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rsync(1)										 rsync(1)

       rsync - faster, flexible replacement for rcp

       rsync [OPTION]... SRC [SRC]... DEST

       rsync [OPTION]... SRC [SRC]... [USER@]HOST:DEST

       rsync [OPTION]... SRC [SRC]... [USER@]HOST::DEST

       rsync [OPTION]... SRC [SRC]... rsync://[USER@]HOST[:PORT]/DEST

       rsync [OPTION]... SRC

       rsync [OPTION]... [USER@]HOST:SRC [DEST]

       rsync [OPTION]... [USER@]HOST::SRC [DEST]

       rsync [OPTION]... rsync://[USER@]HOST[:PORT]/SRC [DEST]

       rsync  is  a  program  that  behaves in much the same way that rcp does, but has many more
       options and uses the rsync remote-update protocol to greatly speed up file transfers  when
       the destination file is being updated.

       The rsync remote-update protocol allows rsync to transfer just the differences between two
       sets of files across the network connection, using an efficient checksum-search	algorithm
       described in the technical report that accompanies this package.

       Some of the additional features of rsync are:

       o      support for copying links, devices, owners, groups, and permissions

       o      exclude and exclude-from options similar to GNU tar

       o      a CVS exclude mode for ignoring the same files that CVS would ignore

       o      can use any transparent remote shell, including ssh or rsh

       o      does not require super-user privileges

       o      pipelining of file transfers to minimize latency costs

       o      support for anonymous or authenticated rsync daemons (ideal for mirroring)

       Rsync  copies  files  either  to or from a remote host, or locally on the current host (it
       does not support copying files between two remote hosts).

       There are two different ways for rsync to contact a remote system:  using  a  remote-shell
       program	as  the transport (such as ssh or rsh) or contacting an rsync daemon directly via
       TCP.  The remote-shell transport is used whenever the source or destination path  contains
       a  single  colon  (:)  separator  after	a host specification.  Contacting an rsync daemon
       directly happens when the source or destination path contains a double colon (::)  separa-
       tor  after a host specification, OR when an rsync:// URL is specified (see also the "USING
       RSYNC-DAEMON FEATURES VIA A REMOTE-SHELL CONNECTION" section for an exception to this lat-
       ter rule).

       As  a  special  case, if a single source arg is specified without a destination, the files
       are listed in an output format similar to "ls -l".

       As expected, if neither the source or destination path specify a  remote  host,	the  copy
       occurs locally (see also the --list-only option).

       See the file README for installation instructions.

       Once  installed,  you  can use rsync to any machine that you can access via a remote shell
       (as well as some that you can access using the rsync daemon-mode  protocol).   For  remote
       transfers, a modern rsync uses ssh for its communications, but it may have been configured
       to use a different remote shell by default, such as rsh or remsh.

       You can also specify any remote shell you like,	either	by  using  the	-e  command  line
       option, or by setting the RSYNC_RSH environment variable.

       Note that rsync must be installed on both the source and destination machines.

       You  use  rsync	in the same way you use rcp. You must specify a source and a destination,
       one of which may be remote.

       Perhaps the best way to explain the syntax is with some examples:

	      rsync -t *.c foo:src/

       This would transfer all files matching the pattern *.c from the current directory  to  the
       directory  src  on the machine foo. If any of the files already exist on the remote system
       then the rsync remote-update protocol is used to update the file by sending only the  dif-
       ferences. See the tech report for details.

	      rsync -avz foo:src/bar /data/tmp

       This  would  recursively  transfer all files from the directory src/bar on the machine foo
       into the /data/tmp/bar directory on the local machine. The files are transferred  in  "ar-
       chive"  mode,  which ensures that symbolic links, devices, attributes, permissions, owner-
       ships, etc. are preserved in the transfer.  Additionally,  compression  will  be  used  to
       reduce the size of data portions of the transfer.

	      rsync -avz foo:src/bar/ /data/tmp

       A  trailing  slash  on  the  source  changes this behavior to avoid creating an additional
       directory level at the destination.  You can think of a trailing / on a source as  meaning
       "copy  the  contents of this directory" as opposed to "copy the directory by name", but in
       both cases the attributes of the containing directory are transferred  to  the  containing
       directory  on  the destination.	In other words, each of the following commands copies the
       files in the same way, including their setting of the attributes of /dest/foo:

	      rsync -av /src/foo /dest
	      rsync -av /src/foo/ /dest/foo

       Note also that host and module references don't require a trailing slash to copy the  con-
       tents  of  the  default directory.  For example, both of these copy the remote directory's
       contents into "/dest":

	      rsync -av host: /dest
	      rsync -av host::module /dest

       You can also use rsync in local-only mode, where both the  source  and  destination  don't
       have a ':' in the name. In this case it behaves like an improved copy command.

       Finally,  you can list all the (listable) modules available from a particular rsync daemon
       by leaving off the module name:

	      rsync somehost.mydomain.com::

       See the following section for more details.

       The syntax for requesting multiple files from a remote host involves using  quoted  spaces
       in the SRC.  Some examples:

	      rsync host::'modname/dir1/file1 modname/dir2/file2' /dest

       This would copy file1 and file2 into /dest from an rsync daemon.  Each additional arg must
       include the same "modname/" prefix as the first one, and must  be  preceded  by	a  single
       space.  All other spaces are assumed to be a part of the filenames.

	      rsync -av host:'dir1/file1 dir2/file2' /dest

       This  would  copy file1 and file2 into /dest using a remote shell.  This word-splitting is
       done by the remote shell, so if it doesn't work it means that the remote shell isn't  con-
       figured	to split its args based on whitespace (a very rare setting, but not unknown).  If
       you need to transfer a filename that contains whitespace, you'll need to either escape the
       whitespace  in  a  way that the remote shell will understand, or use wildcards in place of
       the spaces.  Two examples of this are:

	      rsync -av host:'file\ name\ with\ spaces' /dest
	      rsync -av host:file?name?with?spaces /dest

       This latter example assumes that your shell passes through  unmatched  wildcards.   If  it
       complains about "no match", put the name in quotes.

       It  is  also  possible to use rsync without a remote shell as the transport.  In this case
       you will directly connect to a remote rsync daemon, typically using TCP port  873.   (This
       obviously requires the daemon to be running on the remote system, so refer to the STARTING
       AN RSYNC DAEMON TO ACCEPT CONNECTIONS section below for information on that.)

       Using rsync in this way is the same as using it with a remote shell except that:

       o      you either use a double colon :: instead of a single colon to separate the hostname
	      from the path, or you use an rsync:// URL.

       o      the first word of the "path" is actually a module name.

       o      the remote daemon may print a message of the day when you connect.

       o      if  you specify no path name on the remote daemon then the list of accessible paths
	      on the daemon will be shown.

       o      if you specify no local destination then a listing of the specified  files  on  the
	      remote daemon is provided.

       o      you must not specify the --rsh (-e) option.

       An example that copies all the files in a remote module named "src":

	   rsync -av host::src /dest

       Some  modules  on  the remote daemon may require authentication. If so, you will receive a
       password prompt when you connect. You can avoid the password prompt by setting  the  envi-
       ronment	variable  RSYNC_PASSWORD  to  the  password  you want to use or using the --pass-
       word-file option. This may be useful when scripting rsync.

       WARNING: On some systems environment variables are visible to all users. On those  systems
       using --password-file is recommended.

       You  may  establish  the  connection  via  a web proxy by setting the environment variable
       RSYNC_PROXY to a hostname:port pair pointing to	your  web  proxy.   Note  that	your  web
       proxy's configuration must support proxy connections to port 873.

       It  is sometimes useful to use various features of an rsync daemon (such as named modules)
       without actually allowing any new socket connections into a system  (other  than  what  is
       already required to allow remote-shell access).	Rsync supports connecting to a host using
       a remote shell and then spawning a single-use "daemon" server that  expects  to	read  its
       config file in the home dir of the remote user.	This can be useful if you want to encrypt
       a daemon-style transfer's data, but since the daemon is started up  fresh  by  the  remote
       user,  you  may	not  be able to use features such as chroot or change the uid used by the
       daemon.	(For another way to encrypt a daemon transfer, consider using  ssh  to	tunnel	a
       local  port to a remote machine and configure a normal rsync daemon on that remote host to
       only allow connections from "localhost".)

       From the user's perspective, a daemon transfer via a remote-shell connection  uses  nearly
       the  same  command-line	syntax as a normal rsync-daemon transfer, with the only exception
       being that you must explicitly set the remote shell program on the command-line	with  the
       --rsh=COMMAND  option.	(Setting  the  RSYNC_RSH in the environment will not turn on this
       functionality.)	For example:

	   rsync -av --rsh=ssh host::module /dest

       If you need to specify a different remote-shell user, keep in mind that the  user@  prefix
       in  front of the host is specifying the rsync-user value (for a module that requires user-
       based authentication).  This means that you must give the '-l user'  option  to	ssh  when
       specifying  the	remote-shell, as in this example that uses the short version of the --rsh

	   rsync -av -e "ssh -l ssh-user" rsync-user@host::module /dest

       The "ssh-user" will be used at the ssh level; the "rsync-user" will be used to  log-in  to
       the "module".

       In  order  to connect to an rsync daemon, the remote system needs to have a daemon already
       running (or it needs to have configured something like inetd to spawn an rsync daemon  for
       incoming connections on a particular port).  For full information on how to start a daemon
       that will handling incoming socket connections, see the rsyncd.conf(5) man page -- that is
       the config file for the daemon, and it contains the full details for how to run the daemon
       (including stand-alone and inetd configurations).

       If you're using one of the remote-shell transports for the transfer, there is no  need  to
       manually start an rsync daemon.

       Here are some examples of how I use rsync.

       To  backup  my wife's home directory, which consists of large MS Word files and mail fold-
       ers, I use a cron job that runs

	      rsync -Cavz . arvidsjaur:backup

       each night over a PPP connection to a duplicate directory on my machine "arvidsjaur".

       To synchronize my samba source trees I use the following Makefile targets:

		   rsync -avuzb --exclude '*~' samba:samba/ .
		   rsync -Cavuzb . samba:samba/
	   sync: get put

       this allows me to sync with a CVS directory at the other end of the connection. I then  do
       CVS operations on the remote machine, which saves a lot of time as the remote CVS protocol
       isn't very efficient.

       I mirror a directory between my "old" and "new" ftp sites with the command:

       rsync -az -e ssh --delete ~ftp/pub/samba nimbus:"~ftp/pub/tridge"

       This is launched from cron every few hours.

       Here is a short summary of the options available in rsync. Please refer	to  the  detailed
       description below for a complete description.

	-v, --verbose		    increase verbosity
	-q, --quiet		    suppress non-error messages
	    --no-motd		    suppress daemon-mode MOTD (see caveat)
	-c, --checksum		    skip based on checksum, not mod-time & size
	-a, --archive		    archive mode; same as -rlptgoD (no -H)
	    --no-OPTION 	    turn off an implied OPTION (e.g. --no-D)
	-r, --recursive 	    recurse into directories
	-R, --relative		    use relative path names
	    --no-implied-dirs	    don't send implied dirs with --relative
	-b, --backup		    make backups (see --suffix & --backup-dir)
	    --backup-dir=DIR	    make backups into hierarchy based in DIR
	    --suffix=SUFFIX	    backup suffix (default ~ w/o --backup-dir)
	-u, --update		    skip files that are newer on the receiver
	    --inplace		    update destination files in-place
	    --append		    append data onto shorter files
	-d, --dirs		    transfer directories without recursing
	-l, --links		    copy symlinks as symlinks
	-L, --copy-links	    transform symlink into referent file/dir
	    --copy-unsafe-links     only "unsafe" symlinks are transformed
	    --safe-links	    ignore symlinks that point outside the tree
	-k, --copy-dirlinks	    transform symlink to dir into referent dir
	-K, --keep-dirlinks	    treat symlinked dir on receiver as dir
	-H, --hard-links	    preserve hard links
	-p, --perms		    preserve permissions
	-E, --executability	    preserve executability
	    --chmod=CHMOD	    affect file and/or directory permissions
	-o, --owner		    preserve owner (super-user only)
	-g, --group		    preserve group
	    --devices		    preserve device files (super-user only)
	    --specials		    preserve special files
	-D			    same as --devices --specials
	-t, --times		    preserve times
	-O, --omit-dir-times	    omit directories when preserving times
	    --super		    receiver attempts super-user activities
	-S, --sparse		    handle sparse files efficiently
	-n, --dry-run		    show what would have been transferred
	-W, --whole-file	    copy files whole (without rsync algorithm)
	-x, --one-file-system	    don't cross filesystem boundaries
	-B, --block-size=SIZE	    force a fixed checksum block-size
	-e, --rsh=COMMAND	    specify the remote shell to use
	    --rsync-path=PROGRAM    specify the rsync to run on remote machine
	    --existing		    skip creating new files on receiver
	    --ignore-existing	    skip updating files that exist on receiver
	    --remove-source-files   sender removes synchronized files (non-dir)
	    --del		    an alias for --delete-during
	    --delete		    delete extraneous files from dest dirs
	    --delete-before	    receiver deletes before transfer (default)
	    --delete-during	    receiver deletes during xfer, not before
	    --delete-after	    receiver deletes after transfer, not before
	    --delete-excluded	    also delete excluded files from dest dirs
	    --ignore-errors	    delete even if there are I/O errors
	    --force		    force deletion of dirs even if not empty
	    --max-delete=NUM	    don't delete more than NUM files
	    --max-size=SIZE	    don't transfer any file larger than SIZE
	    --min-size=SIZE	    don't transfer any file smaller than SIZE
	    --partial		    keep partially transferred files
	    --partial-dir=DIR	    put a partially transferred file into DIR
	    --delay-updates	    put all updated files into place at end
	-m, --prune-empty-dirs	    prune empty directory chains from file-list
	    --numeric-ids	    don't map uid/gid values by user/group name
	    --timeout=TIME	    set I/O timeout in seconds
	-I, --ignore-times	    don't skip files that match size and time
	    --size-only 	    skip files that match in size
	    --modify-window=NUM     compare mod-times with reduced accuracy
	-T, --temp-dir=DIR	    create temporary files in directory DIR
	-y, --fuzzy		    find similar file for basis if no dest file
	    --compare-dest=DIR	    also compare received files relative to DIR
	    --copy-dest=DIR	    ... and include copies of unchanged files
	    --link-dest=DIR	    hardlink to files in DIR when unchanged
	-z, --compress		    compress file data during the transfer
	    --compress-level=NUM    explicitly set compression level
	-C, --cvs-exclude	    auto-ignore files in the same way CVS does
	-f, --filter=RULE	    add a file-filtering RULE
	-F			    same as --filter='dir-merge /.rsync-filter'
				    repeated: --filter='- .rsync-filter'
	    --exclude=PATTERN	    exclude files matching PATTERN
	    --exclude-from=FILE     read exclude patterns from FILE
	    --include=PATTERN	    don't exclude files matching PATTERN
	    --include-from=FILE     read include patterns from FILE
	    --files-from=FILE	    read list of source-file names from FILE
	-0, --from0		    all *from/filter files are delimited by 0s
	    --address=ADDRESS	    bind address for outgoing socket to daemon
	    --port=PORT 	    specify double-colon alternate port number
	    --sockopts=OPTIONS	    specify custom TCP options
	    --blocking-io	    use blocking I/O for the remote shell
	    --stats		    give some file-transfer stats
	-8, --8-bit-output	    leave high-bit chars unescaped in output
	-h, --human-readable	    output numbers in a human-readable format
	    --progress		    show progress during transfer
	-P			    same as --partial --progress
	-i, --itemize-changes	    output a change-summary for all updates
	    --out-format=FORMAT     output updates using the specified FORMAT
	    --log-file=FILE	    log what we're doing to the specified FILE
	    --log-file-format=FMT   log updates using the specified FMT
	    --password-file=FILE    read password from FILE
	    --list-only 	    list the files instead of copying them
	    --bwlimit=KBPS	    limit I/O bandwidth; KBytes per second
	    --write-batch=FILE	    write a batched update to FILE
	    --only-write-batch=FILE like --write-batch but w/o updating dest
	    --read-batch=FILE	    read a batched update from FILE
	    --protocol=NUM	    force an older protocol version to be used
	    --checksum-seed=NUM     set block/file checksum seed (advanced)
	-4, --ipv4		    prefer IPv4
	-6, --ipv6		    prefer IPv6
	    --version		    print version number
       (-h) --help		    show this help (see below for -h comment)

       Rsync can also be run as a daemon, in which case the following options are accepted:

	    --daemon		    run as an rsync daemon
	    --address=ADDRESS	    bind to the specified address
	    --bwlimit=KBPS	    limit I/O bandwidth; KBytes per second
	    --config=FILE	    specify alternate rsyncd.conf file
	    --no-detach 	    do not detach from the parent
	    --port=PORT 	    listen on alternate port number
	    --log-file=FILE	    override the "log file" setting
	    --log-file-format=FMT   override the "log format" setting
	    --sockopts=OPTIONS	    specify custom TCP options
	-v, --verbose		    increase verbosity
	-4, --ipv4		    prefer IPv4
	-6, --ipv6		    prefer IPv6
	-h, --help		    show this help (if used after --daemon)

       rsync  uses  the GNU long options package. Many of the command line options have two vari-
       ants, one short and one long.  These are shown below, separated by  commas.  Some  options
       only  have  a long variant.  The '=' for options that take a parameter is optional; white-
       space can be used instead.

       --help Print a short help page describing the options available in rsync  and  exit.   For
	      backward-compatibility  with  older versions of rsync, the help will also be output
	      if you use the -h option without any other args.

	      print the rsync version number and exit.

       -v, --verbose
	      This option increases the amount of information you are given during the	transfer.
	      By  default, rsync works silently. A single -v will give you information about what
	      files are being transferred and a brief summary at the end. Two -v flags will  give
	      you  information	on  what files are being skipped and slightly more information at
	      the end. More than two -v flags should only be used if you are debugging rsync.

	      Note that the names of the transferred files that  are  output  are  done  using	a
	      default  --out-format  of "%n%L", which tells you just the name of the file and, if
	      the item is a link, where it points.  At the single -v  level  of  verbosity,  this
	      does  not mention when a file gets its attributes changed.  If you ask for an item-
	      ized list of changed attributes (either --itemize-changes or  adding  "%i"  to  the
	      --out-format  setting),  the  output (on the client) increases to mention all items
	      that are changed in any way.  See the --out-format option for more details.

       -q, --quiet
	      This option decreases the amount of information you are given during the	transfer,
	      notably  suppressing information messages from the remote server. This flag is use-
	      ful when invoking rsync from cron.

	      This option affects the information that is output by the client at the start of	a
	      daemon  transfer.   This suppresses the message-of-the-day (MOTD) text, but it also
	      affects the list of modules that the daemon sends in response to the "rsync host::"
	      request  (due  to  a  limitation in the rsync protocol), so omit this option if you
	      want to request the list of modules from the deamon.

       -I, --ignore-times
	      Normally rsync will skip any files that are already the same size and have the same
	      modification  time-stamp.  This option turns off this "quick check" behavior, caus-
	      ing all files to be updated.

	      Normally rsync will not transfer any files that are already the same size and  have
	      the  same  modification  time-stamp. With the --size-only option, files will not be
	      transferred if they have the same size, regardless of  timestamp.  This  is  useful
	      when  starting to use rsync after using another mirroring system which may not pre-
	      serve timestamps exactly.

	      When comparing two timestamps, rsync treats the timestamps as being equal  if  they
	      differ  by  no more than the modify-window value.  This is normally 0 (for an exact
	      match), but you may find it useful to set this to a larger  value  in  some  situa-
	      tions.   In  particular,	when transferring to or from an MS Windows FAT filesystem
	      (which represents times with a 2-second resolution),  --modify-window=1  is  useful
	      (allowing times to differ by up to 1 second).

       -c, --checksum
	      This forces the sender to checksum every regular file using a 128-bit MD4 checksum.
	      It does this during the initial file-system scan as  it  builds  the  list  of  all
	      available files. The receiver then checksums its version of each file (if it exists
	      and it has the same size as its sender-side counterpart) in order to  decide  which
	      files  need  to  be updated: files with either a changed size or a changed checksum
	      are selected for transfer.  Since this whole-file checksumming of all files on both
	      sides  of the connection occurs in addition to the automatic checksum verifications
	      that occur during a file's transfer, this option can be quite slow.

	      Note that rsync always verifies that each transferred  file  was	correctly  recon-
	      structed	on the receiving side by checking its whole-file checksum, but that auto-
	      matic after-the-transfer verification has nothing to do with this option's  before-
	      the-transfer "Does this file need to be updated?" check.

       -a, --archive
	      This  is equivalent to -rlptgoD. It is a quick way of saying you want recursion and
	      want to preserve almost everything (with -H being a notable  omission).	The  only
	      exception to the above equivalence is when --files-from is specified, in which case
	      -r is not implied.

	      Note that -a does not preserve hardlinks, because finding multiply-linked files  is
	      expensive.  You must separately specify -H.

	      You  may	turn  off  one	or more implied options by prefixing the option name with
	      "no-".  Not all options may be prefixed with a "no-": only options that are implied
	      by  other  options  (e.g. --no-D, --no-perms) or have different defaults in various
	      circumstances (e.g. --no-whole-file, --no-blocking-io, --no-dirs).  You may specify
	      either the short or the long option name after the "no-" prefix (e.g. --no-R is the
	      same as --no-relative).

	      For example: if you want to use -a (--archive) but don't want -o (--owner), instead
	      of converting -a into -rlptgD, you could specify -a --no-o (or -a --no-owner).

	      The  order  of  the  options is important:  if you specify --no-r -a, the -r option
	      would end up being turned on, the opposite of -a --no-r.	Note also that the  side-
	      effects  of  the	--files-from option are NOT positional, as it affects the default
	      state of	several  options  and  slightly  changes  the  meaning	of  -a	(see  the
	      --files-from option for more details).

       -r, --recursive
	      This tells rsync to copy directories recursively.  See also --dirs (-d).

       -R, --relative
	      Use  relative  paths.  This means that the full path names specified on the command
	      line are sent to the server rather than just the last parts of the filenames.  This
	      is  particularly	useful when you want to send several different directories at the
	      same time. For example, if you used this command:

		 rsync -av /foo/bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

	      ... this would create a file named baz.c in /tmp/ on the remote machine. If instead
	      you used

		 rsync -avR /foo/bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

	      then  a file named /tmp/foo/bar/baz.c would be created on the remote machine -- the
	      full path name is preserved.  To limit the amount of path information that is sent,
	      you  have a couple options:  (1) With a modern rsync on the sending side (beginning
	      with 2.6.7), you can insert a dot and a slash into the source path, like this:

		 rsync -avR /foo/./bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

	      That would create /tmp/bar/baz.c on the remote machine.  (Note that the dot must be
	      followed	by  a  slash, so "/foo/." would not be abbreviated.)  (2) For older rsync
	      versions, you would need to use a chdir to limit the  source  path.   For  example,
	      when pushing files:

		 (cd /foo; rsync -avR bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/)

	      (Note  that the parens put the two commands into a sub-shell, so that the "cd" com-
	      mand doesn't remain in effect for future commands.)  If you're pulling  files,  use
	      this idiom (which doesn't work with an rsync daemon):

		 rsync -avR --rsync-path="cd /foo; rsync" \
		     remote:bar/baz.c /tmp/

	      This  option  affects  the  default  behavior of the --relative option.  When it is
	      specified, the attributes of the implied directories from the source names are  not
	      included	in  the transfer.  This means that the corresponding path elements on the
	      destination system are left unchanged if they exist, and any missing implied direc-
	      tories  are  created  with default attributes.  This even allows these implied path
	      elements to have big differences, such as being a symlink to  a  directory  on  one
	      side of the transfer, and a real directory on the other side.

	      For  instance,  if  a command-line arg or a files-from entry told rsync to transfer
	      the file "path/foo/file", the directories "path" and "path/foo"  are  implied  when
	      --relative is used.  If "path/foo" is a symlink to "bar" on the destination system,
	      the receiving rsync would ordinarily delete "path/foo", recreate it as a directory,
	      and receive the file into the new directory.  With --no-implied-dirs, the receiving
	      rsync updates "path/foo/file" using the existing path elements,  which  means  that
	      the  file ends up being created in "path/bar".  Another way to accomplish this link
	      preservation is to use the --keep-dirlinks option (which will also affect  symlinks
	      to directories in the rest of the transfer).

	      In a similar but opposite scenario, if the transfer of "path/foo/file" is requested
	      and "path/foo" is a symlink on the sending side, running without	--no-implied-dirs
	      would  cause  rsync to transform "path/foo" on the receiving side into an identical
	      symlink, and then attempt to transfer "path/foo/file",  which  might  fail  if  the
	      duplicated symlink did not point to a directory on the receiving side.  Another way
	      to  avoid  this  sending	of  a  symlink	as  an	implied  directory  is	 to   use
	      --copy-unsafe-links,  or --copy-dirlinks (both of which also affect symlinks in the
	      rest of the transfer -- see their descriptions for full details).

       -b, --backup
	      With this option, preexisting destination files are renamed as each file is  trans-
	      ferred  or  deleted.   You can control where the backup file goes and what (if any)
	      suffix gets appended using the --backup-dir and --suffix options.

	      Note that if you don't specify --backup-dir, (1) the --omit-dir-times  option  will
	      be  implied,  and  (2)  if  --delete is also in effect (without --delete-excluded),
	      rsync will add a "protect" filter-rule for the backup suffix to the end of all your
	      existing	excludes  (e.g. -f "P *~").  This will prevent previously backed-up files
	      from being deleted.  Note that if you are supplying your own filter rules, you  may
	      need  to	manually  insert your own exclude/protect rule somewhere higher up in the
	      list so that it has a high enough priority to be effective  (e.g.,  if  your  rules
	      specify  a  trailing inclusion/exclusion of '*', the auto-added rule would never be

	      In combination with the --backup option, this tells rsync to store all  backups  in
	      the  specified  directory  on the receiving side.  This can be used for incremental
	      backups.	You can additionally specify a backup suffix using  the  --suffix  option
	      (otherwise  the files backed up in the specified directory will keep their original

	      This option allows you to override the default backup suffix used with the --backup
	      (-b)  option. The default suffix is a ~ if no --backup-dir was specified, otherwise
	      it is an empty string.

       -u, --update
	      This forces rsync to skip any files which exist on the destination and have a modi-
	      fied time that is newer than the source file.  (If an existing destination file has
	      a modify time equal to the source file's, it will be updated if the sizes are  dif-

	      In  the current implementation of --update, a difference of file format between the
	      sender and receiver is always considered to be important enough for an  update,  no
	      matter  what date is on the objects.  In other words, if the source has a directory
	      or a symlink where the destination has a file, the transfer would occur  regardless
	      of  the  timestamps.  This might change in the future (feel free to comment on this
	      on the mailing list if you have an opinion).

	      This causes rsync not to create a new copy of the file and then move it into place.
	      Instead  rsync  will  overwrite the existing file, meaning that the rsync algorithm
	      can't accomplish the full amount of network reduction it might be able to otherwise
	      (since  it does not yet try to sort data matches).  One exception to this is if you
	      combine the option with --backup, since rsync is smart enough  to  use  the  backup
	      file as the basis file for the transfer.

	      This  option  is	useful	for  transfer  of large files with block-based changes or
	      appended data, and also on systems that are disk bound, not network bound.

	      The option implies --partial (since an interrupted transfer  does  not  delete  the
	      file),  but conflicts with --partial-dir and --delay-updates.  Prior to rsync 2.6.4
	      --inplace was also incompatible with --compare-dest and --link-dest.

	      WARNING: The file's data will be in an inconsistent state during the transfer  (and
	      possibly	afterward  if  the transfer gets interrupted), so you should not use this
	      option to update files that are in use.  Also note that rsync  will  be  unable  to
	      update a file in-place that is not writable by the receiving user.

	      This  causes  rsync  to  update  a file by appending data onto the end of the file,
	      which presumes that the data that already exists on the receiving side is identical
	      with the start of the file on the sending side.  If that is not true, the file will
	      fail the checksum test, and the resend will do a normal --inplace update to correct
	      the  mismatched  data.   Only files on the receiving side that are shorter than the
	      corresponding file on the sending side (as well as new files)  are  sent.   Implies
	      --inplace,  but does not conflict with --sparse (though the --sparse option will be
	      auto-disabled if a resend of the already-existing data is required).

       -d, --dirs
	      Tell the sending side to include any  directories  that  are  encountered.   Unlike
	      --recursive, a directory's contents are not copied unless the directory name speci-
	      fied is "." or ends with a trailing slash (e.g. ".", "dir/.", "dir/", etc.).  With-
	      out  this  option  or  the  --recursive  option, rsync will skip all directories it
	      encounters (and output a message to that effect for each one).  If you specify both
	      --dirs and --recursive, --recursive takes precedence.

       -l, --links
	      When symlinks are encountered, recreate the symlink on the destination.

       -L, --copy-links
	      When  symlinks  are  encountered,  the  item  that  they point to (the referent) is
	      copied, rather than the symlink.	In older versions of rsync, this option also  had
	      the  side-effect of telling the receiving side to follow symlinks, such as symlinks
	      to directories.  In a modern rsync  such	as  this  one,	you'll	need  to  specify
	      --keep-dirlinks  (-K) to get this extra behavior.  The only exception is when send-
	      ing files to an rsync that is too old to understand -K --  in  that  case,  the  -L
	      option will still have the side-effect of -K on that older receiving rsync.

	      This  tells  rsync  to  copy  the referent of symbolic links that point outside the
	      copied tree.  Absolute symlinks are also treated like ordinary files,  and  so  are
	      any symlinks in the source path itself when --relative is used.  This option has no
	      additional effect if --copy-links was also specified.

	      This tells rsync to ignore any symbolic links which point outside the copied  tree.
	      All  absolute  symlinks  are  also  ignored.  Using this option in conjunction with
	      --relative may give unexpected results.

       -K, --copy-dirlinks
	      This option causes the sending side to treat a symlink to a directory as though  it
	      were  a  real directory.	This is useful if you don't want symlinks to non-directo-
	      ries to be affected, as they would be using --copy-links.

	      Without this option, if the sending side has replaced a directory with a symlink to
	      a  directory, the receiving side will delete anything that is in the way of the new
	      symlink, including a directory hierarchy (as long as  --force  or  --delete  is  in

	      See also --keep-dirlinks for an analogous option for the receiving side.

       -K, --keep-dirlinks
	      This  option  causes the receiving side to treat a symlink to a directory as though
	      it were a real directory, but only if it matches a real directory from the  sender.
	      Without  this  option,  the receiver's symlink would be deleted and replaced with a
	      real directory.

	      For example, suppose you transfer a directory "foo" that contains  a  file  "file",
	      but   "foo"   is	 a   symlink   to  directory  "bar"  on  the  receiver.   Without
	      --keep-dirlinks, the receiver deletes symlink "foo", recreates it as  a  directory,
	      and  receives  the file into the new directory.  With --keep-dirlinks, the receiver
	      keeps the symlink and "file" ends up in "bar".

	      See also --copy-dirlinks for an analogous option for the sending side.

       -H, --hard-links
	      This tells rsync to look for hard-linked files in the transfer  and  link  together
	      the  corresponding  files  on the receiving side.  Without this option, hard-linked
	      files in the transfer are treated as though they were separate files.

	      Note that rsync can only detect hard links if both parts of the  link  are  in  the
	      list of files being sent.

       -p, --perms
	      This option causes the receiving rsync to set the destination permissions to be the
	      same as the source permissions.  (See also the --chmod option for a way  to  modify
	      what rsync considers to be the source permissions.)

	      When this option is off, permissions are set as follows:

	      o      Existing  files (including updated files) retain their existing permissions,
		     though the --executability option might change just the  execute  permission
		     for the file.

	      o      New  files  get their "normal" permission bits set to the source file's per-
		     missions masked with the receiving end's umask setting,  and  their  special
		     permission bits disabled except in the case where a new directory inherits a
		     setgid bit from its parent directory.

	      Thus, when --perms and --executability are both disabled, rsync's behavior  is  the
	      same as that of other file-copy utilities, such as cp(1) and tar(1).

	      In  summary:  to	give destination files (both old and new) the source permissions,
	      use --perms.  To give new files the destination-default permissions (while  leaving
	      existing	files  unchanged),  make  sure	that  the  --perms  option is off and use
	      --chmod=ugo=rwX (which ensures that all non-masked bits  get  enabled).	If  you'd
	      care to make this latter behavior easier to type, you could define a popt alias for
	      it, such as putting this line in the file ~/.popt (this defines the -s option,  and
	      includes --no-g to use the default group of the destination dir):

		 rsync alias -s --no-p --no-g --chmod=ugo=rwX

	      You could then use this new option in a command such as this one:

		 rsync -asv src/ dest/

	      (Caveat:	make  sure  that -a does not follow -s, or it will re-enable the "--no-*"

	      The preservation of the destination's setgid bit on newly-created directories  when
	      --perms  is  off	was  added in rsync 2.6.7.  Older rsync versions erroneously pre-
	      served the three special permission bits for newly-created files when  --perms  was
	      off,  while  overriding  the  destination's  setgid  bit setting on a newly-created
	      directory.  (Keep in mind that it is  the  version  of  the  receiving  rsync  that
	      affects this behavior.)

       -E, --executability
	      This  option  causes  rsync to preserve the executability (or non-executability) of
	      regular files when --perms is not enabled.  A regular file is considered to be exe-
	      cutable if at least one 'x' is turned on in its permissions.  When an existing des-
	      tination file's executability differs from that of the corresponding  source  file,
	      rsync modifies the destination file's permissions as follows:

	      o      To make a file non-executable, rsync turns off all its 'x' permissions.

	      o      To  make  a  file	executable, rsync turns on each 'x' permission that has a
		     corresponding 'r' permission enabled.

	      If --perms is enabled, this option is ignored.

	      This option tells rsync to apply one or more comma-separated "chmod" strings to the
	      permission  of the files in the transfer.  The resulting value is treated as though
	      it was the permissions that the sending side supplied for  the  file,  which  means
	      that  this  option  can  seem to have no effect on existing files if --perms is not

	      In addition to the normal parsing rules specified in the chmod(1) manpage, you  can
	      specify  an  item that should only apply to a directory by prefixing it with a 'D',
	      or specify an item that should only apply to a file by prefixing	it  with  a  'F'.
	      For example:


	      It  is also legal to specify multiple --chmod options, as each additional option is
	      just appended to the list of changes to make.

	      See the --perms and --executability options for how the resulting permission  value
	      can be applied to the files in the transfer.

       -o, --owner
	      This option causes rsync to set the owner of the destination file to be the same as
	      the source file, but only if the receiving rsync is being  run  as  the  super-user
	      (see  also  the  --super	option	to force rsync to attempt super-user activities).
	      Without this option, the owner is set to the invoking user on the receiving side.

	      The preservation of ownership will associate matching names  by  default,  but  may
	      fall  back to using the ID number in some circumstances (see also the --numeric-ids
	      option for a full discussion).

       -g, --group
	      This option causes rsync to set the group of the destination file to be the same as
	      the  source file.  If the receiving program is not running as the super-user (or if
	      --no-super was specified), only groups that the invoking user on the receiving side
	      is  a  member  of  will be preserved.  Without this option, the group is set to the
	      default group of the invoking user on the receiving side.

	      The preservation of group information will associate matching names by default, but
	      may  fall  back  to  using  the  ID  number  in  some  circumstances  (see also the
	      --numeric-ids option for a full discussion).

	      This option causes rsync to transfer character and block device files to the remote
	      system to recreate these devices.  This option has no effect if the receiving rsync
	      is not run as the super-user and --super is not specified.

	      This option causes rsync to transfer special files such as named sockets and fifos.

       -D     The -D option is equivalent to --devices --specials.

       -t, --times
	      This tells rsync to transfer modification times along with  the  files  and  update
	      them  on the remote system.  Note that if this option is not used, the optimization
	      that excludes files that have not been  modified	cannot	be  effective;	in  other
	      words,  a missing -t or -a will cause the next transfer to behave as if it used -I,
	      causing all files to be updated (though the rsync algorithm will	make  the  update
	      fairly  efficient  if  the  files  haven't actually changed, you're much better off
	      using -t).

       -O, --omit-dir-times
	      This tells rsync to omit directories when it is preserving modification times  (see
	      --times).   If  NFS  is sharing the directories on the receiving side, it is a good
	      idea to use -O.  This option is inferred if you use --backup without --backup-dir.

	      This tells the receiving side to attempt super-user activities even if the  receiv-
	      ing rsync wasn't run by the super-user.  These activities include: preserving users
	      via the --owner option, preserving all groups (not just the current user's  groups)
	      via  the	--groups  option,  and copying devices via the --devices option.  This is
	      useful for systems that allow such activities without  being  the  super-user,  and
	      also  for  ensuring that you will get errors if the receiving side isn't being run-
	      ning as the super-user.  To turn off super-user activities, the super-user can  use

       -S, --sparse
	      Try  to  handle sparse files efficiently so they take up less space on the destina-
	      tion.  Conflicts with --inplace because it's not possible to overwrite  data  in	a
	      sparse fashion.

	      NOTE: This option has no effect if the destination is a Solaris "tmpfs" filesystem.
	      The files won't be sparse.

       -n, --dry-run
	      This tells rsync to not do any file transfers, instead  it  will	just  report  the
	      actions it would have taken.

       -W, --whole-file
	      With  this option the incremental rsync algorithm is not used and the whole file is
	      sent as-is instead.  The transfer may be faster if this option  is  used	when  the
	      bandwidth  between the source and destination machines is higher than the bandwidth
	      to disk (especially when the "disk" is actually a networked filesystem).	 This  is
	      the default when both the source and destination are specified as local paths.

       -x, --one-file-system
	      This tells rsync to avoid crossing a filesystem boundary when recursing.	This does
	      not limit the user's ability to specify items to copy  from  multiple  filesystems,
	      just rsync's recursion through the hierarchy of each directory that the user speci-
	      fied, and also the analogous recursion on the receiving side during deletion.  Also
	      keep  in	mind  that rsync treats a "bind" mount to the same device as being on the
	      same filesystem.

	      If this option is repeated, rsync omits all mount-point directories from the  copy.
	      Otherwise,  it includes an empty directory at each mount-point it encounters (using
	      the attributes of the mounted directory because those of the underlying mount-point
	      directory are inaccessible).

	      If   rsync   has	 been	told   to   collapse   symlinks   (via	 --copy-links  or
	      --copy-unsafe-links), a symlink to a directory on another device is treated like	a
	      mount-point.  Symlinks to non-directories are unaffected by this option.

       --existing, --ignore-non-existing
	      This  tells  rsync to skip creating files (including directories) that do not exist
	      yet on the destination.  If this option  is  combined  with  the	--ignore-existing
	      option,  no  files will be updated (which can be useful if all you want to do is to
	      delete extraneous files).

	      This tells rsync to skip updating files that already exist on the destination (this
	      does not ignore existing directores, or nothing would get done).	See also --exist-

	      This tells rsync to remove from the sending side the  files  (meaning  non-directo-
	      ries)  that are a part of the transfer and have been successfully duplicated on the
	      receiving side.

	      This tells rsync to delete extraneous files from	the  receiving	side  (ones  that
	      aren't  on  the sending side), but only for the directories that are being synchro-
	      nized.  You must have asked rsync to  send  the  whole  directory  (e.g.	"dir"  or
	      "dir/")  without using a wildcard for the directory's contents (e.g. "dir/*") since
	      the wildcard is expanded by the shell and rsync thus gets  a  request  to  transfer
	      individual  files,  not  the files' parent directory.  Files that are excluded from
	      transfer are also excluded from being deleted unless you use the	--delete-excluded
	      option  or  mark	the  rules  as	only  matching	on  the  sending  side	(see  the
	      include/exclude modifiers in the FILTER RULES section).

	      Prior to rsync 2.6.7, this option would have no effect unless  --recursive  was  in
	      effect.	Beginning  with  2.6.7,  deletions will also occur when --dirs (-d) is in
	      effect, but only for directories whose contents are being copied.

	      This option can be dangerous if used incorrectly!  It is a very good  idea  to  run
	      first  using  the  --dry-run option (-n) to see what files would be deleted to make
	      sure important files aren't listed.

	      If the sending side detects any I/O errors, then the deletion of any files  at  the
	      destination will be automatically disabled. This is to prevent temporary filesystem
	      failures (such as NFS errors) on the sending side causing  a  massive  deletion  of
	      files on the destination.  You can override this with the --ignore-errors option.

	      The  --delete  option may be combined with one of the --delete-WHEN options without
	      conflict, as well as --delete-excluded.  However,  if  none  of  the  --delete-WHEN
	      options  are  specified, rsync will currently choose the --delete-before algorithm.
	      A future version may change this to choose the --delete-during algorithm.  See also

	      Request  that  the file-deletions on the receiving side be done before the transfer
	      starts.  This is the default if --delete or --delete-excluded is specified  without
	      one of the --delete-WHEN options.  See --delete (which is implied) for more details
	      on file-deletion.

	      Deleting before the transfer is helpful if the filesystem is tight  for  space  and
	      removing	extraneous  files  would help to make the transfer possible.  However, it
	      does introduce a delay before the start of the transfer, and this delay might cause
	      the transfer to timeout (if --timeout was specified).

       --delete-during, --del
	      Request  that the file-deletions on the receiving side be done incrementally as the
	      transfer happens.  This is a faster method than  choosing  the  before-  or  after-
	      transfer	algorithm,  but  it is only supported beginning with rsync version 2.6.4.
	      See --delete (which is implied) for more details on file-deletion.

	      Request that the file-deletions on the receiving side be done  after  the  transfer
	      has  completed.  This is useful if you are sending new per-directory merge files as
	      a part of the transfer and you want their exclusions to take effect for the  delete
	      phase of the current transfer.  See --delete (which is implied) for more details on

	      In addition to deleting the files on the receiving side that are not on the sending
	      side,  this  tells  rsync  to  also delete any files on the receiving side that are
	      excluded (see --exclude).  See the FILTER RULES section for a way to make  individ-
	      ual exclusions behave this way on the receiver, and for a way to protect files from
	      --delete-excluded.  See --delete (which is implied) for more details on  file-dele-

	      Tells --delete to go ahead and delete files even when there are I/O errors.

	      This  option  tells rsync to delete a non-empty directory when it is to be replaced
	      by a non-directory.  This is  only  relevant  if	deletions  are	not  active  (see
	      --delete for details).

	      Note  for  older	rsync  versions:  --force  used  to  still be required when using
	      --delete-after, and it used to be non-functional unless the --recursive option  was
	      also enabled.

	      This tells rsync not to delete more than NUM files or directories (NUM must be non-
	      zero).  This is useful when mirroring very large trees to prevent disasters.

	      This tells rsync to avoid transferring any file that is larger than  the	specified
	      SIZE.  The  SIZE value can be suffixed with a string to indicate a size multiplier,
	      and may be a fractional value (e.g. "--max-size=1.5m").

	      The suffixes are as follows: "K" (or "KiB") is a kibibyte (1024), "M" (or "MiB") is
	      a  mebibyte (1024*1024), and "G" (or "GiB") is a gibibyte (1024*1024*1024).  If you
	      want the multiplier to be 1000 instead of 1024, use "KB", "MB",  or  "GB".   (Note:
	      lower-case is also accepted for all values.)  Finally, if the suffix ends in either
	      "+1" or "-1", the value will be offset by one byte in the indicated direction.

	      Examples: --max-size=1.5mb-1 is 1499999 bytes, and  --max-size=2g+1  is  2147483649

	      This  tells rsync to avoid transferring any file that is smaller than the specified
	      SIZE, which can help in not transferring small, junk  files.   See  the  --max-size
	      option for a description of SIZE.

       -B, --block-size=BLOCKSIZE
	      This  forces  the  block	size used in the rsync algorithm to a fixed value.  It is
	      normally selected based on the size of each file being updated.  See the	technical
	      report for details.

       -e, --rsh=COMMAND
	      This  option  allows  you  to choose an alternative remote shell program to use for
	      communication between the local and remote copies of  rsync.  Typically,	rsync  is
	      configured to use ssh by default, but you may prefer to use rsh on a local network.

	      If this option is used with [user@]host::module/path, then the remote shell COMMAND
	      will be used to run an rsync daemon on the remote host, and all data will be trans-
	      mitted  through  that  remote shell connection, rather than through a direct socket
	      connection to a running rsync daemon on the remote host.	See  the  section  "USING

	      Command-line  arguments are permitted in COMMAND provided that COMMAND is presented
	      to rsync as a single argument.  You must use spaces (not tabs or other  whitespace)
	      to  separate  the  command and args from each other, and you can use single- and/or
	      double-quotes to preserve spaces in an argument (but not backslashes).   Note  that
	      doubling	a  single-quote  inside  a single-quoted string gives you a single-quote;
	      likewise for double-quotes (though you need to pay attention to which  quotes  your
	      shell is parsing and which quotes rsync is parsing).  Some examples:

		  -e 'ssh -p 2234'
		  -e 'ssh -o "ProxyCommand nohup ssh firewall nc -w1 %h %p"'

	      (Note  that  ssh	users  can alternately customize site-specific connect options in
	      their .ssh/config file.)

	      You can also choose the remote shell program using the RSYNC_RSH environment  vari-
	      able, which accepts the same range of values as -e.

	      See also the --blocking-io option which is affected by this option.

	      Use  this  to  specify  what program is to be run on the remote machine to start-up
	      rsync.  Often used when rsync is not  in	the  default  remote-shell's  path  (e.g.
	      --rsync-path=/usr/local/bin/rsync).   Note  that	PROGRAM is run with the help of a
	      shell, so it can be any program, script, or command sequence you'd care to run,  so
	      long  as	it does not corrupt the standard-in & standard-out that rsync is using to

	      One tricky example is to set a different default directory on  the  remote  machine
	      for use with the --relative option.  For instance:

		  rsync -avR --rsync-path="cd /a/b && rsync" hst:c/d /e/

       -C, --cvs-exclude
	      This  is	a  useful  shorthand  for excluding a broad range of files that you often
	      don't want to transfer between systems. It uses the same algorithm that CVS uses to
	      determine if a file should be ignored.

	      The exclude list is initialized to:

		     RCS  SCCS	CVS CVS.adm RCSLOG cvslog.* tags TAGS .make.state .nse_depinfo *~
		     #* .#* ,* _$* *$ *.old *.bak *.BAK *.orig *.rej .del-* *.a *.olb  *.o  *.obj
		     *.so *.exe *.Z *.elc *.ln core .svn/

	      then  files listed in a $HOME/.cvsignore are added to the list and any files listed
	      in the CVSIGNORE environment variable (all cvsignore names are delimited by  white-

	      Finally,	any  file  is ignored if it is in the same directory as a .cvsignore file
	      and matches one of the patterns  listed  therein.   Unlike  rsync's  filter/exclude
	      files,  these  patterns  are  split  on whitespace.  See the cvs(1) manual for more

	      If you're combining -C with your own --filter rules, you should note that these CVS
	      excludes	are appended at the end of your own rules, regardless of where the -C was
	      placed on the command-line.  This makes them a lower priority than  any  rules  you
	      specified explicitly.  If you want to control where these CVS excludes get inserted
	      into your filter rules, you should omit the -C as a command-line option and  use	a
	      combination  of  --filter=:C  and  --filter=-C  (either  on your command-line or by
	      putting the ":C" and "-C" rules into a filter file with  your  other  rules).   The
	      first option turns on the per-directory scanning for the .cvsignore file.  The sec-
	      ond option does a one-time import of the CVS excludes mentioned above.

       -f, --filter=RULE
	      This option allows you to add rules to selectively exclude certain files	from  the
	      list  of	files to be transferred. This is most useful in combination with a recur-
	      sive transfer.

	      You may use as many --filter options on the command line as you like  to	build  up
	      the list of files to exclude.

	      See the FILTER RULES section for detailed information on this option.

       -F     The  -F  option  is a shorthand for adding two --filter rules to your command.  The
	      first time it is used is a shorthand for this rule:

		 --filter='dir-merge /.rsync-filter'

	      This tells rsync to look for  per-directory  .rsync-filter  files  that  have  been
	      sprinkled  through  the  hierarchy  and  use their rules to filter the files in the
	      transfer.  If -F is repeated, it is a shorthand for this rule:

		 --filter='exclude .rsync-filter'

	      This filters out the .rsync-filter files themselves from the transfer.

	      See the FILTER RULES section for detailed information on how these options work.

	      This option is a simplified form of the --filter option that defaults to an exclude
	      rule and does not allow the full rule-parsing syntax of normal filter rules.

	      See the FILTER RULES section for detailed information on this option.

	      This  option  is related to the --exclude option, but it specifies a FILE that con-
	      tains exclude patterns (one per line).  Blank lines in the file and lines  starting
	      with  ';'  or  '#'  are ignored.	If FILE is -, the list will be read from standard

	      This option is a simplified form of the --filter option that defaults to an include
	      rule and does not allow the full rule-parsing syntax of normal filter rules.

	      See the FILTER RULES section for detailed information on this option.

	      This  option  is related to the --include option, but it specifies a FILE that con-
	      tains include patterns (one per line).  Blank lines in the file and lines  starting
	      with  ';'  or  '#'  are ignored.	If FILE is -, the list will be read from standard

	      Using this option allows you to specify the exact list of  files	to  transfer  (as
	      read  from the specified FILE or - for standard input).  It also tweaks the default
	      behavior of rsync to make transferring just the  specified  files  and  directories

	      o      The  --relative (-R) option is implied, which preserves the path information
		     that is specified for each item in the file (use --no-relative or --no-R  if
		     you want to turn that off).

	      o      The  --dirs  (-d) option is implied, which will create directories specified
		     in the list on the  destination  rather  than  noisily  skipping  them  (use
		     --no-dirs or --no-d if you want to turn that off).

	      o      The  --archive  (-a)  option's  behavior does not imply --recursive (-r), so
		     specify it explicitly, if you want it.

	      o      These side-effects change the default state of rsync, so the position of the
		     --files-from  option on the command-line has no bearing on how other options
		     are parsed (e.g. -a works the same before or  after  --files-from,  as  does
		     --no-R and all other options).

	      The  file  names	that are read from the FILE are all relative to the source dir --
	      any leading slashes are removed and no ".." references are  allowed  to  go  higher
	      than the source dir.  For example, take this command:

		 rsync -a --files-from=/tmp/foo /usr remote:/backup

	      If /tmp/foo contains the string "bin" (or even "/bin"), the /usr/bin directory will
	      be created as /backup/bin on the remote host.  If  it  contains  "bin/"  (note  the
	      trailing	slash), the immediate contents of the directory would also be sent (with-
	      out needing to be explicitly mentioned in the file -- this began in version 2.6.4).
	      In both cases, if the -r option was enabled, that dir's entire hierarchy would also
	      be transferred (keep in  mind  that  -r  needs  to  be  specified  explicitly  with
	      --files-from,  since  it	is  not implied by -a).  Also note that the effect of the
	      (enabled by default) --relative option is to duplicate only the path info  that  is
	      read  from  the  file  -- it does not force the duplication of the source-spec path
	      (/usr in this case).

	      In addition, the --files-from file can be read from the remote host instead of  the
	      local  host  if you specify a "host:" in front of the file (the host must match one
	      end of the transfer).  As a short-cut, you can specify just a prefix of ":" to mean
	      "use the remote end of the transfer".  For example:

		 rsync -a --files-from=:/path/file-list src:/ /tmp/copy

	      This  would  copy  all  the  files  specified  in the /path/file-list file that was
	      located on the remote "src" host.

       -0, --from0
	      This tells rsync that the rules/filenames it reads from a file are terminated by	a
	      null  ('\0')  character,	not  a	NL,  CR,  or CR+LF.  This affects --exclude-from,
	      --include-from, --files-from, and any merged files specified in  a  --filter  rule.
	      It  does	not affect --cvs-exclude (since all names read from a .cvsignore file are
	      split on whitespace).

       -T, --temp-dir=DIR
	      This option instructs rsync to use DIR as a scratch directory when creating  tempo-
	      rary  copies  of the files transferred on the receiving side.  The default behavior
	      is to create each temporary file in the same directory as the  associated  destina-
	      tion file.

	      This  option  is	most  often  used when the receiving disk partition does not have
	      enough free space to hold a copy of the largest file in the transfer.  In this case
	      (i.e.  when the scratch directory in on a different disk partition), rsync will not
	      be able to rename each received temporary file over the top of the associated  des-
	      tination file, but instead must copy it into place.  Rsync does this by copying the
	      file over the top of the destination file, which means that  the	destination  file
	      will contain truncated data during this copy.  If this were not done this way (even
	      if the destination file were first removed, the data locally copied to a	temporary
	      file  in the destination directory, and then renamed into place) it would be possi-
	      ble for the old file to continue taking up disk space (if someone had it open), and
	      thus  there might not be enough room to fit the new version on the disk at the same

	      If you are using this option for reasons other than a shortage of disk  space,  you
	      may  wish to combine it with the --delay-updates option, which will ensure that all
	      copied files get put into subdirectories in the destination hierarchy, awaiting the
	      end  of  the transfer.  If you don't have enough room to duplicate all the arriving
	      files on the destination partition, another way  to  tell  rsync	that  you  aren't
	      overly  concerned  about disk space is to use the --partial-dir option with a rela-
	      tive path; because this tells rsync that it is OK to stash off a copy of	a  single
	      file  in a subdir in the destination hierarchy, rsync will use the partial-dir as a
	      staging area to bring over the copied file, and then  rename  it	into  place  from
	      there.  (Specifying  a --partial-dir with an absolute path does not have this side-

       -y, --fuzzy
	      This option tells rsync that it should look for a basis file  for  any  destination
	      file  that  is  missing.	 The current algorithm looks in the same directory as the
	      destination file for either a file that has an identical size and modified-time, or
	      a  similarly-named file.	If found, rsync uses the fuzzy basis file to try to speed
	      up the transfer.

	      Note that the use of the --delete option might get rid of any potential fuzzy-match
	      files, so either use --delete-after or specify some filename exclusions if you need
	      to prevent this.

	      This option instructs rsync to use DIR on the destination machine as an  additional
	      hierarchy  to  compare  destination files against doing transfers (if the files are
	      missing in the destination directory).  If a file is found in DIR that is identical
	      to  the  sender's  file, the file will NOT be transferred to the destination direc-
	      tory.  This is useful for creating a sparse backup of just files that have  changed
	      from an earlier backup.

	      Beginning  in  version  2.6.4, multiple --compare-dest directories may be provided,
	      which will cause rsync to search the list in  the  order	specified  for	an  exact
	      match.   If  a match is found that differs only in attributes, a local copy is made
	      and the attributes updated.  If a match is not found, a basis file from one of  the
	      DIRs will be selected to try to speed up the transfer.

	      If  DIR  is a relative path, it is relative to the destination directory.  See also
	      --copy-dest and --link-dest.

	      This option behaves like --compare-dest, but rsync will also copy  unchanged  files
	      found  in  DIR to the destination directory using a local copy.  This is useful for
	      doing transfers to a new destination while leaving existing files intact, and  then
	      doing a flash-cutover when all files have been successfully transferred.

	      Multiple	--copy-dest directories may be provided, which will cause rsync to search
	      the list in the order specified for an unchanged file.  If a match is not found,	a
	      basis file from one of the DIRs will be selected to try to speed up the transfer.

	      If  DIR  is a relative path, it is relative to the destination directory.  See also
	      --compare-dest and --link-dest.

	      This option behaves like --copy-dest, but unchanged files are hard linked from  DIR
	      to  the  destination  directory.	 The  files  must  be  identical in all preserved
	      attributes (e.g. permissions, possibly ownership) in order  for  the  files  to  be
	      linked together.	An example:

		rsync -av --link-dest=$PWD/prior_dir host:src_dir/ new_dir/

	      Beginning in version 2.6.4, multiple --link-dest directories may be provided, which
	      will cause rsync to search the list in the order specified for an exact match.   If
	      a  match	is  found  that  differs only in attributes, a local copy is made and the
	      attributes updated.  If a match is not found, a basis file from  one  of	the  DIRs
	      will be selected to try to speed up the transfer.

	      Note  that  if you combine this option with --ignore-times, rsync will not link any
	      files together because it only links identical files together as a  substitute  for
	      transferring the file, never as an additional check after the file is updated.

	      If  DIR  is a relative path, it is relative to the destination directory.  See also
	      --compare-dest and --copy-dest.

	      Note that rsync versions prior to 2.6.1 had a bug that  could  prevent  --link-dest
	      from  working  properly  for  a non-super-user when -o was specified (or implied by
	      -a).  You can work-around this bug by avoiding the -o option when sending to an old

       -z, --compress
	      With  this  option, rsync compresses the file data as it is sent to the destination
	      machine, which reduces the amount of data being transmitted --  something  that  is
	      useful over a slow connection.

	      Note  that  this	option	typically  achieves better compression ratios than can be
	      achieved by using a compressing remote shell or a compressing transport because  it
	      takes  advantage	of  the implicit information in the matching data blocks that are
	      not explicitly sent over the connection.

	      Explicitly set the compression level to use (see --compress) instead of letting  it
	      default.	If NUM is non-zero, the --compress option is implied.

	      With  this  option rsync will transfer numeric group and user IDs rather than using
	      user and group names and mapping them at both ends.

	      By default rsync will use the username and groupname to determine what ownership to
	      give  files.  The  special  uid  0  and  the  special  group 0 are never mapped via
	      user/group names even if the --numeric-ids option is not specified.

	      If a user or group has no name on the source system or it has no match on the  des-
	      tination	system,  then the numeric ID from the source system is used instead.  See
	      also the comments on the "use chroot" setting in the rsyncd.conf manpage for infor-
	      mation  on  how  the chroot setting affects rsync's ability to look up the names of
	      the users and groups and what you can do about it.

	      This option allows you to set a maximum I/O timeout  in  seconds.  If  no  data  is
	      transferred  for	the  specified time then rsync will exit. The default is 0, which
	      means no timeout.

	      By default rsync will bind to the wildcard address when connecting to an rsync dae-
	      mon.   The  --address  option allows you to specify a specific IP address (or host-
	      name) to bind to.  See also this option in the --daemon mode section.

	      This specifies an alternate TCP port number to use rather than the default of  873.
	      This  is	only needed if you are using the double-colon (::) syntax to connect with
	      an rsync daemon (since the URL syntax has a way to specify the port as  a  part  of
	      the URL).  See also this option in the --daemon mode section.

	      This  option  can  provide endless fun for people who like to tune their systems to
	      the utmost degree. You can set all sorts of socket options which may make transfers
	      faster (or slower!). Read the man page for the setsockopt() system call for details
	      on some of the options you may be able to set. By default no special socket options
	      are  set.  This  only  affects  direct socket connections to a remote rsync daemon.
	      This option also exists in the --daemon mode section.

	      This tells rsync to use blocking I/O when launching a remote shell  transport.   If
	      the remote shell is either rsh or remsh, rsync defaults to using blocking I/O, oth-
	      erwise it defaults to using non-blocking I/O.  (Note that ssh prefers  non-blocking

       -i, --itemize-changes
	      Requests	a  simple  itemized list of the changes that are being made to each file,
	      including attribute changes.  This is exactly the  same  as  specifying  --out-for-
	      mat='%i  %n%L'.  If you repeat the option, unchanged files will also be output, but
	      only if the receiving rsync is at least version 2.6.7 (you can use -vv  with  older
	      versions of rsync, but that also turns on the output of other verbose messages).

	      The "%i" escape has a cryptic output that is 9 letters long.  The general format is
	      like the string YXcstpogz, where Y is replaced by the type of update being done,	X
	      is  replaced  by the file-type, and the other letters represent attributes that may
	      be output if they are being modified.

	      The update types that replace the Y are as follows:

	      o      A < means that a file is being transferred to the remote host (sent).

	      o      A > means that a file is being transferred to the local host (received).

	      o      A c means that a local change/creation is occurring for the  item	(such  as
		     the creation of a directory or the changing of a symlink, etc.).

	      o      A	h  means  that	the  item  is  a  hard	link  to  another  item (requires

	      o      A . means that  the  item	is  not  being	updated  (though  it  might  have
		     attributes that are being modified).

	      The  file-types that replace the X are: f for a file, a d for a directory, an L for
	      a symlink, a D for a device, and a S for a special file  (e.g.  named  sockets  and

	      The other letters in the string above are the actual letters that will be output if
	      the associated attribute for the item is being updated or  a  "."  for  no  change.
	      Three  exceptions to this are: (1) a newly created item replaces each letter with a
	      "+", (2) an identical item replaces the  dots  with  spaces,  and  (3)  an  unknown
	      attribute replaces each letter with a "?" (this can happen when talking to an older

	      The attribute that is associated with each letter is as follows:

	      o      A c means the checksum of the file is different and will be updated  by  the
		     file transfer (requires --checksum).

	      o      A	s means the size of the file is different and will be updated by the file

	      o      A t means the modification time is different and is  being  updated  to  the
		     sender's  value  (requires --times).  An alternate value of T means that the
		     time will be set to the transfer time, which happens anytime  a  symlink  is
		     transferred, or when a file or device is transferred without --times.

	      o      A	p  means  the  permissions  are  different  and  are being updated to the
		     sender's value (requires --perms).

	      o      An o means the owner is different and is being updated to the sender's value
		     (requires --owner and super-user privileges).

	      o      A	g means the group is different and is being updated to the sender's value
		     (requires --group and the authority to set the group).

	      o      The z slot is reserved for future use.

	      One other output is possible:  when deleting files, the "%i" will output the string
	      "*deleting" for each item that is being removed (assuming that you are talking to a
	      recent enough rsync that it logs deletions instead of outputting them as a  verbose

	      This  allows  you to specify exactly what the rsync client outputs to the user on a
	      per-update basis.  The format is a text string containing embedded single-character
	      escape sequences prefixed with a percent (%) character.  For a list of the possible
	      escape characters, see the "log format" setting in the rsyncd.conf manpage.

	      Specifying this option will mention each file, dir, etc. that  gets  updated  in	a
	      significant  way	(a  transferred  file,	a  recreated symlink/device, or a touched
	      directory).  In addition, if the itemize-changes escape (%i)  is	included  in  the
	      string,  the  logging of names increases to mention any item that is changed in any
	      way (as long as the receiving side is at least 2.6.4).  See  the	--itemize-changes
	      option for a description of the output of "%i".

	      The --verbose option implies a format of "%n%L", but you can use --out-format with-
	      out --verbose if you like, or you can override the format of  its  per-file  output
	      using this option.

	      Rsync  will  output  the out-format string prior to a file's transfer unless one of
	      the transfer-statistic escapes is requested, in which case the logging is  done  at
	      the end of the file's transfer.  When this late logging is in effect and --progress
	      is also specified, rsync will also output the name of the  file  being  transferred
	      prior to its progress information (followed, of course, by the out-format output).

	      This option causes rsync to log what it is doing to a file.  This is similar to the
	      logging that a daemon does, but can be requested for the	client	side  and/or  the
	      server  side  of	a non-daemon transfer.	If specified as a client option, transfer
	      logging  will  be  enabled  with	a  default  format  of	"%i   %n%L".	See   the
	      --log-file-format option if you wish to override this.

	      Here's a example command that requests the remote side to log what is happening:

		rsync -av --rsync-path="rsync --log-file=/tmp/rlog" src/ dest/

	      This is very useful if you need to debug why a connection is closing unexpectedly.

	      This  allows  you  to  specify exactly what per-update logging is put into the file
	      specified by the --log-file option (which must also be specified for this option to
	      have  any  effect).  If you specify an empty string, updated files will not be men-
	      tioned in the log file.  For a list of the possible escape characters, see the "log
	      format" setting in the rsyncd.conf manpage.

	      This  tells rsync to print a verbose set of statistics on the file transfer, allow-
	      ing you to tell how effective the rsync algorithm is for your data.

	      The current statistics are as follows:

	      o      Number of files is the count of all "files" (in the  generic  sense),  which
		     includes directories, symlinks, etc.

	      o      Number  of  files transferred is the count of normal files that were updated
		     via the rsync algorithm, which does not include created dirs, symlinks, etc.

	      o      Total file size is the total sum of all file sizes in  the  transfer.   This
		     does  not	count any size for directories or special files, but does include
		     the size of symlinks.

	      o      Total transferred file size is the total sum of all files sizes for just the
		     transferred files.

	      o      Literal  data  is	how much unmatched file-update data we had to send to the
		     receiver for it to recreate the updated files.

	      o      Matched data is how much data the receiver got locally when  recreating  the
		     updated files.

	      o      File  list size is how big the file-list data was when the sender sent it to
		     the receiver.  This is smaller than the in-memory size for the file list due
		     to some compressing of duplicated data when rsync sends the list.

	      o      File  list  generation  time  is the number of seconds that the sender spent
		     creating the file list.  This requires a modern rsync on  the  sending  side
		     for this to be present.

	      o      File list transfer time is the number of seconds that the sender spent send-
		     ing the file list to the receiver.

	      o      Total bytes sent is the count of all the bytes  that  rsync  sent	from  the
		     client side to the server side.

	      o      Total  bytes  received  is  the  count  of  all non-message bytes that rsync
		     received by the client side from the server side.	"Non-message" bytes means
		     that  we don't count the bytes for a verbose message that the server sent to
		     us, which makes the stats more consistent.

       -8, --8-bit-output
	      This tells rsync to leave all high-bit characters unescaped in the  output  instead
	      of  trying  to test them to see if they're valid in the current locale and escaping
	      the invalid ones.  All control characters (but  never  tabs)  are  always  escaped,
	      regardless of this option's setting.

	      The  escape  idiom that started in 2.6.7 is to output a literal backslash (\) and a
	      hash (#), followed by exactly 3 octal digits.  For example, a newline would  output
	      as  "\#012".  A literal backslash that is in a filename is not escaped unless it is
	      followed by a hash and 3 digits (0-9).

       -h, --human-readable
	      Output numbers in a more human-readable format.	This  makes  big  numbers  output
	      using  larger  units, with a K, M, or G suffix.  If this option was specified once,
	      these units are K (1000), M (1000*1000), and G (1000*1000*1000); if the  option  is
	      repeated, the units are powers of 1024 instead of 1000.

	      By  default,  rsync  will  delete any partially transferred file if the transfer is
	      interrupted. In some circumstances it is more desirable to  keep	partially  trans-
	      ferred files. Using the --partial option tells rsync to keep the partial file which
	      should make a subsequent transfer of the rest of the file much faster.

	      A better way to keep partial files than the --partial option is to  specify  a  DIR
	      that will be used to hold the partial data (instead of writing it out to the desti-
	      nation file).  On the next transfer, rsync will use a file found	in  this  dir  as
	      data  to	speed  up  the resumption of the transfer and then delete it after it has
	      served its purpose.

	      Note that if --whole-file is specified (or implied), any partial-dir file  that  is
	      found for a file that is being updated will simply be removed (since rsync is send-
	      ing files without using the incremental rsync algorithm).

	      Rsync will create the DIR if it is missing (just the last  dir  --  not  the  whole
	      path).	This   makes   it   easy   to  use  a  relative  path  (such  as  "--par-
	      tial-dir=.rsync-partial") to have rsync create the partial-directory in the  desti-
	      nation file's directory when needed, and then remove it again when the partial file
	      is deleted.

	      If the partial-dir value is not an absolute path, rsync will add an exclude rule at
	      the  end	of all your existing excludes.	This will prevent the sending of any par-
	      tial-dir files that may exist on the  sending  side,  and  will  also  prevent  the
	      untimely	deletion  of  partial-dir  items  on the receiving side.  An example: the
	      above --partial-dir option would add the equivalent of  "--exclude=.rsync-partial/"
	      at the end of any other filter rules.

	      If  you  are  supplying  your  own  exclude  rules,  you	may  need to add your own
	      exclude/hide/protect rule for the partial-dir because (1) the auto-added	rule  may
	      be  ineffective  at  the	end  of your other rules, or (2) you may wish to override
	      rsync's exclude choice.  For instance, if you want to make rsync clean-up any left-
	      over  partial-dirs  that may be lying around, you should specify --delete-after and
	      add  a  "risk"  filter  rule,  e.g.   -f	 'R   .rsync-partial/'.    (Avoid   using
	      --delete-before  or  --delete-during  unless you don't need rsync to use any of the
	      left-over partial-dir data during the current run.)

	      IMPORTANT: the --partial-dir should not be writable by other users or it is a secu-
	      rity risk.  E.g. AVOID "/tmp".

	      You  can also set the partial-dir value the RSYNC_PARTIAL_DIR environment variable.
	      Setting this in the environment does not force --partial to be enabled, but  rather
	      it  affects  where  partial  files  go  when --partial is specified.  For instance,
	      instead of using --partial-dir=.rsync-tmp along  with  --progress,  you  could  set
	      RSYNC_PARTIAL_DIR=.rsync-tmp in your environment and then just use the -P option to
	      turn on the use of the .rsync-tmp dir for partial transfers.  The only  times  that
	      the  --partial  option  does  not  look  for  this  environment  value are (1) when
	      --inplace was specified (since --inplace conflicts  with	--partial-dir),  and  (2)
	      when --delay-updates was specified (see below).

	      For  the	purposes  of  the daemon-config's "refuse options" setting, --partial-dir
	      does not imply --partial.  This is so that a refusal of the --partial option can be
	      used  to	disallow  the  overwriting  of destination files with a partial transfer,
	      while still allowing the safer idiom provided by --partial-dir.

	      This option puts the temporary file from each updated file into a holding directory
	      until  the  end of the transfer, at which time all the files are renamed into place
	      in rapid succession.  This attempts to make the updating of the files a little more
	      atomic.	By  default  the files are placed into a directory named ".~tmp~" in each
	      file's destination directory, but if you've  specified  the  --partial-dir  option,
	      that directory will be used instead.  See the comments in the --partial-dir section
	      for a discussion of how this ".~tmp~" dir will be excluded from the  transfer,  and
	      what  you can do if you wnat rsync to cleanup old ".~tmp~" dirs that might be lying
	      around.  Conflicts with --inplace and --append.

	      This option uses more memory on the receiving side (one bit per  file  transferred)
	      and  also  requires  enough  free disk space on the receiving side to hold an addi-
	      tional copy of all the updated files.  Note also that you should not use	an  abso-
	      lute path to --partial-dir unless (1) there is no chance of any of the files in the
	      transfer having the same name (since all the updated files will be put into a  sin-
	      gle  directory  if  the  path is absolute) and (2) there are no mount points in the
	      hierarchy (since the delayed updates will  fail  if  they  can't	be  renamed  into

	      See also the "atomic-rsync" perl script in the "support" subdir for an update algo-
	      rithm that is even more atomic (it uses --link-dest and  a  parallel  hierarchy  of

       -m, --prune-empty-dirs
	      This  option  tells  the	receiving  rsync to get rid of empty directories from the
	      file-list, including nested directories that have no non-directory children.   This
	      is  useful  for  avoiding  the  creation of a bunch of useless directories when the
	      sending	rsync	is   recursively   scanning   a   hierarchy   of   files    using
	      include/exclude/filter rules.

	      Because  the  file-list  is  actually  being  pruned, this option also affects what
	      directories get deleted when a delete  is  active.   However,  keep  in  mind  that
	      excluded	files  and  directories  can  prevent  existing  items from being deleted
	      (because an exclude hides source files and protects destination files).

	      You can prevent the pruning of certain empty  directories  from  the  file-list  by
	      using  a	global "protect" filter.  For instance, this option would ensure that the
	      directory "emptydir" was kept in the file-list:

	      --filter 'protect emptydir/'

	      Here's an example that copies all .pdf files in a hierarchy, only creating the nec-
	      essary  destination directories to hold the .pdf files, and ensures that any super-
	      fluous files and directories in the destination are removed (note the  hide  filter
	      of non-directories being used instead of an exclude):

	      rsync -avm --del --include='*.pdf' -f 'hide,! */' src/ dest

	      If  you  didn't want to remove superfluous destination files, the more time-honored
	      options of "--include='*/' --exclude='*'" would work fine in place of the hide-fil-
	      ter (if that is more natural to you).

	      This  option tells rsync to print information showing the progress of the transfer.
	      This gives a bored user something to watch.  Implies --verbose if it wasn't already

	      While  rsync  is transferring a regular file, it updates a progress line that looks
	      like this:

		    782448  63%  110.64kB/s    0:00:04

	      In this example, the receiver has reconstructed 782448 bytes or 63% of the sender's
	      file,  which  is	being reconstructed at a rate of 110.64 kilobytes per second, and
	      the transfer will finish in 4 seconds if the current rate is maintained  until  the

	      These statistics can be misleading if the incremental transfer algorithm is in use.
	      For example, if the sender's file consists of the basis file followed by additional
	      data,  the  reported rate will probably drop dramatically when the receiver gets to
	      the literal data, and the transfer will probably take much longer  to  finish  than
	      the receiver estimated as it was finishing the matched part of the file.

	      When  the  file  transfer finishes, rsync replaces the progress line with a summary
	      line that looks like this:

		   1238099 100%  146.38kB/s    0:00:08	(xfer#5, to-check=169/396)

	      In this example, the file was 1238099 bytes long in  total,  the	average  rate  of
	      transfer for the whole file was 146.38 kilobytes per second over the 8 seconds that
	      it took to complete, it was the 5th transfer of a regular file during  the  current
	      rsync  session,  and  there are 169 more files for the receiver to check (to see if
	      they are up-to-date or not) remaining out of the 396 total files in the file-list.

       -P     The -P option is equivalent to --partial --progress.  Its purpose  is  to  make  it
	      much  easier  to	specify  these two options for a long transfer that may be inter-

	      This option allows you to provide a password in a file for accessing a remote rsync
	      daemon.  Note  that this option is only useful when accessing an rsync daemon using
	      the built in transport, not when using a remote shell as the  transport.	The  file
	      must not be world readable. It should contain just the password as a single line.

	      This  option will cause the source files to be listed instead of transferred.  This
	      option is inferred if there is a single source arg and no destination specified, so
	      its  main uses are: (1) to turn a copy command that includes a destination arg into
	      a file-listing command, (2) to be able to specify more than one  local  source  arg
	      (note: be sure to include the destination), or (3) to avoid the automatically added
	      "-r --exclude='/*/*'" options that rsync usually uses as a compatibility kluge when
	      generating a non-recursive listing.  Caution: keep in mind that a source arg with a
	      wild-card is expanded by the shell into multiple args, so it is never safe  to  try
	      to list such an arg without using this option.  For example:

		  rsync -av --list-only foo* dest/

	      This  option allows you to specify a maximum transfer rate in kilobytes per second.
	      This option is most effective when using rsync with large files (several	megabytes
	      and  up).  Due  to  the nature of rsync transfers, blocks of data are sent, then if
	      rsync determines the transfer was too fast, it will wait before  sending	the  next
	      data  block. The result is an average transfer rate equaling the specified limit. A
	      value of zero specifies no limit.

	      Record a file that can later be  applied	to  another  identical	destination  with
	      --read-batch.   See   the   "BATCH   MODE"   section  for  details,  and	also  the
	      --only-write-batch option.

	      Works like --write-batch, except that no updates are made on the destination system
	      when  creating  the  batch.  This lets you transport the changes to the destination
	      system via some other means and then apply the changes via --read-batch.

	      Note that you can feel free to write the batch directly to some portable media:  if
	      this  media  fills  to  capacity before the end of the transfer, you can just apply
	      that partial transfer to the destination and repeat the whole process  to  get  the
	      rest of the changes (as long as you don't mind a partially updated destination sys-
	      tem while the multi-update cycle is happening).

	      Also note that you only save bandwidth when pushing  changes  to	a  remote  system
	      because  this allows the batched data to be diverted from the sender into the batch
	      file without having to flow over the wire to the receiver (when pulling, the sender
	      is remote, and thus can't write the batch).

	      Apply  all  of  the  changes  stored  in	FILE,  a  file	previously  generated  by
	      --write-batch.  If FILE is -, the batch data will be read from standard input.  See
	      the "BATCH MODE" section for details.

	      Force  an  older	protocol version to be used.  This is useful for creating a batch
	      file that is compatible with an older version of rsync.	For  instance,	if  rsync
	      2.6.4  is being used with the --write-batch option, but rsync 2.6.3 is what will be
	      used to run the --read-batch option, you should use "--protocol=28"  when  creating
	      the  batch  file	to  force the older protocol version to be used in the batch file
	      (assuming you can't upgrade the rsync on the reading system).

       -4, --ipv4 or -6, --ipv6
	      Tells rsync to prefer IPv4/IPv6 when creating sockets.  This only  affects  sockets
	      that  rsync has direct control over, such as the outgoing socket when directly con-
	      tacting an rsync daemon.	See also these options in the --daemon mode section.

	      Set the MD4 checksum seed to the	integer  NUM.	This  4  byte  checksum  seed  is
	      included	in each block and file MD4 checksum calculation.  By default the checksum
	      seed is generated by the server and defaults to the current time() .   This  option
	      is used to set a specific checksum seed, which is useful for applications that want
	      repeatable block and file checksums, or in the case where the  user  wants  a  more
	      random  checksum	seed.  Note that setting NUM to 0 causes rsync to use the default
	      of time() for checksum seed.

       The options allowed when starting an rsync daemon are as follows:

	      This tells rsync that it is to run as a daemon.  The daemon you start  running  may
	      be  accessed  using  an rsync client using the host::module or rsync://host/module/

	      If standard input is a socket then rsync will assume  that  it  is  being  run  via
	      inetd,  otherwise  it will detach from the current terminal and become a background
	      daemon.  The daemon will read the config file (rsyncd.conf) on each connect made by
	      a  client and respond to requests accordingly.  See the rsyncd.conf(5) man page for
	      more details.

	      By default rsync will bind to the wildcard address when run as a	daemon	with  the
	      --daemon	option.  The --address option allows you to specify a specific IP address
	      (or hostname) to bind to.  This makes virtual hosting possible in conjunction  with
	      the  --config option.  See also the "address" global option in the rsyncd.conf man-

	      This option allows you to specify a maximum transfer rate in kilobytes  per  second
	      for  the	data  the daemon sends.  The client can still specify a smaller --bwlimit
	      value, but their requested value will be rounded down if they  try  to  exceed  it.
	      See the client version of this option (above) for some extra details.

	      This  specifies  an  alternate config file than the default.  This is only relevant
	      when --daemon is specified.  The default is /etc/rsyncd.conf unless the  daemon  is
	      running  over  a remote shell program and the remote user is not the super-user; in
	      that case the default is rsyncd.conf in the current directory (typically $HOME).

	      When running as a daemon, this option instructs rsync  to  not  detach  itself  and
	      become  a background process.  This option is required when running as a service on
	      Cygwin, and may also be useful when rsync is supervised by a program such  as  dae-
	      montools or AIX's System Resource Controller.  --no-detach is also recommended when
	      rsync is run under a debugger.  This option has no effect  if  rsync  is	run  from
	      inetd or sshd.

	      This specifies an alternate TCP port number for the daemon to listen on rather than
	      the default of 873.  See also the "port" global option in the rsyncd.conf manpage.

	      This option tells the rsync daemon to use the given log-file name instead of  using
	      the "log file" setting in the config file.

	      This  option tells the rsync daemon to use the given FORMAT string instead of using
	      the "log format" setting in the config file.  It also  enables  "transfer  logging"
	      unless the string is empty, in which case transfer logging is turned off.

	      This  overrides the socket options setting in the rsyncd.conf file and has the same

       -v, --verbose
	      This option increases the amount of information the daemon logs during its  startup
	      phase.   After the client connects, the daemon's verbosity level will be controlled
	      by the options that the client used and the "max verbosity" setting in the module's
	      config section.

       -4, --ipv4 or -6, --ipv6
	      Tells  rsync  to prefer IPv4/IPv6 when creating the incoming sockets that the rsync
	      daemon will use to listen for connections.  One of these options may be required in
	      older  versions  of  Linux  to work around an IPv6 bug in the kernel (if you see an
	      "address already in use" error when nothing else is using the port, try  specifying
	      --ipv6 or --ipv4 when starting the daemon).

       -h, --help
	      When  specified  after  --daemon,  print	a  short help page describing the options
	      available for starting an rsync daemon.

       The filter rules allow for flexible selection of which files  to  transfer  (include)  and
       which files to skip (exclude).  The rules either directly specify include/exclude patterns
       or they specify a way to acquire more include/exclude patterns (e.g. to read them  from	a

       As the list of files/directories to transfer is built, rsync checks each name to be trans-
       ferred against the list of include/exclude patterns in turn, and the first  matching  pat-
       tern  is  acted	on:   if it is an exclude pattern, then that file is skipped; if it is an
       include pattern then that filename is not skipped; if no matching pattern is  found,  then
       the filename is not skipped.

       Rsync  builds  an  ordered  list of filter rules as specified on the command-line.  Filter
       rules have the following syntax:


       You have your choice of using either short or long RULE names, as described below.  If you
       use  a  short-named rule, the ',' separating the RULE from the MODIFIERS is optional.  The
       PATTERN or FILENAME that follows (when present) must come after either a single	space  or
       an underscore (_).  Here are the available rule prefixes:

	      exclude, - specifies an exclude pattern.
	      include, + specifies an include pattern.
	      merge, . specifies a merge-file to read for more rules.
	      dir-merge, : specifies a per-directory merge-file.
	      hide, H specifies a pattern for hiding files from the transfer.
	      show, S files that match the pattern are not hidden.
	      protect, P specifies a pattern for protecting files from deletion.
	      risk, R files that match the pattern are not protected.
	      clear, ! clears the current include/exclude list (takes no arg)

       When  rules are being read from a file, empty lines are ignored, as are comment lines that
       start with a "#".

       Note that the --include/--exclude command-line options do not allow the full range of rule
       parsing	as  described  above -- they only allow the specification of include/exclude pat-
       terns plus a "!" token to clear the list (and the normal comment parsing  when  rules  are
       read  from  a  file).   If a pattern does not begin with "- " (dash, space) or "+ " (plus,
       space), then the rule will be interpreted as if "+ " (for an include option) or "- "  (for
       an  exclude  option)  were  prefixed to the string.  A --filter option, on the other hand,
       must always contain either a short or long rule name at the start of the rule.

       Note also that the --filter, --include, and --exclude options take one rule/pattern  each.
       To  add	multiple ones, you can repeat the options on the command-line, use the merge-file
       syntax of the --filter option, or the --include-from/--exclude-from options.

       You can include and exclude files by specifying patterns using the "+", "-",  etc.  filter
       rules  (as  introduced in the FILTER RULES section above).  The include/exclude rules each
       specify a pattern that is matched against the names of the files  that  are  going  to  be
       transferred.  These patterns can take several forms:

       o      if  the  pattern	starts	with  a / then it is anchored to a particular spot in the
	      hierarchy of files, otherwise it is matched against the end of the pathname.   This
	      is  similar  to a leading ^ in regular expressions.  Thus "/foo" would match a file
	      named "foo" at either the "root of the transfer" (for a  global  rule)  or  in  the
	      merge-file's  directory  (for  a	per-directory  rule).  An unqualified "foo" would
	      match any file or directory named "foo" anywhere in the tree because the	algorithm
	      is applied recursively from the top down; it behaves as if each path component gets
	      a turn at being the end of the file name.   Even	the  unanchored  "sub/foo"  would
	      match  at  any  point  in  the hierarchy where a "foo" was found within a directory
	      named "sub".  See the section on ANCHORING INCLUDE/EXCLUDE PATTERNS for a full dis-
	      cussion of how to specify a pattern that matches at the root of the transfer.

       o      if the pattern ends with a / then it will only match a directory, not a file, link,
	      or device.

       o      rsync chooses between doing a simple string match and wildcard matching by checking
	      if the pattern contains one of these three wildcard characters: '*', '?', and '[' .

       o      a '*' matches any non-empty path component (it stops at slashes).

       o      use '**' to match anything, including slashes.

       o      a '?' matches any character except a slash (/).

       o      a '[' introduces a character class, such as [a-z] or [[:alpha:]].

       o      in  a wildcard pattern, a backslash can be used to escape a wildcard character, but
	      it is matched literally when no wildcards are present.

       o      if the pattern contains a / (not counting a trailing /)  or  a  "**",  then  it  is
	      matched  against	the full pathname, including any leading directories. If the pat-
	      tern doesn't contain a / or a "**", then it is matched only against the final  com-
	      ponent  of  the  filename.   (Remember that the algorithm is applied recursively so
	      "full filename" can actually be any portion of a path from the  starting	directory
	      on down.)

       o      a trailing "dir_name/***" will match both the directory (as if "dir_name/" had been
	      specified) and all the files in the directory (as if "dir_name/**" had been  speci-
	      fied).  (This behavior is new for version 2.6.7.)

       Note  that, when using the --recursive (-r) option (which is implied by -a), every subcom-
       ponent of every path is visited from the top down, so include/exclude patterns get applied
       recursively to each subcomponent's full name (e.g. to include "/foo/bar/baz" the subcompo-
       nents "/foo" and "/foo/bar" must not be excluded).  The exclude patterns  actually  short-
       circuit	the  directory	traversal stage when rsync finds the files to send.  If a pattern
       excludes a particular parent directory, it can render a deeper include pattern ineffectual
       because	rsync  did  not  descend through that excluded section of the hierarchy.  This is
       particularly important when using a trailing '*' rule.  For instance, this won't work:

	      + /some/path/this-file-will-not-be-found
	      + /file-is-included
	      - *

       This fails because the parent directory "some" is excluded by the '*' rule, so rsync never
       visits  any of the files in the "some" or "some/path" directories.  One solution is to ask
       for all directories in the hierarchy to be included by using a single rule: "+ */" (put it
       somewhere  before the "- *" rule), and perhaps use the --prune-empty-dirs option.  Another
       solution is to add specific include rules for all the parent dirs that need to be visited.
       For instance, this set of rules works fine:

	      + /some/
	      + /some/path/
	      + /some/path/this-file-is-found
	      + /file-also-included
	      - *

       Here are some examples of exclude/include matching:

       o      "- *.o" would exclude all filenames matching *.o

       o      "-  /foo" would exclude a file (or directory) named foo in the transfer-root direc-

       o      "- foo/" would exclude any directory named foo

       o      "- /foo/*/bar" would exclude any file named bar which is	at  two  levels  below	a
	      directory named foo in the transfer-root directory

       o      "-  /foo/**/bar" would exclude any file named bar two or more levels below a direc-
	      tory named foo in the transfer-root directory

       o      The combination of "+ */", "+ *.c", and "- *" would include all directories  and	C
	      source files but nothing else (see also the --prune-empty-dirs option)

       o      The  combination	of  "+ foo/", "+ foo/bar.c", and "- *" would include only the foo
	      directory and foo/bar.c (the foo directory must be explicitly included or it  would
	      be excluded by the "*")

       You  can  merge	whole  files into your filter rules by specifying either a merge (.) or a
       dir-merge (:) filter rule (as introduced in the FILTER RULES section above).

       There are two kinds of merged files -- single-instance ('.') and per-directory  (':').	A
       single-instance	merge file is read one time, and its rules are incorporated into the fil-
       ter list in the place of the "."  rule.	For per-directory merge files,	rsync  will  scan
       every  directory  that it traverses for the named file, merging its contents when the file
       exists into the current list of inherited rules.  These per-directory rule files  must  be
       created	on  the sending side because it is the sending side that is being scanned for the
       available files to transfer.  These rule files may also need  to  be  transferred  to  the
       receiving  side if you want them to affect what files don't get deleted (see PER-DIRECTORY
       RULES AND DELETE below).

       Some examples:

	      merge /etc/rsync/default.rules
	      . /etc/rsync/default.rules
	      dir-merge .per-dir-filter
	      dir-merge,n- .non-inherited-per-dir-excludes
	      :n- .non-inherited-per-dir-excludes

       The following modifiers are accepted after a merge or dir-merge rule:

       o      A - specifies that the file should consist of only exclude patterns, with no  other
	      rule-parsing except for in-file comments.

       o      A  + specifies that the file should consist of only include patterns, with no other
	      rule-parsing except for in-file comments.

       o      A C is a way to specify that the file should be read in  a  CVS-compatible  manner.
	      This  turns on 'n', 'w', and '-', but also allows the list-clearing token (!) to be
	      specified.  If no filename is provided, ".cvsignore" is assumed.

       o      A e will exclude the merge-file name from the transfer; e.g.  "dir-merge,e  .rules"
	      is like "dir-merge .rules" and "- .rules".

       o      An n specifies that the rules are not inherited by subdirectories.

       o      A  w  specifies  that  the rules are word-split on whitespace instead of the normal
	      line-splitting.  This also turns off comments.  Note: the space that separates  the
	      prefix  from the rule is treated specially, so "- foo + bar" is parsed as two rules
	      (assuming that prefix-parsing wasn't also disabled).

       o      You may also specify any of the modifiers for the "+" or "-" rules (below) in order
	      to  have	the  rules that are read in from the file default to having that modifier
	      set.  For instance, "merge,-/ .excl" would treat the contents of .excl as absolute-
	      path  excludes,  while "dir-merge,s .filt" and ":sC" would each make all their per-
	      directory rules apply only on the sending side.

       The following modifiers are accepted after a "+" or "-":

       o      A "/" specifies that the include/exclude rule should be matched against  the  abso-
	      lute pathname of the current item.  For example, "-/ /etc/passwd" would exclude the
	      passwd file any time the transfer was sending files from the "/etc" directory,  and
	      "-/ subdir/foo" would always exclude "foo" when it is in a dir named "subdir", even
	      if "foo" is at the root of the current transfer.

       o      A "!" specifies that the include/exclude should take effect if the pattern fails to
	      match.  For instance, "-! */" would exclude all non-directories.

       o      A C is used to indicate that all the global CVS-exclude rules should be inserted as
	      excludes in place of the "-C".  No arg should follow.

       o      An s is used to indicate that the rule applies to the sending side.   When  a  rule
	      affects the sending side, it prevents files from being transferred.  The default is
	      for a rule to affect both sides unless --delete-excluded was  specified,	in  which
	      case  default  rules  become  sender-side only.  See also the hide (H) and show (S)
	      rules, which are an alternate way to specify sending-side includes/excludes.

       o      An r is used to indicate that the rule applies to the receiving side.  When a  rule
	      affects  the receiving side, it prevents files from being deleted.  See the s modi-
	      fier for more info.  See also the protect (P) and risk  (R)  rules,  which  are  an
	      alternate way to specify receiver-side includes/excludes.

       Per-directory  rules are inherited in all subdirectories of the directory where the merge-
       file was found unless the 'n' modifier was used.  Each subdirectory's rules  are  prefixed
       to  the	inherited  per-directory  rules  from its parents, which gives the newest rules a
       higher priority than the inherited rules.  The entire set of dir-merge rules  are  grouped
       together  in  the  spot	where the merge-file was specified, so it is possible to override
       dir-merge rules via a rule that got specified earlier in the list of global  rules.   When
       the  list-clearing rule ("!") is read from a per-directory file, it only clears the inher-
       ited rules for the current merge file.

       Another way to prevent a single rule from a dir-merge file  from  being	inherited  is  to
       anchor it with a leading slash.	Anchored rules in a per-directory merge-file are relative
       to the merge-file's directory, so a pattern "/foo" would only match the file "foo" in  the
       directory where the dir-merge filter file was found.

       Here's an example filter file which you'd specify via --filter=". file":

	      merge /home/user/.global-filter
	      - *.gz
	      dir-merge .rules
	      + *.[ch]
	      - *.o

       This  will  merge  the  contents of the /home/user/.global-filter file at the start of the
       list and also turns the ".rules" filename into a per-directory  filter  file.   All  rules
       read in prior to the start of the directory scan follow the global anchoring rules (i.e. a
       leading slash matches at the root of the transfer).

       If a per-directory merge-file is specified with a path that is a parent directory  of  the
       first  transfer directory, rsync will scan all the parent dirs from that starting point to
       the transfer directory for the indicated per-directory file.  For instance, here is a com-
       mon filter (see -F):

	      --filter=': /.rsync-filter'

       That  rule tells rsync to scan for the file .rsync-filter in all directories from the root
       down through the parent directory of the transfer prior to the start of the normal  direc-
       tory  scan of the file in the directories that are sent as a part of the transfer.  (Note:
       for an rsync daemon, the root is always the same as the module's "path".)

       Some examples of this pre-scanning for per-directory files:

	      rsync -avF /src/path/ /dest/dir
	      rsync -av --filter=': ../../.rsync-filter' /src/path/ /dest/dir
	      rsync -av --filter=': .rsync-filter' /src/path/ /dest/dir

       The first two commands above will look for ".rsync-filter" in "/" and  "/src"  before  the
       normal  scan  begins looking for the file in "/src/path" and its subdirectories.  The last
       command avoids the parent-dir scan and only looks for the ".rsync-filter"  files  in  each
       directory that is a part of the transfer.

       If you want to include the contents of a ".cvsignore" in your patterns, you should use the
       rule ":C", which creates a dir-merge of the .cvsignore file, but parsed in a  CVS-compati-
       ble manner.  You can use this to affect where the --cvs-exclude (-C) option's inclusion of
       the per-directory .cvsignore file gets placed into your rules by putting the ":C" wherever
       you  like  in your filter rules.  Without this, rsync would add the dir-merge rule for the
       .cvsignore file at the end of all your other rules (giving it a lower priority  than  your
       command-line rules).  For example:

	      cat <<EOT | rsync -avC --filter='. -' a/ b
	      + foo.o
	      - *.old
	      rsync -avC --include=foo.o -f :C --exclude='*.old' a/ b

       Both of the above rsync commands are identical.	Each one will merge all the per-directory
       .cvsignore rules in the middle of the list rather than at the end.  This allows their dir-
       specific  rules	to supersede the rules that follow the :C instead of being subservient to
       all your rules.	To affect the other CVS exclude rules (i.e. the default  list  of  exclu-
       sions,  the contents of $HOME/.cvsignore, and the value of $CVSIGNORE) you should omit the
       -C command-line option and instead insert a "-C" rule into your filter rules; e.g. "--fil-

       You can clear the current include/exclude list by using the "!" filter rule (as introduced
       in the FILTER RULES section above).  The "current" list is either the global list of rules
       (if  the  rule  is encountered while parsing the filter options) or a set of per-directory
       rules (which are inherited in their own sub-list, so a subdirectory can use this to  clear
       out the parent's rules).

       As  mentioned  earlier,	global	include/exclude patterns are anchored at the "root of the
       transfer" (as opposed to per-directory patterns, which are anchored  at	the  merge-file's
       directory).   If  you think of the transfer as a subtree of names that are being sent from
       sender to receiver, the transfer-root is where the tree starts to  be  duplicated  in  the
       destination directory.  This root governs where patterns that start with a / match.

       Because	the  matching  is relative to the transfer-root, changing the trailing slash on a
       source path or changing your use of the --relative option affects the path you need to use
       in  your  matching (in addition to changing how much of the file tree is duplicated on the
       destination host).  The following examples demonstrate this.

       Let's say that we  want	to  match  two	source	files,	one  with  an  absolute  path  of
       "/home/me/foo/bar",  and  one with a path of "/home/you/bar/baz".  Here is how the various
       command choices differ for a 2-source transfer:

	      Example cmd: rsync -a /home/me /home/you /dest
	      +/- pattern: /me/foo/bar
	      +/- pattern: /you/bar/baz
	      Target file: /dest/me/foo/bar
	      Target file: /dest/you/bar/baz

	      Example cmd: rsync -a /home/me/ /home/you/ /dest
	      +/- pattern: /foo/bar		  (note missing "me")
	      +/- pattern: /bar/baz		  (note missing "you")
	      Target file: /dest/foo/bar
	      Target file: /dest/bar/baz

	      Example cmd: rsync -a --relative /home/me/ /home/you /dest
	      +/- pattern: /home/me/foo/bar	  (note full path)
	      +/- pattern: /home/you/bar/baz	  (ditto)
	      Target file: /dest/home/me/foo/bar
	      Target file: /dest/home/you/bar/baz

	      Example cmd: cd /home; rsync -a --relative me/foo you/ /dest
	      +/- pattern: /me/foo/bar	    (starts at specified path)
	      +/- pattern: /you/bar/baz     (ditto)
	      Target file: /dest/me/foo/bar
	      Target file: /dest/you/bar/baz

       The easiest way to see what name you should filter is to just  look  at	the  output  when
       using  --verbose  and put a / in front of the name (use the --dry-run option if you're not
       yet ready to copy any files).

       Without a delete option, per-directory rules are only relevant on the sending side, so you
       can  feel  free	to exclude the merge files themselves without affecting the transfer.  To
       make this easy, the 'e' modifier adds this exclude for you, as seen in these  two  equiva-
       lent commands:

	      rsync -av --filter=': .excl' --exclude=.excl host:src/dir /dest
	      rsync -av --filter=':e .excl' host:src/dir /dest

       However,  if  you  want to do a delete on the receiving side AND you want some files to be
       excluded from being deleted, you'll need to be sure that the  receiving	side  knows  what
       files  to  exclude.   The  easiest  way is to include the per-directory merge files in the
       transfer and use --delete-after, because this ensures that the receiving side gets all the
       same exclude rules as the sending side before it tries to delete anything:

	      rsync -avF --delete-after host:src/dir /dest

       However,  if the merge files are not a part of the transfer, you'll need to either specify
       some global exclude rules (i.e. specified on the command line), or you'll need to maintain
       your own per-directory merge files on the receiving side.  An example of the first is this
       (assume that the remote .rules files exclude themselves):

       rsync -av --filter=': .rules' --filter='. /my/extra.rules'
	  --delete host:src/dir /dest

       In the above example the extra.rules file can affect both sides of the transfer,  but  (on
       the  sending  side)  the  rules	are subservient to the rules merged from the .rules files
       because they were specified after the per-directory merge rule.

       In one final example, the remote side is excluding the .rsync-filter files from the trans-
       fer,  but  we  want to use our own .rsync-filter files to control what gets deleted on the
       receiving side.	To do this we must specifically exclude the per-directory merge files (so
       that  they don't get deleted) and then put rules into the local files to control what else
       should not get deleted.	Like one of these commands:

	   rsync -av --filter=':e /.rsync-filter' --delete \
	       host:src/dir /dest
	   rsync -avFF --delete host:src/dir /dest

       Batch mode can be used to apply the same set of updates to many identical systems. Suppose
       one  has  a  tree which is replicated on a number of hosts.  Now suppose some changes have
       been made to this source tree and those changes need to be propagated to the other  hosts.
       In  order  to  do this using batch mode, rsync is run with the write-batch option to apply
       the changes made to the source tree to one of  the  destination	trees.	 The  write-batch
       option  causes  the  rsync client to store in a "batch file" all the information needed to
       repeat this operation against other, identical destination trees.

       To apply the recorded changes to another destination tree, run rsync with  the  read-batch
       option,	specifying  the  name  of  the	same batch file, and the destination tree.  Rsync
       updates the destination tree using the information stored in the batch file.

       For convenience, one additional file is creating when  the  write-batch	option	is  used.
       This  file's  name is created by appending ".sh" to the batch filename.	The .sh file con-
       tains a command-line suitable for updating a destination tree using that  batch	file.  It
       can  be executed using a Bourne (or Bourne-like) shell, optionally passing in an alternate
       destination tree pathname which is then used instead of the original path. This is  useful
       when the destination tree path differs from the original destination tree path.

       Generating the batch file once saves having to perform the file status, checksum, and data
       block generation more than once when updating multiple destination trees. Multicast trans-
       port protocols can be used to transfer the batch update files in parallel to many hosts at
       once, instead of sending the same data to every host individually.


	      $ rsync --write-batch=foo -a host:/source/dir/ /adest/dir/
	      $ scp foo* remote:
	      $ ssh remote ./foo.sh /bdest/dir/

	      $ rsync --write-batch=foo -a /source/dir/ /adest/dir/
	      $ ssh remote rsync --read-batch=- -a /bdest/dir/ <foo

       In these examples, rsync is used to update /adest/dir/ from /source/dir/ and the  informa-
       tion  to repeat this operation is stored in "foo" and "foo.sh".	The host "remote" is then
       updated with the batched data  going  into  the	directory  /bdest/dir.	 The  differences
       between	the  two  examples  reveals some of the flexibility you have in how you deal with

       o      The first example shows that the initial copy doesn't have to be local --  you  can
	      push  or	pull  data  to/from a remote host using either the remote-shell syntax or
	      rsync daemon syntax, as desired.

       o      The first example uses the created "foo.sh" file to get  the  right  rsync  options
	      when running the read-batch command on the remote host.

       o      The  second  example reads the batch data via standard input so that the batch file
	      doesn't need to be copied to the remote machine first.   This  example  avoids  the
	      foo.sh  script  because  it  needed  to use a modified --read-batch option, but you
	      could edit the script file if you wished to make use of it (just be  sure  that  no
	      other  option  is  trying  to  use  standard  input, such as the "--exclude-from=-"


       The read-batch option expects the destination tree that it is updating to be identical  to
       the  destination tree that was used to create the batch update fileset.	When a difference
       between the destination trees is encountered the update might be discarded with a  warning
       (if  the  file  appears	to be up-to-date already) or the file-update may be attempted and
       then, if the file fails to verify, the update discarded with an error.  This means that it
       should  be  safe  to re-run a read-batch operation if the command got interrupted.  If you
       wish to force the batched-update to always be attempted regardless of the file's size  and
       date,  use  the	-I  option (when reading the batch).  If an error occurs, the destination
       tree will probably be in a partially updated state. In that case, rsync can be used in its
       regular (non-batch) mode of operation to fix up the destination tree.

       The rsync version used on all destinations must be at least as new as the one used to gen-
       erate the batch file.  Rsync will die with an error if the protocol version in  the  batch
       file is too new for the batch-reading rsync to handle.  See also the --protocol option for
       a way to have the creating rsync generate a batch file that an older rsync can understand.
       (Note that batch files changed format in version 2.6.3, so mixing versions older than that
       with newer versions will not work.)

       When reading a batch file, rsync will force the value of certain options to match the data
       in  the batch file if you didn't set them to the same as the batch-writing command.  Other
       options can (and should) be changed.  For instance --write-batch changes to  --read-batch,
       --files-from  is  dropped,  and	the  --filter/--include/--exclude  options are not needed
       unless one of the --delete options is specified.

       The code that creates the BATCH.sh file transforms any filter/include/exclude options into
       a single list that is appended as a "here" document to the shell script file.  An advanced
       user can use this to modify the exclude list if a change in what gets deleted by  --delete
       is desired.  A normal user can ignore this detail and just use the shell script as an easy
       way to run the appropriate --read-batch command for the batched data.

       The original batch mode in rsync was based on "rsync+", but the latest version uses a  new

       Three  basic  behaviors	are  possible when rsync encounters a symbolic link in the source

       By default, symbolic links are not transferred at all.  A message  "skipping  non-regular"
       file is emitted for any symlinks that exist.

       If  --links is specified, then symlinks are recreated with the same target on the destina-
       tion.  Note that --archive implies --links.

       If --copy-links is specified, then symlinks are "collapsed"  by	copying  their	referent,
       rather than the symlink.

       rsync  also distinguishes "safe" and "unsafe" symbolic links.  An example where this might
       be used is a web site mirror that wishes ensure	the  rsync  module  they  copy	does  not
       include	symbolic  links  to  /etc/passwd  in  the  public  section  of	the  site.  Using
       --copy-unsafe-links will cause any links to be copied as the file they  point  to  on  the
       destination.   Using --safe-links will cause unsafe links to be omitted altogether.  (Note
       that you must specify --links for --safe-links to have any effect.)

       Symbolic links are considered unsafe if they are absolute symlinks (start with /),  empty,
       or if they contain enough ".."  components to ascend from the directory being copied.

       Here's  a  summary  of  how  the symlink options are interpreted.  The list is in order of
       precedence, so if your combination of options isn't mentioned, use the first line that  is
       a complete subset of your options:

	      Turn  all  symlinks into normal files (leaving no symlinks for any other options to

       --links --copy-unsafe-links
	      Turn all unsafe symlinks into files and duplicate all safe symlinks.

	      Turn all unsafe symlinks into files, noisily skip all safe symlinks.

       --links --safe-links
	      Duplicate safe symlinks and skip unsafe ones.

	      Duplicate all symlinks.

       rsync occasionally produces error messages that may seem a little cryptic.  The	one  that
       seems to cause the most confusion is "protocol version mismatch -- is your shell clean?".

       This  message is usually caused by your startup scripts or remote shell facility producing
       unwanted garbage on the stream that rsync is using for its transport. The way to  diagnose
       this problem is to run your remote shell like this:

	      ssh remotehost /bin/true > out.dat

       then  look  at  out.dat.  If everything is working correctly then out.dat should be a zero
       length file. If you are getting the above error from rsync then	you  will  probably  find
       that  out.dat contains some text or data. Look at the contents and try to work out what is
       producing it. The most common cause is incorrectly configured shell startup scripts  (such
       as .cshrc or .profile) that contain output statements for non-interactive logins.

       If  you	are having trouble debugging filter patterns, then try specifying the -vv option.
       At this level of verbosity rsync will  show  why  each  individual  file  is  included  or

       0      Success

       1      Syntax or usage error

       2      Protocol incompatibility

       3      Errors selecting input/output files, dirs

       4      Requested action not supported: an attempt was made to manipulate 64-bit files on a
	      platform that cannot support them; or an option was specified that is supported  by
	      the client and not by the server.

       5      Error starting client-server protocol

       6      Daemon unable to append to log-file

       10     Error in socket I/O

       11     Error in file I/O

       12     Error in rsync protocol data stream

       13     Errors with program diagnostics

       14     Error in IPC code

       20     Received SIGUSR1 or SIGINT

       21     Some error returned by waitpid()

       22     Error allocating core memory buffers

       23     Partial transfer due to error

       24     Partial transfer due to vanished source files

       25     The --max-delete limit stopped deletions

       30     Timeout in data send/receive

	      The  CVSIGNORE  environment  variable supplements any ignore patterns in .cvsignore
	      files. See the --cvs-exclude option for more details.

	      The RSYNC_RSH environment variable allows you to override the default shell used as
	      the  transport  for  rsync.   Command  line options are permitted after the command
	      name, just as in the -e option.

	      The RSYNC_PROXY environment variable allows you to redirect your	rsync  client  to
	      use  a web proxy when connecting to a rsync daemon. You should set RSYNC_PROXY to a
	      hostname:port pair.

	      Setting RSYNC_PASSWORD to the required password allows  you  to  run  authenticated
	      rsync connections to an rsync daemon without user intervention. Note that this does
	      not supply a password to a shell transport such as ssh.

       USER or LOGNAME
	      The USER or LOGNAME environment variables are used to determine the  default  user-
	      name  sent  to  an  rsync  daemon.   If  neither	is  set, the username defaults to

       HOME   The HOME environment variable is used to find the user's default .cvsignore file.

       /etc/rsyncd.conf or rsyncd.conf


       times are transferred as *nix time_t values

       When transferring to FAT filesystems rsync may re-sync unmodified files.  See the comments
       on the --modify-window option.

       file permissions, devices, etc. are transferred as native numerical values

       see also the comments on the --delete option

       Please report bugs! See the website at http://rsync.samba.org/

       This man page is current for version 2.6.9 of rsync.

       The  options --server and --sender are used internally by rsync, and should never be typed
       by a user under normal circumstances.  Some awareness of these options may  be  needed  in
       certain	scenarios,  such  as  when setting up a login that can only run an rsync command.
       For instance, the support directory of the rsync distribution has an example script  named
       rrsync (for restricted rsync) that can be used with a restricted ssh login.

       rsync is distributed under the GNU public license.  See the file COPYING for details.

       A  WEB  site  is  available  at http://rsync.samba.org/.  The site includes an FAQ-O-Matic
       which may cover questions unanswered by this manual page.

       The primary ftp site for rsync is ftp://rsync.samba.org/pub/rsync.

       We would be delighted to hear from you if you like this program.

       This program uses the excellent zlib compression library written by Jean-loup  Gailly  and
       Mark Adler.

       Thanks  to  Richard Brent, Brendan Mackay, Bill Waite, Stephen Rothwell and David Bell for
       helpful suggestions, patches and testing of rsync.  I've probably missed some  people,  my
       apologies if I have.

       Especial  thanks also to: David Dykstra, Jos Backus, Sebastian Krahmer, Martin Pool, Wayne
       Davison, J.W. Schultz.

       rsync was originally written by Andrew Tridgell and  Paul  Mackerras.   Many  people  have
       later contributed to it.

       Mailing lists for support and development are available at http://lists.samba.org

       See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attributes:

       |Availability	    | SUNWrsync       |
       |Interface Stability | Volatile	      |
       Source  for  rsync  is available on http://opensolaris.org.  WARNING: Daemon mode does not
       participate in the core Solaris security  policies,  including  Authentication,	limit  of
       privileges, Audit and Audit of any subprocessing.

					    6 Nov 2006					 rsync(1)
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