Visit Our UNIX and Linux User Community

Linux and UNIX Man Pages

Test Your Knowledge in Computers #612
Difficulty: Medium
In Python, they are five numeric types - integers, long integers, floating point, infinite, and complex numbers.
True or False?
Linux & Unix Commands - Search Man Pages

malloc_history(1) [osx man page]

malloc_history(1)					    BSD General Commands Manual 					 malloc_history(1)

NAME
malloc_history -- Show the malloc allocations that the process has performed SYNOPSIS
malloc_history pid [-highWaterMark] address [address ...] malloc_history pid -allBySize [-highWaterMark] [address ...] malloc_history pid -allByCount [-highWaterMark] [address ...] malloc_history pid -allEvents [-highWaterMark] malloc_history pid -callTree [-highWaterMark] [-showContent] [-invert] [-ignoreThreads] [-collapseRecursion] [-chargeSystemLibraries] [address ...] DESCRIPTION
malloc_history inspects a given process and lists the malloc allocations performed by it. The target process may be specified by pid or by full or partial name. malloc_history relies on information provided by the standard malloc library when malloc stack logging has been enabled for the target process. See below for further information. If the -highWaterMark option is passed, malloc_history first scans through the all malloc stack log records to calculate the "high water mark" of allocated memory -- i.e., the highest amount of allocated memory used at any one time by the target process. It then shows informa- tion about the malloc allocations that were live at that time, rather than currently alive in the target program. By specifying one or more addresses, malloc_history lists all allocations and deallocations of any malloc blocks that started at those addresses, or (starting in Mac OS X 10.6) of any malloc blocks that contained those addresses. For each allocation, a stack trace describing who called malloc or free is listed. If you do only wish to see events for malloc blocks that started at the specified address, you can grep the output for that address. If -highWaterMark is passed, it only shows allocations and deallocations up to the high water mark. Alternatively, the -allBySize and -allByCount options list all allocations that are currently live in the target process, or were live at the high water mark. Frequent allocations from the same point in the program (that is, the same call stack) are grouped together, and output presented either from largest allocations to smallest, or most allocations to least. If you also specify one or more addresses, this output is filtered to only show information for malloc blocks containing those addresses. The -allEvent option lists all allocation and free events, for all addresses, up to the current time or to the high water mark. This output can be voluminous. The -callTree option generates a call tree of the backtraces of malloc calls for live allocations in the target process, or for allocations that were live at the high water mark. The call tree format is similar to the output from sample(1). The resulting call tree can be fil- tered or pruned with the filtercalltree(1) tool for further analysis. Additional options for the -callTree mode include: -showContent Show the content of malloc blocks of various types, including C strings, Pascal strings (with a length byte at the start), and various objects including NSString, NSDate, and NSNumber. -invert Invert the call tree, so that malloc (and the allocated content, if the -showContent option was given) show at the top of the call trees. -ignoreThreads Combine the call trees for all threads into a single call tree. -collapseRecursion Collapse recursion within the call trees. -chargeSystemLibraries Remove stack frames from all libraries in /System and /usr, while still charging their cost (number of calls, allocation size, and content) to the callers. All modes require the standard malloc library's debugging facility to be turned on. To do this, set either the MallocStackLogging or Malloc- StackLoggingNoCompact environment variable to 1 in the shell that will run the program. If MallocStackLogging is used, then when recording events, if an allocation event for an address is immediately followed by a free event for the same address, both events are removed from the event log. If MallocStackLoggingNoCompact is used, then all such immediate allocation/free pairs are kept in the event log, which can be useful when examining all events for a specific address, or when using the -allEvents option. If both MallocStackLogging and MallocStackLoggingNoCompact are set, then MallocStackLogging takes precedence and MallocStackLoggingNoCompact is ignored. malloc_history is particularly useful for tracking down memory smashers. Run the program to be inspected with MallocStackLogging or Malloc- StackLoggingNoCompact defined. Also set the environment variable MallocScribble; this causes the malloc library to overwrite freed memory with a well-known value (0x55), and occasionally checks freed malloc blocks to make sure the memory has not been overwritten since it was cleared. When malloc detects the memory has been written, it will print out a warning that the buffer was modified after being freed. You can then use malloc_history to find who allocated and freed memory at that address, and thus deduce what parts of the code might still have a pointer to the freed structure. SEE ALSO
malloc(3), heap(1), leaks(1), stringdups(1), vmmap(1), filtercalltree(1), DevToolsSecurity(1) The Xcode developer tools also include Instruments, a graphical application that can give information similar to that provided by malloc_history. The Allocations instrument graphically displays dynamic, real-time information about the object and memory use in an applica- tion, including backtraces of where the allocations occured. BSD
Mar. 16, 2013 BSD

Featured Tech Videos