files for the device used must
       meet certain requirements.  The device and font description files supplied for  ps  device
       meet all these requirements.  afmtodit(1) can be used to create font files from AFM files.
       The resolution must be an integer multiple of 72 times the sizescale.  The ps device  uses
       a resolution of 72000 and a sizescale of 1000.  The device description file should contain
       a command

	      paperlength n

       which says that output should be generated which is suitable for printing on a page  whose
       length is n machine units.  Common values are 792000 for letter paper and 841890 for paper
       in A4 format.  Alternatively, it can contain

	      papersize string

       to specify a paper size; see groff_font(5) for more information.   Each	font  description
       file must contain a command

	      internalname psname

       which says that the PostScript name of the font is psname.  It may also contain a command

	      encoding enc_file

       which  says  that  the PostScript font should be reencoded using the encoding described in
       enc_file; this file should consist of a sequence of lines of the form:

	      pschar code

       where pschar is the PostScript name of the character, and code  is  its	position  in  the
       encoding  expressed  as	a  decimal  integer.   Lines  starting with # and blank lines are
       ignored.  The code for each character given in the font file must correspond to	the  code
       for the character in encoding file, or to the code in the default encoding for the font if
       the PostScript font is not to be reencoded.  This code can be  used  with  the  \N  escape
       sequence  in  troff  to	select the character, even if the character does not have a groff
       name.  Every character in the font file must exist in the PostScript font, and the  widths
       given  in  the  font  file  must match the widths used in the PostScript font.  grops will
       assume that a character with a groff name of space is blank (makes no marks on the  page);
       it can make use of such a character to generate more efficient and compact PostScript out-

       grops can automatically include the downloadable fonts necessary to  print  the	document.
       Any downloadable fonts which should, when required, be included by grops must be listed in
       the file /usr/share/groff/1.18.1/font/devps/download; this should consist of lines of  the

	      font filename

       where  font  is the PostScript name of the font, and filename is the name of the file con-
       taining the font; lines beginning with # and blank lines are ignored; fields may be  sepa-
       rated  by  tabs	or spaces; filename will be searched for using the same mechanism that is
       used for groff font metric files.  The download file itself  will  also	be  searched  for
       using this mechanism; currently, only the first found file in the font path is used.

       If the file containing a downloadable font or imported document conforms to the Adobe Doc-
       ument Structuring Conventions, then grops will interpret any comments in the files  suffi-
       ciently	to ensure that its own output is conforming.  It will also supply any needed font
       resources that are listed in the download file as well as any needed file  resources.   It
       is  also able to handle inter-resource dependencies.  For example, suppose that you have a
       downloadable font called Garamond, and also a downloadable  font  called  Garamond-Outline
       which  depends  on Garamond (typically it would be defined to copy Garamond's font dictio-
       nary, and change the PaintType), then it is necessary for Garamond  to  be  appear  before
       Garamond-Outline  in  the  PostScript document.	grops will handle this automatically pro-
       vided that the downloadable font file for Garamond-Outline  indicates  its  dependence  on
       Garamond  by  means of the Document Structuring Conventions, for example by beginning with
       the following lines

	      %!PS-Adobe-3.0 Resource-Font
	      %%DocumentNeededResources: font Garamond
	      %%IncludeResource: font Garamond

       In this case both Garamond and Garamond-Outline would need to be listed	in  the  download
       file.   A  downloadable	font  should  not  include  its  own  name  in	a  %%DocumentSup-
       pliedResources comment.

       grops will not interpret %%DocumentFonts comments.  The %%DocumentNeededResources, %%Docu-
       mentSuppliedResources,  %%IncludeResource,  %%BeginResource and %%EndResource comments (or
       possibly the old %%DocumentNeededFonts, %%DocumentSuppliedFonts,  %%IncludeFont,  %%Begin-
       Font and %%EndFont comments) should be used.

   TrueType fonts
       TrueType  fonts	can  be used with grops if converted first to Type 42 format, an especial
       PostScript wrapper equivalent to the PFA format mentioned in pfbtops(1).  There	are  sev-
       eral  different methods to generate a type42 wrapper and most of them involve the use of a
       PostScript interpreter such as Ghostscript -- see gs(1).  Yet, the easiest method involves
       the  use  of  the  application ttftot42.  This program uses freetype(3) (version 1.3.1) to
       generate type42 font wrappers and well-formed AFM files that can be fed to the afmtodit(1)
       script to create appropriate metric files.  The resulting font wrappers should be added to
       the download file.  ttftot42 source code can be downloaded from ftp://www.giga.or.at/pub/
       nih/ttftot42/ <ftp://www.giga.or.at/pub/nih/ttftot42/>.

	      If  this is set to foo, then grops will use the file foo (in the font path) instead
	      of the default prologue file prologue.  The option -P  overrides	this  environment

       /usr/share/groff/1.18.1/font/devps/DESC	    Device description file.

       /usr/share/groff/1.18.1/font/devps/F	    Font description file for font F.

       /usr/share/groff/1.18.1/font/devps/download  List of downloadable fonts.

       /usr/share/groff/1.18.1/font/devps/text.enc  Encoding used for text fonts.

       /usr/share/groff/1.18.1/tmac/ps.tmac	    Macros  for  use  with  grops;  automatically
						    loaded by troffrc

       /usr/share/groff/1.18.1/tmac/pspic.tmac	    Definition	of  PSPIC  macro,   automatically
						    loaded by ps.tmac.

       /usr/share/groff/1.18.1/tmac/psold.tmac	    Macros  to	disable  use  of  characters  not
						    present in older  PostScript  printers  (e.g.
						    `eth' or `thorn').

       /tmp/gropsXXXXXX 			    Temporary file.

       afmtodit(1), groff(1), troff(1), psbb(1), groff_out(5), groff_font(5), groff_char(7)

Groff Version 1.18.1			  16 August 2002				 GROPS(1)
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