acct(8) System Manager's Manual acct(8)
acct, chargefee, ckpacct, dodisk, lastlogin, monacct, nulladm, prctmp, prdaily, prtacct, remove, shutacct, startup, turnacct - Provide
accounting commands for shell scripts
chargefee User Number
dodisk [-o] [File ....]
nulladm [File ....]
prctmp File ....
prdaily [[-l] [mmdd]] | [-c]
prtacct [-f Specification] [-v] File ['Heading']
turnacct on | off | switch
There are a number of commands in the /usr/sbin/acct directory that, along with other accounting commands, enable you to produce a wide
range of system accounting records and files. For example, the runacct script invokes some accounting commands and enables you to produce
daily accounting records and files. Some of the commands in the acct directory are invoked when active accounting files become too large,
and other commands can be used by a system administrator to perform periodic accounting operations.
Daily and monthly accounting reports can be produced by specifying commands in the /usr/var/spool/cron/crontabs directory, which are pro-
cessed by the cron daemon. These accounting reports consist of a collection of records that are produced at the end of any process and on
a daily and monthly periodic basis.
You can specify a prime-time period for any 24-hour weekday. Prime-time hours are those contiguous hours of a weekday for which premium
fees might be charged for resource use. Nonprime-time hours are those contiguous hours that are not defined as prime time. Nonprime time
also includes weekends and any holidays listed in the file /usr/sbin/acct/holidays.
When you set up accounting, you can include entries in the /usr/spool/cron/crontabs/adm file to run the following accounting commands: The
ckpacct command checks the size of the /var/adm/pacct process accounting files. The runacct command includes other accounting shell
scripts and commands and creates daily and monthly accounting files. The monacct command produces monthly summary accounting files in the
/var/adm/acct/fiscal accounting subdirectory from the daily accounting files.
In addition, you can include the dodisk command in the /usr/spool/cron/crontabs/root file. The dodisk command creates disk usage account-
The accounting commands are as follows: The chargefee command is used by the system administrator to charge the number of units specified
by the Number parameter to the login name specified by the User parameter. The Number value may be an integer or a decimal value. The
chargefee command writes a record to the /var/adm/fee file. This information is then merged with other accounting records with the acctmerg
command to create a daily /var/adm/fee report.
The chargefee command uses the printpw command to get the list of all users stored in the password database. The ckpacct command is
used to check the size of the active process accounting file, /var/adm/pacct. Normally, the cron daemon processes this command from
the crontabs file. When the size of the active data files exceeds the number of blocks specified by the BlockSize parameter, the
ckpacct command is used to invoke the turnacct switch command to turn off process accounting. The default value for the BlockSize
parameter is 500.
When the number of free disk blocks in the var file system falls below 500, the ckpacct command is used to inhibit process account-
ing by invoking the turnacct off command. When at least 500 free disk blocks are again available, account processing is reacti-
vated. This feature is sensitive to how frequently ckpacct is run.
When the environment variable MAILCOM is set to mail root adm, a mail message is sent to the super-user (root) and to adm in case of
an error. The dodisk command initiates disk-usage accounting by calling the diskusg command and the acctdisk command.
When you specify the -o flag with the dodisk command, a more thorough but slower version of disk accounting by login directory is
initiated with the acctdusg command. Normally, the cron daemon runs the dodisk command. The following flag may be used with the
dodisk command: Calls the acctdusg command instead of the diskusg command to initiate disk accounting by login directory.
By default, the dodisk command does disk accounting on special files recorded in the /etc/fstab file. But when you specify file
names with the File parameter, disk accounting is done on only those files.
When you do not specify the -o flag, the File parameter should specify special file names of mountable file systems. When you spec-
ify both -o and one or more File(s), File(s) should specify mount points of mounted file systems. The lastlogin command updates
the /var/adm/acct/sum/loginlog file to show the last date each user logged in. Normally, the runacct procedure, running under the
cron daemon, calls this command and adds the information to the daily report; however, the lastlogin command can also be entered by
the system administrator. The lastlogin command uses the printpw command to get a list of all users whose name and user ID are
stored in the password database file. The monacct command collects daily or other periodic accounting records into summary files in
the /var/adm/acct/fiscal subdirectory. After monthly summary files are produced, monacct removes the old accounting files from the
/var/adm/acct/sum subdirectory and replaces them with the newly created summary files. The cron daemon should run this command once
each month on the first day of the following month or some other specified day after all the dailies have been produced. (The
monacct example shows how to enter this command for the cron daemon.)
The Number parameter is a numerical value in the range 1 < n < 12 (where n is the month) that indicates the month for which daily
files are processed. The default value used for the Number parameter is the current month. The monacct command stores the newly cre-
ated summary files in the /var/adm/acct/fiscal subdirectory and restarts new summary files in /var/adm/acct/sum, the cumulative sum-
maries to which daily record summaries are appended. The nulladm command creates the file specified in the File parameter, gives
read (r) and write (w) permissions to the file owner and group, read (r) permission to other users, and ensures that the file owner
and group is adm. Various accounting shell procedures invoke the nulladm command. The system administrator uses this command to
set up active data files, such as the /var/adm/wtmp file. The system administrator may use the prctmp command to output the session
record file specified by File and created by the acctcon1 command (this is normally the /var/adm/acct/nite/ctmp file). The prdaily
command is invoked from the runacct shell procedure to format an ASCII file of the accounting data of the previous day. The records
making up this file are located in the /var/adm/acct/sum/rprtmmdd files, where mmdd is the month and day for which the file is pro-
duced. Use the mmdd parameter to specify a date other than the current day. The following flags may be used with the prdaily com-
mand: Reports exceptional resource usage by command. May be used only on accounting records for the current day. Reports excep-
tional usage by login ID for the specified date. The prtacct command formats and displays any total accounting file specified by
the File parameter; records for these files are defined by a type tacct structure in the tacct.h include file. You can enter the
prtacct command to output any tacct file to the default output device. For example, you may output a daily report keyed to connect
time, to process time, to disk usage, and to printer usage. To specify a title for the report, specify a name for the Heading param-
eter with enclosed single or double quotes. The following flags may be used with the prtacct command: Selects type tacct structure
members to be output, using the structure-member selection mechanism specified for the acctmerg command. Produces verbose output in
which more precise notation is used for floating-point numbers. Specifies a heading for report members.
The type tacct structure defines a total accounting record format, parts of which are used by various accounting commands. Members
of the type tacct structure whose data types are specified as an array of two double elements have both prime-time and nonprime-time
values. The type tacct structure has the following members. User ID. A field for the login name with the same number of characters
NSZ as the ut_user member of the utmp structure. Cumulative CPU time in minutes. Cumulative K-core time in minutes. Cumulative
number of characters transferred in blocks of 512 bytes. Cumulative number of blocks read and written. Cumulative connect time in
minutes. Cumulative disk-usage time in minutes. Queuing system (printer) fee in number of pages. Special services fee expressed
in units. A count of the number of processes. A count of the number of login sessions. A count of the number of disk samples.
The remove command deletes all /var/adm/acct/sum/wtmp*, /var/adm/acct/sum/pacct*, and /var/adm/acct/nite/lock* files as part of the
daily cleanup procedure called by the runacct command. The shutacct command turns process accounting off and adds a 'Reason' record
to the /var/adm/wtmp file. This command is usually invoked during a system shutdown. The startup command turns on the accounting
functions and adds a reason record to the /var/adm/wtmp file. Usually the startup command is invoked by the /sbin/init.d/acct
script when the system is started up. The turnacct command provides an interface to the accton command to turn process accounting
on or off, or to create a new /var/adm/pacctn process accounting file. This command can be executed only by a superuser or by the
adm login name. Only one of the arguments on, off, or switch may be used: Turns process accounting on. Turns process accounting
off. The switch flag is used to create a new /var/adm/pacctn file when the current /var/adm/pacctn file is too large. The suffix n
(where n is a positive integer) indicates the previous active /var/adm/pacctn file. After the currently active /var/adm/pacctn file
is renamed, a new active /var/adm/pacct file is created and process accounting is restarted.
This command is usually called by the ckpacct command, running under the cron daemon, to keep the active pacct data file down to a
You should not share accounting files among nodes in a distributed environment. Each node should have its own copy of the various account-
When you are also using the sa command, sa does not know whether information is stored in the incremental /var/adm/pacctn file or in any
other /var/adm/pacctn summary file by the acct/* commands (see the turnacct command).
To charge smith for 10 units of work on a financial report, enter:
/usr/sbin/acct/chargefee smith 10
A record is created in the /var/adm/fee file, which the acctmerg command is subsequently instructed to merge with records in other
accounting files to produce the daily report. To check the size of a /var/adm/pacctn summary accounting file, add the following
instruction to the /usr/spool/cron/crontabs/adm file:
5 * * * * /usr/sbin/acct/ckpacct
This example shows another instruction that the cron daemon reads and acts upon when it is included in the
/usr/spool/cron/crontabs/adm shell script file. The ckpacct command is set to run at 5 minutes past every hour (5 *) every day. This
command is only one of many accounting instructions normally passed to the cron daemon from the /usr/spool/cron/crontabs/adm shell
script file. See the System Administration manual for details. To initiate disk-usage accounting, add the following to the
0 2 * * 4 /usr/sbin/acct/dodisk
This example illustrates a shell script instruction that the cron daemon reads and then processes. The dodisk command runs at 2 a.m.
(0 2) each Thursday (4). This command is one of many accounting instructions normally passed to the cron daemon from a
/usr/spool/cron/crontabs/adm shell script file. See the System Administration manual for details. To produce a monthly accounting
report, at the beginning of each month, add the following instruction to the /usr/spool/cron/crontabs/adm file:
15 5 1 * * /usr/sbin/acct/monacct
This example is an instruction that the cron daemon reads and then processes. The monacct command runs at 5:15 (15 5) the first day
of each month (1). This command is only one of many accounting instructions normally passed to the cron daemon from the
/usr/spool/cron/crontabs/adm shell script file. See the System Administration manual for details. To turn on the accounting func-
tions when the system is started up, add the following to the /etc/rc.config file:
To set the variable, use the following rcmgr command:
rcmgr set ACCOUNTING YES
The startup shell procedure records the time and cleans up the records produced the previous day.
Specifies the command path. Header files defining structures used to organize accounting information. Accumulates the fees charged to
each login name. Current database file for process accounting information. Another process accounting database file, which is produced
when the /var/adm/pacct file gets too large. Login/logout database file. Shell procedure that calculates limits for exceptional usage by
the login ID. Shell procedure that calculates limits of exceptional usage by command name. Working directory that contains daily account-
ing database files. Contains information about file systems. Working subdirectory that contains accounting summary database files.
Commands: acctcms(8), acctcom(8), acctcon(8), acctmerg(8), acctprc(8), cron(8), fwtmp(8), printpw(8), runacct(8), rcmgr(8), wtmpconvert(8).
System Administration delim off