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OpenSolaris 2009.06 - man page for top (opensolaris section 1)

TOP(1)				     General Commands Manual				   TOP(1)

       top - display and update information about the top cpu processes

       top [ -CISTabcinqtuv ] [ -dcount ] [ -mmode ] [ -ofield ] [ -stime ] [ -Uusername ] [ num-
       ber ]

       Top displays the top 30 processes on the system and periodically updates this information.
       Raw cpu percentage is used to rank the processes.  If number is given, then the top number
       processes will be displayed instead of the default.

       Top makes a distinction between terminals that support  advanced  capabilities  and  those
       that do not.  This distinction affects the choice of defaults for certain options.  In the
       remainder of this document, an "intelligent" terminal is one that supports cursor address-
       ing,  clear  screen,  and clear to end of line.	Conversely, a "dumb" terminal is one that
       does not support such features.	If the output of top is redirected to a file, it acts  as
       if it were being run on a dumb terminal.

       -C, --color
	      Turn off the use of color in the display.

       -I, --idle-procs
	      Do  not display idle processes.  By default, top displays both active and idle pro-

       -S, --system-procs
	      Show system processes in the display.  Normally, system processes such as the pager
	      and the swapper are not shown.  This option makes them visible.

       -T, --tag-names
	      List  all  available  color  tags and the current set of tests used for color high-
	      lighting, then exit.

       -a, --all
	      Show all processes for as long as possible.  This is shorthand for  "-d  all  all".
	      This option is especially handy in batch mode.

       -b, -n, --batch
	      Use "batch" mode.  In this mode, all input from the terminal is ignored.	Interrupt
	      characters (such as ^C and ^\) still have an effect.  This is the default on a dumb
	      terminal, or when the output is not a terminal.

       -c, --full-commands
	      Show  the  full  command line for each process. Default is to show just the command
	      name.  This option is not supported on all platforms.

       -i, --interactive
	      Use "interactive" mode.  In this mode, any input is immediately read  for  process-
	      ing.   See  the section on "Interactive Mode" for an explanation of which keys per-
	      form what functions.  After the command is processed, the screen	will  immediately
	      be  updated, even if the command was not understood.  This mode is the default when
	      standard output is an intelligent terminal.

       -q, --quick
	      Renice top to -20 so that it will run faster.  This can be used when the system  is
	      being  very  sluggish  to improve the possibility of discovering the problem.  This
	      option can only be used by root.

       -t, --threads
	      Show individual threads on separate lines.  By default, on  systems  which  support
	      threading, each process is shown with a count of the number of threads. This option
	      shows each thread on a separate line.  This option is not supported  on  all  plat-

       -u, --uids
	      Do  not  take the time to map uid numbers to usernames.  Normally, top will read as
	      much of the file "/etc/passwd" as is necessary to map all the user  id  numbers  it
	      encounters  into	login  names.	This  option  disables	all  that, while possibly
	      decreasing execution time.  The uid numbers are displayed instead of the names.

       -v, --version
	      Write version number information to stderr then exit immediately.   No  other  pro-
	      cessing  takes place when this option is used.  To see current revision information
	      while top is running, use the help command "?".

       -d count, --displays count
	      Show only count displays, then exit.  A display is considered to be one  update  of
	      the  screen.  This option allows the user to select the number of displays he wants
	      to see before top automatically exits.  Any proper prefix of the words  "infinity",
	      "maximum",  or  "all"  can be used to indicate an infinite number of displays.  The
	      default for intelligent terminals is infinity.  The default for dumb  terminals  is

       -m mode, --mode=mode
	      Start  the  display  in an alternate mode.  Some platforms support multiple process
	      displays to show additional process information.	The value mode is a number  indi-
	      cating  which  mode  to  display.  The default is 0.  On platforms that do not have
	      multiple display modes this option has no effect.

       -o field, --sort-order=field
	      Sort the process display area on the specified field.  The field name is	the  name
	      of  the  column as seen in the output, but in lower case.  Likely values are "cpu",
	      "size", "res", and "time", but may vary on different operating systems.  Note  that
	      not all operating systems support this option.

       -s time, --delay=time
	      Set  the	delay  between screen updates to time seconds.	The default delay between
	      updates is 5 seconds.

       -U username, --user=username
	      Show only those processes owned by username.  This option  currently  only  accepts
	      usernames and will not understand uid numbers.

       Both  count  and  number  fields  can be specified as "infinite", indicating that they can
       stretch as far as possible.  This is accomplished by using any proper prefix of	the  key-
       words  "infinity",  "maximum", or "all".  The default for count on an intelligent terminal
       is, in fact, infinity.

       The environment variable TOP is examined for options before the command line  is  scanned.
       This  enables  a  user to set his or her own defaults.  The number of processes to display
       can also be specified in the environment variable TOP.  The options -C, -I, -S, and -u are
       actually  toggles.   A second specification of any of these options will negate the first.
       Thus a user who has the environment variable TOP set to "-I" may use the command "top  -I"
       to see idle processes.

       When  top  is  running in "interactive mode", it reads commands from the terminal and acts
       upon them accordingly.  In this mode, the terminal is put in "CBREAK", so that a character
       will  be  processed as soon as it is typed.  Almost always, a key will be pressed when top
       is between displays; that is, while it is waiting for time seconds to elapse.  If this  is
       the case, the command will be processed and the display will be updated immediately there-
       after (reflecting any changes that the command may have specified).  This happens even  if
       the command was incorrect.  If a key is pressed while top is in the middle of updating the
       display, it will finish the update and then process the command.   Some	commands  require
       additional  information,  and  the  user  will be prompted accordingly.	While typing this
       information in, the user's erase and kill keys (as set up by the command stty) are  recog-
       nized,  and a newline terminates the input.  Note that a control-L (^L) always redraws the
       current screen and a space forces an immediate update to the screen using new data.

       These commands are currently recognized:

       h or ? Display a summary of the commands (help screen).	Version information  is  included
	      in this display.

       C      Toggle the use of color in the display.

       c      Display  only processes whose commands match the specified string.  An empty string
	      will display all processes.  This command is not supported on all platforms.

       d      Change the number of displays to show (prompt for new number).  Remember	that  the
	      next  display  counts as one, so typing d1 will make top show one final display and
	      then immediately exit.

       f      Toggle the display of the full command line.

       H      Toggle the display of threads on separate lines.	By default, on systems which sup-
	      port  threading,	each process is shown with a count of the number of threads. This
	      command shows each thread on a separate line.  This command is not supported on all

       i      (or I) Toggle the display of idle processes.

       k      Send  a  signal ("kill" by default) to a list of processes.  This acts similarly to
	      the command kill(1)).

       M      Sort display by memory usage.  Shorthand for "o size".

       m      Change to a different process display mode.  Some systems provide multiple  display
	      modes for the process display which shows different information.	This command tog-
	      gles between the available modes.  This command is not supported on all platforms.

       N      Sort by process id.  Shorthand for "o pid".

       n or # Change the number of processes to display (prompt for new number).

       o      Change the order in which the display is sorted.	This command is not available  on
	      all  systems.   The  sort key names vary fron system to system but usually include:
	      "cpu", "res", "size", "time".  The default is cpu.

       P      Sort by CPU usage.  Shorthand for "o cpu".

       q      Quit top.

       r      Change the priority (the "nice") of a list of processes.	This  acts  similarly  to
	      the command renice(8)).

       s      Change the number of seconds to delay between displays (prompt for new number).

       T      Sort by CPU time.  Shorthand for "o time".

       U      Toggle between displaying usernames and uids.

       u      Display  only processes owned by a specific username (prompt for username).  If the
	      username specified is simply "+", then processes belonging to  all  users  will  be

       The  actual  display  varies depending on the specific variant of Unix that the machine is
       running.  This description may not exactly match what is seen by top running on this  par-
       ticular machine.  Differences are listed at the end of this manual entry.

       The  top lines of the display show general information about the state of the system.  The
       first line shows (on some systems) the last process id assigned to a  process,  the  three
       load  averages,	the  system  uptime,  and the current time.  The second line displays the
       total number of processes followed by a breakdown of processes  per  state.   Examples  of
       states  common  to Unix systems are sleeping, running, starting, stopped, and zombie.  The
       next line displays a percentage of time spent in each of the processor  states  (typically
       user, nice, system, idle, and iowait).  These percentages show the processor activity dur-
       ing the time since the last update.  For multi-processor systems, this  information  is	a
       summation of time across all processors.  The next line shows kernel-related activity (not
       available on all systems).  The numbers shown on this line are  per-second  rates  sampled
       since  the  last update.  The exact information displayed varies between systems, but some
       examples are: context switches, interrupts, traps, forks, and page faults.  The	last  one
       or  two	lines  show a summary of memory and swap activity.  These lines vary between sys-

       The remainder of the screen displays information about individual processes.  This display
       is  similar  in	spirit to ps(1) but it is not exactly the same.  The columns displayed by
       top will differ slightly between operating systems.  Generally, the following  fields  are

       PID    The process id.

	      Username	of  the process's owner (if -u is specified, a UID column will be substi-
	      tuted for USERNAME).

       THR    The number of threads in the processes (this column may also be labeled NLWP).

       PRI    Current priority of the process.

       NICE   Nice amount in the range -20 to 20, as established by the use of the command nice.

       SIZE   Total size of the process (text, data, and stack) given in kilobytes.

       RES    Resident memory: current amount of process memory that resides in physical  memory,
	      given in kilobytes.

       STATE  Current state (typically one of "sleep", "run", "idl", "zomb", or "stop").

       TIME   Number of system and user cpu seconds that the process has used.

       CPU    Percentage of available cpu time used by this process.

	      Name of the command that the process is currently running.

       Top  supports  the use of ANSI color in its output. By default, color is available but not
       used.  The environment variable TOPCOLORS specifies colors to use and conditions for which
       they  should be used.  At the present time, only numbers in the summay display area can be
       colored. In a future version it will be possible to highlight numbers in the process  dis-
       play area as well.  The environment variable is the only way to specify color: there is no
       equivalent command line option.	Note that the environment  variable  TOPCOLOURS  is  also
       understood.  The British spelling takes precedence.  The use of color only works on termi-
       nals that understand and process ANSI color escape sequences.

       The environment variable is a sequence of color specifications, separated by colons.  Each
       specification takes the form tag=min,max#code where tag is the name of the value to check,
       min and max specify a range for the value, and code is an ANSI color code.  Multiple color
       codes can be listed and separated with semi-colons.  A missing min implies the lowest pos-
       sible value (usually 0) and a missing max implies  infinity.  The  comma  must  always  be
       present. When specifying numbers for load averages, they should be multiplied by 100.  For
       example, the specification 1min=500,1000#31 indicates that a 1 minute load average between
       5  and  10 should be displayed in red. Color attributes can be combined.  For example, the
       specification 5min=1000,#37;41 indicates that a 5  minute  load	average  higher  than  10
       should  be displayed with white characters on a red background. A special tag named header
       is used to control the color of the header for process display.	It  should  be	specified
       with no lower and upper limits, specifically header=,# followed by the ANSI color code.

       You  can  see  a  list  of  color codes recognized by this installation of top with the -T
       option.	This will also show the current set of tests used for color highligting, as spec-
       ified in the environment.

       William LeFebvre

       TOP	 user-configurable defaults for options.  TOPCOLORS color specification

       As  with  ps(1), things can change while top is collecting information for an update.  The
       picture it gives is only a close approximation to reality.

       kill(1), ps(1), stty(1), mem(4), renice(8)

       CPU percentage is calculated as a fraction of total available computing resources.   Hence
       on a multiprocessor machine a single threaded process can never consume cpu time in excess
       of 1 divided by the number of processors.  For example, on a 4 processor machine, a single
       threaded  process  will	never  show a cpu percentage higher than 25%.  The CPU percentage
       column will always total approximately 100, regardless of the number of processors.

       The kernel summary line shows the following information, all  displayed	as  a  per-second

       ctxsw	Context switches.

       trap	Number of traps.

       intr	Number of interrupts.

       syscall	Number of system calls.

       fork	Number of forks and vforks.

       flt	Number of page faults.

       pgin	Number of kilobytes paged in to physical memory.

       pgout	Number of kilobytes paged out from physical memory.

       The memory summary line displays the following:

       phys mem      Total  amount  of physical memory that can be allocated for use by processes
		     (it does not include memory reserved for the kernel's use).

       free mem      The amount of unallocated physical memory.

       total swap    The total amount of swap area allocated on disk.

       free swap     The amount of swap area on disk that is still available.

       Unlike previous versions of top, the swap figures will differ from the summary  output  of
       swap(1M) since the latter includes physical memory as well.

       The  column NLWP indicates the number of lightweight processes in a process.  This usually
       corresponds to the number of threads in that process.

       The display of individual threads can be toggled with the synonymous  commands  t  and  H.
       Information  about state, priority, CPU time and percent CPU are shown for each individual
       thread.	Other information is identical for all threads in the same process.  In this dis-
       play  the column LWP replaces NLWP and shows the lightweight process id.  The column names
       LWP and NLWP are consistent with ps(1).

       In BSD Unix, process priority was represented internally as a signed offset  from  a  zero
       value  with  an	unsigned value.  The "zero" value was usually something like 20, allowing
       for a range of priorities from -20 to 20.  As implemented on SunOS 5,  older  versions  of
       top  continued  to interpret process priority in this manner, even though it was no longer
       correct.  Starting with top version 3.5, this was changed to agree with the  rest  of  the

       Long options are not currently available in Solaris.

       The  SunOS  5  (Solaris	2)  port  was originally written by Torsten Kasch, <torsten@tech-
       fak.uni-bielefeld.de>.	Many   contributions   have   been   provided	by   Casper   Dik
       <Casper.Dik@sun.com>.   Support	for  multi-cpu, calculation of CPU% and memory stats pro-
       vided by Robert Boucher <boucher@sofkin.ca>, Marc Cohen	<marc@aai.com>,  Charles  Hedrick
       <hedrick@geneva.rutgers.edu>, and William L. Jones <jones@chpc>.

       Copyright  (C)  1984-2007  William  LeFebvre.  For  additional  licensing information, see

       See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attributes:

       |Availability	    | SUNWtop	      |
       |Interface Stability | Uncommitted     |
       Source for top is available from http://www.opensolaris.org/.

4th Berkeley Distribution		      Local					   TOP(1)

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