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GROFF_CHAR(7)									    GROFF_CHAR(7)

       groff_char - groff character names

       This manual page lists the standard groff input characters.  The output characters in this
       document will look different depending on which output device was chosen (with  option  -T
       for the man(1) program or the roff formatter).  Only the characters that are available for
       the device that is being used to print or view this manual page	will  be  displayed  (the
       device currently used is `ascii').

       In  the	actual	version,  groff provides only 8-bit characters for direct input and named
       characters for further glyphs.  On ASCII platforms, character codes in the range 0 to  127
       (decimal)  represent the usual 7-bit ASCII characters, while codes between 127 and 255 are
       interpreted as the corresponding characters in the  Latin-1  (ISO-8859-1)  code	set.   On
       EBCDIC  platforms, only the code page cp1047 is supported (which contains the same charac-
       ters as Latin-1).  It is rather straightforward (for the experienced user) to set up other
       8bit  encodings	like  Latin-2; since groff will use Unicode in the next major version, no
       additional encodings are provided.

       All roff systems provide the concept of named characters.  In  traditional  roff  systems,
       only  names of length 2 were used, while groff also provides support for longer names.  It
       is strongly suggested that only named characters are used for all  characters  outside  of
       the 7-bit ASCII range.

       Some of the predefined groff escape sequences (with names of length 1) also produce single
       characters; these exist for historical reasons or are printable	versions  of  syntactical
       characters.  They include \\, \', \`, \-, \., and \e; see groff(7).

       In  groff,  all	of  these different types of characters can be tested positively with the
       .if c conditional.

       In this section, the characters in groff are specified in tabular form.	 The  meaning  of
       the columns is as follows.

       Output shows  how  the character is printed for the current device; although this can have
	      quite a different shape on other devices, it always represents the same glyph.

       Input name
	      specifies how the character is input either directly by a key on the  keyboard,  or
	      by a groff escape sequence.

       Input code
	      applies to characters which can be input with a single character, and gives the ISO
	      Latin-1 decimal code of that input character.  Note that this code is equivalent to
	      the lowest 256 Unicode characters; (including 7-bit ASCII in the range 0 to 127).

       PostScript name
	      gives the usual PostScript name of the output character.

   ASCII Characters
       These are the basic characters having 7-bit ASCII code values.  These are identical to the
       first 127 characters of the character standards ISO-8859-1 (Latin-1) and Unicode (range C0
       Controls  and  Basic  Latin).  To save space, not every code has an entry in the following
       because the following code ranges are well known.

       0-32   Control characters (print as themselves).

       48-57  Decimal digits 0 to 9 (print as themselves).

       65-90  Upper case letters A-Z (print as themselves).

       97-122 Lower case letters a-z (print as themselves).

       127    Control character (prints as itself).

       The remaining ranges constitute the printable,  non-alphanumeric  ASCII	characters;  only
       these are listed below.	As can be seen in the table below, most of these characters print
       as themselves; the only exceptions are the following characters:

       `      the ISO Latin-1 `Grave Accent' (code 96) prints as `, a left single quotation mark,

       '      the ISO Latin-1 `Apostrophe' (code 39) prints as ', a right single quotation  mark;
	      the corresponding ISO Latin-1 characters can be obtained with \` and \(aq.

       -      the ISO Latin-1 `Hyphen, Minus Sign' (code 45) prints as a hyphen; a minus sign can
	      be obtained with \-.

       ~      the ISO Latin-1 `Tilde' (code 126); a larger glyph can be obtained with \(ti.

       ^      the ISO Latin-1 `Circumflex Accent' (code 94); a larger glyph can be obtained  with

       Output	Input	Input	PostScript	 Notes
		name	code	name

       !	!	33	exclam
       "	"	34	quotedbl
       #	#	35	numbersign
       $	$	36	dollar
       %	%	37	percent
       &	&	38	ampersand
       '	'	39	quoteright
       (	(	40	parenleft
       )	)	41	parenright
       *	*	42	asterisk
       +	+	43	plus
       ,	,	44	comma
       -	-	45	hyphen
       .	.	46	period
       /	/	47	slash
       :	:	58	colon
       ;	;	59	semicolon
       <	<	60	less
       =	=	61	equal
       >	>	62	greater
       ?	?	63	question
       @	@	64	at
       [	[	91	bracketleft
       \	\	92	backslash
       ]	]	93	bracketright
       ^	^	94	circumflex	 circumflex accent
       _	_	95	underscore
       `	`	96	quoteleft
       {	{	123	braceleft
       |	|	124	bar
       }	}	125	braceright
       ~	~	126	tilde		 tilde accent

   Latin-1 Special Characters
       These  characters have character codes between 128 and 255.  They are interpreted as char-
       acters according to the Latin-1 (iso-8859-1) code set,  being  identical  to  the  Unicode
       range C1 Controls and Latin-1 Supplement.

	      the C1 Controls; they print as themselves, but the effect is mostly undefined.

       160    the ISO Latin-1 no-break space is mapped to `\ ', the escaped space character.

       173    the soft hyphen control character (prints as itself).  groff never use this charac-
	      ter for output (thus it is omitted in the table below); the input character 173  is
	      mapped onto \%.

       The  remaining  ranges  (161-172,  174-255), called the Latin-1 Supplement in Unicode, are
       printable characters that print as themselves.  Although they can  be  specified  directly
       with  the  keyboard  on	systems with a Latin-1 code page, it is better to use their named
       character equivalent; see next section.

       Output	Input	Input	PostScript	 Notes
		name	code	name

       i	i	161	exclamdown	 inverted exclamation mark
       c	c	162	cent
       L	L	163	sterling
       x	x	164	currency
       Y	Y	165	yen
       |	|	166	brokenbar
       S	S	167	section
       "	"	168	dieresis
       (C)	(C)	169	copyright
       a	a	170	ordfeminine
       <<	<<	171	guillemotleft
       ~	~	172	logicalnot
       _R)	_R)	174	registered
			175	macron
       o	o	176	degree
       +-	+-	177	plusminus
       2	2	178	twosuperior
       3	3	179	threesuperior
       '	'	180	acute		 acute accent
       u	u	181	mu		 micro sign
       9|	9|	182	paragraph
       .	.	183	periodcentered
       ,	,	184	cedilla
       1	1	185	onesuperior
       o	o	186	ordmasculine
       >>	>>	187	guillemotright
       1/4	1/4	188	onequarter
       1/2	1/2	189	onehalf
       3/4	3/4	190	threequarters
       c	c	191	questiondown
       A	A	192	Agrave
       A	A	193	Aacute
       A	A	194	Acircumflex
       A	A	195	Atilde
       A	A	196	Adieresis
       A	A	197	Aring
       AE	AE	198	AE
       C	C	199	Ccedilla
       E	E	200	Egrave
       E	E	201	Eacute
       E	E	202	Ecircumflex
       E	E	203	Edieresis
       I	I	204	Igrave
       I	I	205	Iacute
       I	I	206	Icircumflex
       I	I	207	Idieresis
       D	D	208	Eth
       N	N	209	Ntilde
       O	O	210	Ograve
       O	O	211	Oacute
       O	O	212	Ocircumflex
       O	O	213	Otilde
       O	O	214	Odieresis
       x	x	215	multiply
       O	O	216	Oslash
       U	U	217	Ugrave
       U	U	218	Uacute
       U	U	219	Ucircumflex
       U	U	220	Udieresis
       Y	Y	221	Yacute
       b	b	222	Thorn
       B	B	223	germandbls
       a	a	224	agrave
       a	a	225	aacute
       a	a	226	acircumflex
       a	a	227	atilde
       a	a	228	adieresis
       a	a	229	aring
       ae	ae	230	ae
       c	c	231	ccedilla
       e	e	232	egrave
       e	e	233	eacute
       e	e	234	ecircumflex
       e	e	235	edieresis
       i	i	236	igrave
       i	i	237	iacute
       i	i	238	icircumflex
       i	i	239	idieresis
       o	o	240	eth
       n	n	241	ntilde
       o	o	242	ograve
       o	o	243	oacute
       o	o	244	ocircumflex
       o	o	245	otilde
       o	o	246	odieresis
       -:-	-:-	247	divide
       o	o	248	oslash
       u	u	249	ugrave
       u	u	250	uacute
       u	u	251	ucircumflex
       u	u	252	udieresis
       y	y	253	yacute
       b	b	254	thorn
       y	y	255	ydieresis

   Named Characters
       The named character idiom is the standard way to specify special characters in  roff  sys-
       tems.   They  can  be embedded into the document text by using escape sequences.  groff(7)
       describes how these escape sequences look.  The character names can consist of quite arbi-
       trary  characters  from	the  ASCII or Latin-1 code set, not only alphanumeric characters.
       Here some examples:

       \c     named character having the name c, which consists of a single character (length 1).

       \(ch   named character having the 2-character name ch.

	      named character having the name char_name (having length 1, 2, 3, ...).

       In groff, each 8bit input character can also referred to by the construct \n[charn]  where
       n  is the decimal code of the character, a number between 0 and 255 without leading zeros.
       They are mapped onto glyph entities using the  .trin  request.	Moreover,  new	character
       names can be created by the .char request; see groff(7).

       Output	Input	PostScript	 Notes
		name	name

       D	\[-D]	Eth		 Icelandic uppercase eth
       o	\[Sd]	eth		 Icelandic lowercase eth
       b	\[TP]	Thorn		 Icelandic uppercase thorn
       b	\[Tp]	thorn		 Icelandic lowercase thorn
       B	\[ss]	germandbls	 German sharp s

       ff	\[ff]	ff		 ff ligature
       fi	\[fi]	fi		 fi ligature
       fl	\[fl]	fl		 fl ligature
       ffi	\[Fi]	ffi		 ffi ligature
       ffl	\[Fl]	ffl		 ffl ligature
       AE	\[AE]	AE
       ae	\[ae]	ae
       OE	\[OE]	OE
       oe	\[oe]	oe
       IJ	\[IJ]	IJ		 Dutch IJ ligature
       ij	\[ij]	ij		 Dutch ij ligature
       i	\[.i]	dotlessi	 i without a dot (Turkish)

       Accented Characters
       A	\['A]	Aacute
       E	\['E]	Eacute
       I	\['I]	Iacute
       O	\['O]	Oacute
       U	\['U]	Uacute
       Y	\['Y]	Yacute
       a	\['a]	aacute
       e	\['e]	eacute
       i	\['i]	iacute
       o	\['o]	oacute
       u	\['u]	uacute
       y	\['y]	yacute
       A	\[:A]	Adieresis	 A with umlaut
       E	\[:E]	Edieresis
       I	\[:I]	Idieresis
       O	\[:O]	Odieresis
       U	\[:U]	Udieresis
       a	\[:a]	adieresis
       e	\[:e]	edieresis
       i	\[:i]	idieresis
       o	\[:o]	odieresis
       u	\[:u]	udieresis
       y	\[:y]	ydieresis
       A	\[^A]	Acircumflex
       E	\[^E]	Ecircumflex
       I	\[^I]	Icircumflex
       O	\[^O]	Ocircumflex
       U	\[^U]	Ucircumflex
       a	\[^a]	acircumflex
       e	\[^e]	ecircumflex
       i	\[^i]	icircumflex
       o	\[^o]	ocircumflex
       u	\[^u]	ucircumflex
       A	\[`A]	Agrave
       E	\[`E]	Egrave
       I	\[`I]	Igrave
       O	\[`O]	Ograve
       U	\[`U]	Ugrave
       a	\[`a]	agrave
       e	\[`e]	egrave
       i	\[`i]	igrave
       o	\[`o]	ograve
       u	\[`u]	ugrave
       A	\[~A]	Atilde
       N	\[~N]	Ntilde
       O	\[~O]	Otilde
       a	\[~a]	atilde
       n	\[~n]	ntilde
       o	\[~o]	otilde
       C	\[,C]	Ccedilla
       c	\[,c]	ccedilla
       L	\[/L]	Lslash		 Polish L with a slash
       l	\[/l]	lslash		 Polish l with a slash
       O	\[/O]	Oslash		 Scandinavic slashed O
       o	\[/o]	oslash		 Scandinavic slashed o
       A	\[oA]	Aring
       a	\[oa]	aring

       _	\[a"]	hungarumlaut	 Hungarian umlaut
		\[a-]	macron		 macron or bar accent
       ^	\[a^]	circumflex	 circumflex accent
       '	\[aa]	acute		 acute accent
       `	\[ga]	grave		 grave accent
       `	\[ab]	breve		 breve accent
       ,	\[ac]	cedilla 	 cedilla accent
       "	\[ad]	dieresis	 umlaut or dieresis
       v	\[ah]	caron		 havek accent
       o	\[ao]	ring		 ring or circle accent
       ~	\[a~]	tilde		 tilde accent
       ,	\[ho]	ogonek		 hook or ogonek accent
       ^	\[ha]	asciicircum	 ASCII circumflex, hat, caret
       ~	\[ti]	asciitilde	 ASCII tilde, large tilde

       ,,	\[Bq]	quotedblbase	 low double comma quote
       ,	\[bq]	quotesinglbase	 low single comma quote
       "	\[lq]	quotedblleft
       "	\[rq]	quotedblright
       '	\[oq]	quoteleft	 single open quote
       '	\[cq]	quoteright	 single closing quote (ASCII 39)
       '	\[aq]	quotesingle	 apostrophe quote
       "	\[dq]	quotedbl	 double quote (ASCII 34)
       <<	\[Fo]	guillemotleft
       >>	\[Fc]	guillemotright
       <	\[fo]	guilsinglleft
       >	\[fc]	guilsinglright

       i	\[r!]	exclamdown
       c	\[r?]	questiondown
       --	\[em]	emdash		 em dash
       -	\[en]	endash		 en dash
       -	\[hy]	hyphen

       [	\[lB]	bracketleft
       ]	\[rB]	bracketright
       {	\[lC]	braceleft
       }	\[rC]	braceright
       <	\[la]	angleleft	 left angle bracket
       >	\[ra]	angleright	 right angle bracket

       <-	\[<-]	arrowleft
       ->	\[->]	arrowright
       <->	\[<>]	arrowboth	 horizontal double-headed arrow
       v	\[da]	arrowdown
       ^	\[ua]	arrowup
       <=	\[lA]	arrowdblleft
       =>	\[rA]	arrowdblright
       <=>	\[hA]	arrowdblboth	 horizontal double-headed double arrow
       v	\[dA]	arrowdbldown
       ^	\[uA]	arrowdblup
       -	\[an]	arrowhorizex	 horizontal arrow extension

       |	\[or]	bar
       |	\[ba]	bar
       |	\[br]	br		 box rule with traditional troff metrics
       _	\[ru]	ru		 baseline rule
       _	\[ul]	ul		 underline with traditional troff metrics
       |	\[bv]	bv		 bar vertical
       |	\[bb]	brokenbar
       /	\[sl]	slash
       \	\[rs]	backslash

       Text markers
       O	\[ci]	circle
       o	\[bu]	bullet
       =	\[dd]	daggerdbl	 double dagger sign
       -	\[dg]	dagger
       <>	\[lz]	lozenge
       []	\[sq]	square
       9|	\[ps]	paragraph
       S	\[sc]	section
       <=	\[lh]	handleft
       =>	\[rh]	handright
       @	\[at]	at
       #	\[sh]	numbersign
       _|	\[CR]	carriagereturn	 carriage return symbol

       (C)	\[co]	copyright
       (R)	\[rg]	registered
       tm	\[tm]	trademark

       Currency symbols
       $	\[Do]	dollar
       c	\[ct]	cent
       EUR	\[eu]			 official Euro symbol
       EUR	\[Eu]	Euro		 font-specific Euro glyph variant
       Y	\[Ye]	yen
       L	\[Po]	sterling	 British currency sign
       x	\[Cs]	currency	 Scandinavian currency sign
       f	\[Fn]	florin		 Dutch currency sign

       o	\[de]	degree
       %o	\[%0]	perthousand	 per thousand, per mille sign
       '	\[fm]	minute		 footmark, prime
       ''	\[sd]	second
       u	\[mc]	mu		 micro sign
       a	\[Of]	ordfeminine
       o	\[Om]	ordmasculine

       Logical Symbols
       ^	\[AN]	logicaland
       v	\[OR]	logicalor
       ~	\[no]	logicalnot
       3	\[te]	existential	 there exists, existential quantifier
       V	\[fa]	universal	 for all, universal quantifier
       -)	\[st]	suchthat
       .:.	\[3d]	therefore
       .:.	\[tf]	therefore

       Mathematical Symbols
       1/2	\[12]	onehalf
       1/4	\[14]	onequarter
       3/4	\[34]	threequarters
       1	\[S1]	onesuperior
       2	\[S2]	twosuperior
       3	\[S3]	threesuperior
       +	\[pl]	plusmath	 plus sign in special font
       -	\-	minus		 minus sign from current font
       -+	\[-+]	minusplus
       +-	\[+-]	plusminus
       +-	\[t+-]	plusminus	 text variant of `+-'
       .	\[pc]	periodcentered	 multiplication dot
       .	\[md]	dotmath
       x	\[mu]	multiply
       x	\[tmu]	multiply	 text variant of `mu'
       x	\[c*]	circlemultiply	 multiply sign in a circle
       +	\[c+]	circleplus	 plus sign in a circle
       -:-	\[di]	divide		 division sign
       -:-	\[tdi]	divide		 text variant of `di'
       /	\[f/]	fraction	 bar for fractions
       *	\[**]	asteriskmath
       <=	\[<=]	lessequal
       >=	\[>=]	greaterequal
       <<	\[<<]			 much less
       >>	\[>>]			 much greater
       !=	\[!=]	notequal
       =	\[eq]	equalmath	 equals sign in special font
       ==	\[==]	equivalence
       =~	\[=~]	congruent
       ~	\[ap]	similar
       ~~	\[~~]	approxequal
       ~=	\[~=]	approxequal
       oc	\[pt]	proportional
       {}	\[es]	emptyset
       E	\[mo]	element
       E	\[nm]	notelement
       !==	\[ne]	notequivalence
       (=	\[sb]	propersubset
       =)	\[sp]	propersuperset
       (_	\[ib]	reflexsubset
       _)	\[ip]	reflexsuperset
       (^)	\[ca]	intersection	 intersection, cap
       U	\[cu]	union		 union, cup
       /	\[/_]	angle
       |	\[pp]	perpendicular
       _	\[is]	integral
       V	\[gr]	gradient
       _/	\[sr]	radical 	 square root
		\[rn]			 overline
       oo	\[if]	infinity
       N	\[Ah]	aleph
       I	\[Im]	Ifraktur	 Gothic I, imaginary
       R	\[Re]	Rfraktur	 Gothic R, real
       p	\[wp]	weierstrass	 Weierstrass p
       a	\[pd]	partialdiff	 partial differentiation sign

       Greek characters
       A	\[*A]	Alpha
       B	\[*B]	Beta
       H	\[*C]	Xi
       /\	\[*D]	Delta
       E	\[*E]	Epsilon
       O_	\[*F]	Phi
       |	\[*G]	Gamma
       O	\[*H]	Theta
       I	\[*I]	Iota
       K	\[*K]	Kappa
       /\	\[*L]	Lambda
       M	\[*M]	Mu
       N	\[*N]	Nu
       O	\[*O]	Omicron
       TT	\[*P]	Pi
       Y	\[*Q]	Psi
       _	\[*R]	Rho
       >	\[*S]	Sigma
       T	\[*T]	Tau
       Y	\[*U]	Upsilon
       O	\[*W]	Omega
       X	\[*X]	Chi
       H	\[*Y]	Eta
       Z	\[*Z]	Zeta
       a	\[*a]	alpha
       B	\[*b]	beta
       E	\[*c]	xi
       d	\[*d]	delta
       e	\[*e]	epsilon
       o	\[*f]	phi
       o	\[+f]	phi1		 variant phi
       y	\[*g]	gamma
       0	\[*h]	theta
       0	\[+h]	theta1		 variant theta
       i	\[*i]	iota
       k	\[*k]	kappa
       \	\[*l]	lambda
       u	\[*m]	mu
       v	\[*n]	nu
       o	\[*o]	omicron
       n	\[*p]	pi
       w	\[+p]	omega1		 variant pi, looking like omega
       u	\[*q]	psi
       p	\[*r]	rho
       o	\[*s]	sigma
       t	\[*t]	tau
       u	\[*u]	upsilon
       w	\[*w]	omega
       x	\[*x]	chi
       n	\[*y]	eta
       C	\[*z]	zeta
       s	\[ts]	sigma1		 terminal sigma

       Card symbols

       Copyright (C) 1989-2000, 2001, 2002 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

       This  document  is distributed under the terms of the FDL (GNU Free Documentation License)
       version 1.1 or later.  You should have received a copy of the FDL on your  system,  it  is
       also available on-line at the GNU copyleft site <http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html>.

       This  document is part of groff, the GNU roff distribution.  It was written by James Clark
       <jjc@jclark.com>  with  additions  by  Werner  Lemberg  <wl@gnu.org>  and   Bernd   Warken

	      the GNU roff formatter.

	      a short reference of the groff formatting language.

       An  extension to the troff character set for Europe, E.G. Keizer, K.J. Simonsen, J. Akker-
       huis; EUUG Newsletter, Volume 9, No. 2, Summer 1989

       The Unicode Standard <http://www.unicode.org>

Groff Version 1.18.1			   19 July 2002 			    GROFF_CHAR(7)
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