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OpenSolaris 2009.06 - man page for gateways (opensolaris section 4)

gateways(4)				   File Formats 			      gateways(4)

       gateways - configuration file for /usr/sbin/in.routed IPv4 network routing daemon


       The  /etc/gateways  file  is  used  by  the routing daemon, in.routed(1M). When the daemon
       starts, it reads /etc/gateways to find such distant gateways that cannot be located  using
       only information from a routing socket, to discover if some of the local gateways are pas-
       sive, and to obtain other parameters.

       The /etc/gateways file consists of a series of lines, each in one of the two formats shown
       below or consisting of parameters described later. Blank lines and lines starting with "#"
       are treated as comments.

       One format specifies networks:

	 net Nname[/mask] gateway Gname metric value <passive | active | extern>

       The other format specifies hosts:

	 host Hname gateway Gname metric value <passive | active | extern>

       Host hname is equivalent to net nname/32.

       The parameters in the lines shown above are described as follows:

       Nname or Hname		    Name of the destination network or host. It can be a symbolic
				    network  name or an Internet address specified in "dot" nota-
				    tion (see inet(3SOCKET)). If it  is  a  name,  then  it  must
				    either be defined in /etc/networks or /etc/hosts, or a naming
				    service must have been started before in.routed(1M).

       Mask			    An optional number between 1 and 32  indicating  the  netmask
				    associated with Nname.

       Gname			    Name  or address of the gateway to which RIP responses should
				    be forwarded.

       Value			    The hop count to the destination host or network.

       passive | active | extern    One of these keywords must be present to indicate whether the
				    gateway  should  be  treated as passive or active, or whether
				    the gateway is external to the scope of the RIP  protocol.	A
				    passive  gateway is not expected to exchange routing informa-
				    tion, while gateways  marked  active  should  be  willing  to
				    exchange RIP packets. See in.routed(1M) for further details.

       After  turning  on  debugging in in.routed with the -t option, you can see that lines that
       follow the format described above create pseudo-interfaces. To set parameters  for  remote
       or external interfaces, use a line starting with if=alias(Hname), if=remote(Hname), and so

       For backward compatibility with the previous Solaris in.routed implementation, three  spe-
       cial  keyword  formats  are  accepted.  If present, these forms must each be on a separate
       line, and must not be combined on the same line with any of the keywords listed	elsewhere
       in this document. These three forms are:

       norip ifname	  Disable all RIP processing on the specified interface.

       noripin ifname	  Disable  the	processing  of	received  RIP  responses on the specified

       noripout ifname	  Disable RIP output on the specified interface.

       Lines that start with neither "net" nor "host" must consist of one or more of the  follow-
       ing parameter settings, separated by commas or blanks:


	   Indicates  that  the  other	parameters  on	the line apply only to the interface name
	   ifname. If this parameter is not specified, then other parameters on the line apply to
	   all interfaces.


	   Advertises  a  route  to network nname with mask mask and the supplied metric (default
	   1). This is useful for filling "holes" in CIDR allocations. This parameter must appear
	   by  itself  on  a  line.  The  network number must specify a full, 32-bit value, as in instead of 192.0.2.


	   Specifies that the netmask of the network of which nname/mask1 is a subnet  should  be
	   mask2.  For	example,  ripv1_mask=,27  marks as a subnet of instead of It is better to turn on RIPv2 instead	of  using
	   this facility. See the description of ripv2_out, below.


	   Specifies  a  RIPv2	cleartext  password  that will be included on all RIPv2 responses
	   sent, and checked on all RIPv2 responses received. Any blanks, tab characters, commas,
	   or  "#", "|", or NULL characters in the password must be escaped with a backslash (\).
	   The common escape sequences \n, \r, \t, \b, and \xxx have their  usual  meanings.  The
	   KeyID  must	be  unique  but is ignored for cleartext passwords. If present, start and
	   stop are timestamps in the form  year/month/day@hour:minute.  They  specify	when  the
	   password  is valid. The valid password with the longest future is used on output pack-
	   ets, unless all passwords have expired, in which case the password that  expired  most
	   recently is used. If no passwords are valid yet, no password is output. Incoming pack-
	   ets can carry any password that is valid, will be valid within 24 hours, or	that  was
	   valid within 24 hours. To protect password secrecy, the passwd settings are valid only
	   in the /etc/gateways file and only when that file is readable only by UID 0.


	   Specifies a RIPv2 MD5 password. Except that a KeyID is required, this keyword is simi-
	   lar to passwd (described above).


	   Turns off aggregation of subnets in RIPv1 and RIPv2 responses.


	   Turns off acceptance of host routes.


	   Turns off aggregation of networks into supernets in RIPv2 responses.


	   Marks  the  interface  not to be advertised in updates sent over other interfaces, and
	   turns off all RIP and router discovery through the interface.


	   Disables all RIP processing on the specified interface. If no interfaces  are  allowed
	   to process RIP packets, in.routed acts purely as a router discovery daemon.

	   Note  that  turning	off RIP without explicitly turning on router discovery advertise-
	   ments with rdisc_adv or -s causes in.routed to act as a client router  discovery  dae-
	   mon, which does not advertise.


	   Causes RIPv2 packets to be broadcast instead of multicast.


	   Causes RIPv1 received responses to be ignored.


	   Causes RIPv2 received responses to be ignored.


	   Turns on RIPv2 output and causes RIPv2 advertisements to be multicast when possible.


	   Equivalent to no_ripv1_in and ripv2_out. This enables RIPv2 and disables RIPv1.


	   Disables the Internet Router Discovery Protocol.


	   Disables the transmission of Router Discovery Solicitations.


	   Specifies  that  Router Discovery solicitations should be sent, even on point-to-point
	   links, which, by default, only listen to Router Discovery messages.


	   Disables the transmission of Router Discovery Advertisements.


	   Specifies that Router Discovery Advertisements should be sent, even on  point-to-point
	   links, which by default only listen to Router Discovery messages.


	   Specifies that Router Discovery packets should be broadcast instead of multicast.


	   Sets  the preference in Router Discovery Advertisements to the optionally signed inte-
	   ger N. The default preference is 0. Default routes with higher or less negative  pref-
	   erences are preferred by clients.


	   Sets  the  nominal interval with which Router Discovery Advertisements are transmitted
	   to N seconds and their lifetime to 3*N.


	   Has an identical effect to -F net[/mask][=metric] with the network number and  netmask
	   coming from the specified interface.


	   Similar  to	fake_default. To prevent RIPv1 listeners from receiving RIPv2 routes when
	   those routes are multicast, this feature causes a RIPv1 default route to be	broadcast
	   to  RIPv1 listeners. Unless modified with fake_default, the default route is broadcast
	   with a metric of 14. That serves as a "poor man's router discovery" protocol.


	   Causes RIP packets from that router and other routers  named  in  other  trust_gateway
	   keywords to be accepted, and packets from other routers to be ignored. If networks are
	   specified, then routes to other networks will be ignored from that router.


	   Causes RIP to allow ICMP Redirect messages when the system is acting as a  router  and
	   forwarding packets. Otherwise, ICMP Redirect messages are overridden.


	   By  default,  RIPv1	advertisements	over  point-to-point links are sent to the peer's
	   address (, if none is available), and RIPv2 advertisements are sent  to
	   either  the	RIP  multicast address or the peer's address if no_rip_mcast is set. This
	   option overrides those defaults and configures a specific address to use on the  indi-
	   cated  interface. This can be used to set a "broadcast" type advertisement on a point-
	   to-point link.

       in.routed(1M), route(1M), rtquery(1M), inet(3SOCKET),

       Internet Transport Protocols, XSIS 028112, Xerox System Integration Standard

SunOS 5.11				    1 Mar 2005				      gateways(4)

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