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GS(1)					   Ghostscript					    GS(1)

       gs - Ghostscript (PostScript and PDF language interpreter and previewer)

       gs [ options ] [ files ] ... (Unix, VMS)
       gswin32 [ options ] [ files ] ... (MS Windows)
       gswin32c [ options ] [ files ] ... (MS Windows)
       gs386 [ options ] [ files ] ... (DOS for PC)
       gsos2 [ options ] [ files ] ... (OS/2)

       The  gs	(gswin32,  gswin32c, gs386, gsos2) command invokes Ghostscript, an interpreter of
       Adobe Systems' PostScript(tm) and Portable Document  Format  (PDF)  languages.	gs  reads
       "files" in sequence and executes them as Ghostscript programs.  After doing this, it reads
       further input from the standard input stream (normally the  keyboard),  interpreting  each
       line  separately.   The interpreter quits gracefully when it encounters the "quit" command
       (either in a file or from the keyboard), at end-of-file, or at an interrupt  signal  (such
       as Control-C at the keyboard).

       The  interpreter recognizes several switches described below, which may appear anywhere in
       the command line and apply to all files thereafter.  Invoking Ghostscript with the  -h  or
       -? switch produces a message which shows several useful switches, all the devices known to
       that executable, and the search path for fonts; on Unix it  also  shows	the  location  of
       detailed documentation.

       Ghostscript  may be built able to use many different output devices.  To see which devices
       your executable can use, run "gs -h".  Unless you specify a particular device, Ghostscript
       normally opens the first one of those and directs output to it, so if the first one in the
       list is the one you want to use, just issue the command

	    gs myfile.ps

       You can also check the set of available devices from  within  Ghostscript:  invoke  Ghost-
       script and type

	    devicenames ==

       but  the  first	device	on the resulting list may not be the default device you determine
       with "gs -h".  To specify "AbcXyz" as the initial output device, include the switch


       For example, for output to an Epson printer you might use the command

	    gs -sDEVICE=epson myfile.ps

       The "-sDEVICE=" switch must precede the first mention of a file to  print,  and	only  the
       switch's first use has any effect.  Alternatively, in Ghostscript you can type

	    (epson) selectdevice
	    (myfile.ps) run

       All  output  then  goes to the printer until you select another device with the "selectde-
       vice" procedure in the PostScript program stream, for example

	    (vga) selectdevice
	    (x11) selectdevice

       Finally, you can specify a default device in  the  environment  variable  GS_DEVICE.   The
       order  of  precedence  for these alternatives from highest to lowest (Ghostscript uses the
       device defined highest in the list) is:

	    (command line)
	    (first device in build list)

       Some printers can print at different resolutions (densities).  To specify  the  resolution
       on such a printer, use the "-r" switch:

	    gs -sDEVICE=<device> -r<xres>x<yres>

       For  example,  on  a  9-pin Epson-compatible printer, you get the lowest-density (fastest)
       mode with

	    gs -sDEVICE=epson -r60x72

       and the highest-density (best output quality) mode with

	    gs -sDEVICE=epson -r240x72.

       If you select a printer as the output device, Ghostscript also allows you to choose  where
       Ghostscript sends the output -- on Unix systems, usually to a temporary file.  To send the
       output to a file "foo.xyz", use the switch


       You might want to print each page separately.  To do this, send the output to a series  of
       files  "foo1.xyz,  foo2.xyz, ..." using the "-sOutputFile=" switch with "%d" in a filename


       Each resulting file receives one page of output, and the files are numbered  in	sequence.
       "%d" is a printf format specification; you can also use a variant like "%02d".

       On  Unix  systems  you can also send output to a pipe.  For example, to pipe output to the
       "lpr" command (which, on many Unix systems, directs it to a printer), use the switch


       You can also send output to standard output for piping with the switch


       In this case you must also use the -q switch, to prevent Ghostscript from writing messages
       to standard output.

       To select a specific paper size, use the command line switch


       for instance


       At  this  time,	the  known paper sizes, defined in the initialization file "gs_statd.ps",

       PAPERSIZE    X inches   Y inches   X cm	    Y cm
       a0	    33.0556    46.7778	  83.9611   118.816
       a1	    23.3889    33.0556	  59.4078   83.9611

       a2	    16.5278    23.3889	  41.9806   59.4078
       a3	    11.6944    16.5278	  29.7039   41.9806
       a4	    8.26389    11.6944	  20.9903   29.7039
       a5	    5.84722    8.26389	  14.8519   20.9903
       a6	    4.125      5.84722	  10.4775   14.8519
       a7	    2.91667    4.125	  7.40833   10.4775
       a8	    2.05556    2.91667	  5.22111   7.40833
       a9	    1.45833    2.05556	  3.70417   5.22111
       a10	    1.02778    1.45833	  2.61056   3.70417
       b0	    39.3889    55.6667	  100.048   141.393
       b1	    27.8333    39.3889	  70.6967   100.048
       b2	    19.6944    27.8333	  50.0239   70.6967
       b3	    13.9167    19.6944	  35.3483   50.0239
       b4	    9.84722    13.9167	  25.0119   35.3483
       b5	    6.95833    9.84722	  17.6742   25.0119
       archA	    9	       12	  22.86     30.48
       archB	    12	       18	  30.48     45.72
       archC	    18	       24	  45.72     60.96
       archD	    24	       36	  60.96     91.44
       archE	    36	       48	  91.44     121.92
       flsa	    8.5        13	  21.59     33.02
       flse	    8.5        13	  21.59     33.02
       halfletter   5.5        8.5	  13.97     21.59
       note	    7.5        10	  19.05     25.4
       letter	    8.5        11	  21.59     27.94
       legal	    8.5        14	  21.59     35.56
       11x17	    11	       17	  27.94     43.18
       ledger	    17	       11	  43.18     27.94

       Note that the B paper sizes are ISO sizes: for information about using JIS  B  sizes,  see

       Ghostscript  can  do  many  things other than print or view PostScript and PDF files.  For
       example, if you want to know the bounding box of a PostScript (or EPS)  file,  Ghostscript
       provides a special "device" that just prints out this information:

		 gs -sDEVICE=bbox myfile.ps

       For example, using one of the example files distributed with Ghostscript,

		 gs -sDEVICE=bbox golfer.ps

       prints out

		 %%BoundingBox: 0 25 583 732
		 %%HiResBoundingBox: 0.808497 25.009496 582.994503 731.809445

       When  looking  for  the initialization files "gs_*.ps", the files related to fonts, or the
       file for the "run" operator, Ghostscript first tries to open the file  with  the  name  as
       given,  using  the current working directory if no directory is specified.  If this fails,
       and the file name doesn't specify an explicit directory or drive  (for  instance,  doesn't
       contain	"/" on Unix systems or "\" on DOS systems), Ghostscript tries directories in this

       1.  the directories specified by the -I switches in the command line (see below), if any;

       2.  the directories specified by the GS_LIB environment variable, if any;

       3.  the directories specified by the GS_LIB_DEFAULT macro in the Ghostscript makefile when
	   the	executable  was  built.   When	gs  is	built  on Unix, GS_LIB_DEFAULT is usually
	   "/usr/local/share/ghostscript/#.##:/usr/local/share/ghostscript/fonts"  where   "#.##"
	   represents the Ghostscript version number.

       Each  of these (GS_LIB_DEFAULT, GS_LIB, and -I parameter) may be either a single directory
       or a list of directories separated by ":".

       Ghostscript looks for the following resources under the program name "Ghostscript":

	      The border width in pixels (default = 1).

	      The name of the border color (default = black).

	      The window size and placement, WxH+X+Y (default is NULL).

	      The number of x pixels per inch (default is computed from WidthOfScreen and WidthM-

	      The  number  of  y  pixels  per  inch  (default is computed from HeightOfScreen and

	      Determines whether backing store is to be used for saving display window (default =

       See  the  usage document for a more complete list of resources.	To set these resources on
       Unix, put them in a file such as "~/.Xresources" in the following form:

		 Ghostscript*geometry:	612x792-0+0
		 Ghostscript*xResolution: 72
		 Ghostscript*yResolution: 72

       Then merge these resources into the X server's resource database:

		 % xrdb -merge ~/.Xresources

       -- filename arg1 ...
	      Takes the next argument as a file name as usual, but takes all remaining	arguments
	      (even if they have the syntactic form of switches) and defines the name "ARGUMENTS"
	      in "userdict" (not "systemdict") as an array of those strings, before  running  the
	      file.  When Ghostscript finishes executing the file, it exits back to the shell.

	      Define a name in "systemdict" with the given definition.	The token must be exactly
	      one token (as defined by the "token" operator) and may contain no whitespace.

       -dname Define a name in "systemdict" with value=null.

	      Define a name in "systemdict" with a given string as value.  This is different from
	      -d.  For example, -dname=35 is equivalent to the program fragment
			/name 35 def
	      whereas -sname=35 is equivalent to
			/name (35) def

       -q     Quiet  startup:  suppress  normal  startup  messages, and also do the equivalent of

	      Equivalent to -dDEVICEWIDTH=number1 and -dDEVICEHEIGHT=number2.  This  is  for  the
	      benefit  of  devices (such as X11 windows) that require (or allow) width and height
	      to be specified.

	      Equivalent to -dDEVICEXRESOLUTION=number1 and -dDEVICEYRESOLUTION=number2.  This is
	      for  the	benefit of devices such as printers that support multiple X and Y resolu-
	      tions.  If only one number is given, it is used for both X and Y resolutions.

	      Adds the designated list of directories at the head of the search path for  library

       -      This  is	not  really a switch, but indicates to Ghostscript that standard input is
	      coming from a file or a pipe and not interactively from the command  line.   Ghost-
	      script  reads  from  standard input until it reaches end-of-file, executing it like
	      any other file, and then continues with processing the command line.  When the com-
	      mand line has been entirely processed, Ghostscript exits rather than going into its
	      interactive mode.

       Note that the normal initialization file "gs_init.ps" makes "systemdict" read-only, so the
       values  of  names  defined  with -D, -d, -S, or -s cannot be changed (although, of course,
       they can be superseded by definitions in "userdict" or other dictionaries.)

	      Disables the "deletefile" and "renamefile" operators and the ability to open  files
	      in any mode other than read-only. This is desirable for spoolers or any other envi-
	      ronments where a malicious or badly written PostScript program  must  be	prevented
	      from changing important files.

	      Causes  Ghostscript  to  exit after processing all files named on the command line,
	      rather than prompting for further PostScript commands.

	      Disables the prompt and pause at the end of each page. This  may	be  desirable  in
	      converting  documents  or  for applications where another program is driving Ghost-

	      Selects an alternate initial output device, as described above.

	      Selects an alternate output file (or  pipe)  for	the  initial  output  device,  as
	      described above.

	      Suppresses the normal initialization of the output device.  This may be useful when

	      Disables character caching. Useful only for debugging.

	      Disables the "bind" operator. Useful only for debugging.

	      Disables the use of fonts supplied by the underlying platform (for instance X  Win-
	      dows). This may be needed if the platform fonts look undesirably different from the
	      scalable fonts.

	      Causes individual character outlines to be loaded from the disk the first time they
	      are  encountered.  (Normally  Ghostscript  loads all the character outlines when it
	      loads a font.) This may allow loading more fonts into RAM, at the expense of slower

	      Leaves  "systemdict"  writable. This is necessary when running special utility pro-
	      grams such as font2c and pcharstr, which must bypass normal PostScript access  pro-

       The  locations of many Ghostscript run-time files are compiled into the executable when it
       is built.  On Unix these are typically based in /usr/local, but this may be  different  on
       your  system.   Under  DOS  they are typically based in C:\GS, but may be elsewhere, espe-
       cially if you install Ghostscript with GSview.  Run "gs -h" to find the location of Ghost-
       script documentation on your system, from which you can get more details.

	      Startup files, utilities, and basic font definitions

	      More font definitions

	      Ghostscript demonstration files

	      Diverse document files

	      String of options to be processed before the command line options

	      Used to specify an output device

	      Path names used to search for fonts

       GS_LIB Path names for initialization files and fonts

       TEMP   Where temporary files are made

       The various Ghostscript document files (above), especially Use.htm.

       See the Usenet news group comp.lang.postscript.

       This document was last revised for Ghostscript version 7.05.

       L.  Peter  Deutsch <ghost@aladdin.com> is the principal author of Ghostscript.  Russell J.
       Lang <rjl@aladdin.com> is the author of most of the MS Windows code in Ghostscript.

7.05					  22 April 2002 				    GS(1)
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