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Test Your Knowledge in Computers #825
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The term API seems to appear for the first time in the article of Ira W. Cotton, Data structures and techniques for remote computer graphics, published in 1968.
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pnm(5) [opensolaris man page]

pnm(5)                                                          File Formats Manual                                                         pnm(5)

NAME
pnm - portable anymap file format DESCRIPTION
The pnm programs operate on portable bitmaps, graymaps, and pixmaps, produced by the pbm, pgm, and ppm segments. There is no file format associated with pnm itself. SEE ALSO
anytopnm(1), rasttopnm(1), tifftopnm(1), xwdtopnm(1), pnmtops(1), pnmtorast(1), pnmtotiff(1), pnmtoxwd(1), pnmarith(1), pnmcat(1), pnmcon- vol(1), pnmcrop(1), pnmcut(1), pnmdepth(1), pnmenlarge(1), pnmfile(1), pnmflip(1), pnmgamma(1), pnmindex(1), pnminvert(1), pnmmargin(1), pnmnoraw(1), pnmpaste(1), pnmrotate(1), pnmscale(1), pnmshear(1), pnmsmooth(1), pnmtile(1), ppm(5), pgm(5), pbm(5) AUTHOR
Copyright (C) 1989, 1991 by Jef Poskanzer. 27 September 1991 pnm(5)

Check Out this Related Man Page

pbmmask(1)                                                    General Commands Manual                                                   pbmmask(1)

NAME
pbmmask - create a mask bitmap from a regular bitmap SYNOPSIS
pbmmask [-expand] [pbmfile] DESCRIPTION
Reads a portable bitmap as input. Creates a corresponding mask bitmap and writes it out. The color to be interpreted as "background" is determined automatically. Regardless of which color is background, the mask will be white where the background is and black where the figure is. This lets you do a masked paste like this, for objects with a black background: pbmmask obj > objmask pnmpaste < dest -and objmask <x> <y> | pnmpaste -or obj <x> <y> For objects with a white background, you can either invert them or add a step: pbmmask obj > objmask pnminvert objmask | pnmpaste -and obj 0 0 > blackback pnmpaste < dest -and objmask <x> <y> | pnmpaste -or blackback <x> <y> Note that this three-step version works for objects with black backgrounds too, if you don't care about the wasted time. You can also use masks with graymaps and pixmaps, using the pnmarith tool. For instance: ppmtopgm obj.ppm | pgmtopbm -threshold | pbmmask > objmask.pbm pnmarith -multiply dest.ppm objmask.pbm > t1.ppm pnminvert objmask.pbm | pnmarith -multiply obj.ppm - > t2.ppm pnmarith -add t1.ppm t2.ppm An interesting variation on this is to pipe the mask through the pnmsmooth script before using it. This makes the boundary between the two images less sharp. OPTIONS
-expand Expands the mask by one pixel out from the image. This is useful if you want a little white border around your image. (A better solution might be to turn the pbmlife tool into a general cellular automaton tool...) SEE ALSO
ppmcolormask(1), pnmpaste(1), pnminvert(1), pbm(5), pnmarith(1), pnmsmooth(1) AUTHOR
Copyright (C) 1988 by Jef Poskanzer. 08 August 1989 pbmmask(1)

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