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OpenSolaris 2009.06 - man page for rdist (opensolaris section 1)

rdist(1)				  User Commands 				 rdist(1)

       rdist - remote file distribution program

       rdist [-b] [-D] [-h] [-i] [-n] [-q] [-R] [-a] [-K] [-x]
	    [-PN | -PO] [-k realm] [-v] [-w] [-y]
	    [-d macro = value] [-f distfile] [-m host]...

       rdist [-b] [-D] [-h] [-i] [-n] [-q] [-R] [-a] [-K] [-x]
	    [-PN | -PO] [-k realm] [-v] [-w] [-y] -c pathname...
	    [login @] hostname [: destpath]

       The  rdist  utility  maintains  copies of files on multiple hosts. It preserves the owner,
       group, mode, and modification time of the master copies, and can update programs that  are
       executing. (rdist does not propagate ownership or mode changes when the file contents have
       not changed.) Normally, a copy on a remote host is updated if  its  size  or  modification
       time  differs from the original on the local host. With the -y option (younger mode), only
       the modification times are checked, not the size. See OPTIONS below.

       There are two forms of the rdist command. In the first form shown in the SYNOPSIS  section
       above, rdist reads the indicated distfile for instructions on updating files and/or direc-
       tories. If distfile is `-', the standard input is used. If no -f option is present,  rdist
       first  looks  in  its  working directory for distfile, and then for Distfile, for instruc-

       The second form shown in SYNOPSIS uses the -c option and specifies paths as  command  line

       The  user can opt for a secure session of rdist which uses Kerberos V5 for authentication.
       Encryption of the data being transferred is also possible. The rdist session can  be  ker-
       berized	using any of the following Kerberos specific options : -a, -PN or -PO, -x, and -k
       realm. Some of these options (-a, -x, -PN or -PO, and -f or -F) can also be  specified  in
       the  [appdefaults]  section  of	krb5.conf(4). The usage of these options and the expected
       behavior is discussed in the OPTIONS section below. If Kerberos	authentication	is  used,
       authorization  to the account is controlled by rules in krb5_auth_rules(5). If this autho-
       rization fails, fallback to normal rdist using rhosts occurs only if  the  -PO  option  is
       used  explicitly on the command line or is specified in krb5.conf(4). Also notice that the
       -PN or -PO, -x, and -k realm options are just supersets of the -a option. In order to  use
       the  non-secure	version  of  rdist  across  machines,  each  host  machine  must  have	a
       /etc/host.equiv file, or the user must have an entry in	the  .rhosts  file  in	the  home
       directory. See hosts.equiv(4) for more information.

       The following options are supported:


	   This  option  explicitly  enables Kerberos authentication and trusts the .k5login file
	   for access-control. If the authorization check by in.rshd(1M) on the server-side  suc-
	   ceeds  and  if  the .k5login file permits access, the user is allowed to carry out the
	   rdist transfer.


	   Binary comparison. Performs a binary comparison and	updates  files	if  they  differ,
	   rather than merely comparing dates and sizes.

       -c pathname ...[login@]hostname[:destpath]

	   Copies  each  pathname to the named host; if destpath is specified, it does not update
	   any pathname on the named host. (Relative filenames are taken as relative to your home
	   directory.)	If the `login@' prefix is given, the update is performed with the user ID
	   of login. If the `:destpath' is given, the remote file is installed as that pathname.

       -d macro=value

	   Defines macro to have value. This option is used to define or override  macro  defini-
	   tions  in  the  distfile.  value can be the empty string, one name, or a list of names
	   surrounded by parentheses and separated by white space.


	   Enables debugging.

       -f distfile

	   Uses the description file distfile. A `-' as the distfile argument denotes  the  stan-
	   dard input.


	   Follows  symbolic  links. Copies the file that the link points to rather than the link


	   Ignores unresolved links. rdist normally tries to maintain the link structure of files
	   being transferred and warn the user if all the links cannot be found.

       -k realm

	   Causes  rdist  to  obtain  tickets  for the remote host in realm instead of the remote
	   host's realm as determined by krb5.conf(4).


	   This option explicitly disables Kerberos authentication. It can be  used  to  override
	   the autologin variable in krb5.conf(4).

       -m host

	   Limits  which  machines are to be updated. Multiple -m arguments can be given to limit
	   updates to a subset of the hosts listed in the distfile.


	   Prints the commands without executing them. This option is useful for debugging a dis-


	   Explicitly  requests  new  (-PN) or old (-PO) version of the Kerberos "rcmd" protocol.
	   The new protocol avoids many security  problems  prevalant  in  the	old  one  and  is
	   regarded much more secure, but is not interoperable with older (MIT/SEAM) servers. The
	   new protocol is used by default, unless explicitly specified using  these  options  or
	   through krb5.conf(4). If Kerberos authorization fails when using the old "rcmd" proto-
	   col, there is fallback to regular, non-kerberized rdist. This is not the case when the
	   new, more secure "rcmd" protocol is used.


	   Quiet mode. Does not display the files being updated on the standard output.


	   Removes extraneous files. If a directory is being updated, removes files on the remote
	   host that do not correspond to those in the master (local) directory. This  is  useful
	   for maintaining truly identical copies of directories.


	   Verifies  that  the	files  are up to date on all the hosts. Any files that are out of
	   date are displayed, but no files are updated, nor is any mail sent.


	   Whole mode. The whole file name is appended to the destination  directory  name.  Nor-
	   mally,  only  the last component of a name is used when renaming files. This preserves
	   the directory structure of the files being copied, instead of flattening the directory
	   structure. For instance, renaming a list of files such as dir1/dir2 to dir3 would cre-
	   ate files dir3/dir1 and dir3/dir2 instead of dir3 and dir3. When the -w option is used
	   with  a  filename that begins with ~, everything except the home directory is appended
	   to the destination name.


	   Causes the information transferred between hosts to be encrypted. Notice that the com-
	   mand is sent unencrypted to the remote system. All subsequent transfers are encrypted.


	   Younger mode. Does not update remote copies that are younger than the master copy, but
	   issues a warning message instead. Only modification times are checked.  No  comparison
	   of size is made.

   White Space Characters
       NEWLINE,  TAB,  and  SPACE  characters are all treated as white space; a mapping continues
       across input lines until the start of the next mapping: either a single filename  followed
       by a `->' or the opening parenthesis of a filename list.

       Comments begin with # and end with a NEWLINE.

       The  distfile contains a sequence of entries that specify the files to be copied, the des-
       tination files to be copied, the destination hosts, and what operations to perform  to  do
       the updating. Each entry has one of the following formats:

	 variable_name '=' name_list
	 [ label: ] source_list '->' destination_list command_list
	 [ label: ] source_list '::' time_stamp_file command_list

       The  first format is used for defining variables. The second format is used for distribut-
       ing files to other hosts. The third format is used for making lists  of	files  that  have
       been  changed  since  some  given  date.  The source list specifies a list of files and/or
       directories on the local host that are to be used as the master copy for distribution. The
       destination  list is the list of hosts to which these files are to be copied. Each file in
       the source list is added to a list of changes if the file is out of date on the host  that
       is  being  updated (second format) or if the file is newer than the time stamp file (third
       format). Labels are optional. They are used to identify a command for partial updates. The
       colon  (:) is used after an optional label, while the double colon (::) is used for making
       lists of files that have been changed since a certain date (specified by the date/time  of
       the  time_stamp	file). Typically, only notify is used with the '::' format of the command

       rdist has a limited macro facility. Macros are  only  expanded  in  filename  or  hostname
       lists, and in the argument lists of certain primitives. Macros cannot be used to stand for
       primitives or their options, or the `->' or `::' symbols.

       A macro definition is a line of the form:

	 macro = value

       A macro reference is a string of the form:


       although (as with make(1S)) the braces can be omitted if the macro name consists  of  just
       one character.

   Kerberos Access-Control file
       For  the  kerberized rdist session, each user might have a private authorization list in a
       file .k5login in their home directory. Each line in this file should  contain  a  Kerberos
       principal  name	of the form principal/instance@realm. If there is a ~/.k5login file, then
       access is granted to the account if and only if the originater user  is	authenticated  to
       one  of	the  principals  named in the ~/.k5login file. Otherwise, the originating user is
       granted access to the account if and only if the authenticated principal name of the  user
       can  be	mapped to the local account name using the authenticated-principal-name -> local-
       user-name mapping rules. The .k5login file (for access control) comes into play only  when
       Kerberos authentication is being done.

       The  shell  meta-characters: [, ], {, }, * and ? are recognized and expanded (on the local
       host only) just as they are with csh(1). Metacharacters can be  escaped	by  prepending	a

       The ~ character is also expanded in the same way as with csh; however, it is expanded sep-
       arately on the local and destination hosts.

       File names that do not begin with `/' or `~' are taken  to  be  relative  to  user's  home
       directory  on  each  destination host; they are not relative to the current working direc-
       tory. Multiple file names must be enclosed within parentheses.

       The following primitives can be used to specify actions rdist is  to  take  when  updating
       remote copies of each file.

       install [-b] [-h] [-i] [-R] [-v] [-w] [-y] [newname]

	   Copy  out of date files and directories (recursively). If no newname operand is given,
	   the name of the local file is given to the remote host's  copy.  If	absent	from  the
	   remote host, parent directories in a filename's path are created. To help prevent dis-
	   asters, a non-empty directory on a target host is not replaced with a regular file  or
	   a  symbolic link by rdist. However, when using the -R option, a non-empty directory is
	   removed if the corresponding filename is completely absent on the master host.

	   The options for install have the same semantics as their  command  line  counterparts,
	   but	are  limited in scope to a particular map. The login name used on the destination
	   host is the same as the local host unless  the  destination	name  is  of  the  format
	   login@host. In that case, the update is performed under the username login.

       notify address...

	   Send mail to the indicated email address of the form:


	   that  lists	the  files updated and any errors that might have occurred. If an address
	   does not contain a `@host' suffix, rdist uses the name of the destination host to com-
	   plete the address.

       except filename ...

	   Omit from updates the files named as arguments.

       except_pat pattern ...

	   Omit  from updates the filenames that match each regular-expression pattern (see ed(1)
	   for more information on regular expressions). Note that `\' and `$' characters must be
	   escaped  in	the  distfile. Shell variables can also be used within a pattern, however
	   shell filename expansion is not supported.

       special [filename] ... "command-line"

	   Specify a Bourne shell, sh(1) command line to execute on the remote	host  after  each
	   named  file	is  updated. If no filename argument is present, the command-line is per-
	   formed for every updated file, with the shell variable FILE set to the file's name  on
	   the local host. The quotation marks allow command-line to span input lines in the dis-
	   tfile; multiple shell commands must be separated by semicolons (;).

	   The default working directory for the shell executing each command-line is the  user's
	   home directory on the remote host.

       The  rdist command is IPv6-enabled. See ip6(7P). IPv6 is not currently supported with Ker-
       beros V5 authentication.

       Example 1 A Sample distfile

       The following sample distfile instructs rdist to maintain identical  copies  of	a  shared
       library,  a  shared-library initialized data file, several include files, and a directory,
       on hosts named hermes and magus. On magus, commands  are  executed  as  super-user.  rdist
       notifies  merlin@druid  whenever  it discovers that a local file has changed relative to a
       timestamp file. (Parentheses are used when the source or destination list contains zero or
       more names separated by white-space.)

	 HOSTS = ( hermes root@magus )

	 FILES = ( /usr/local/lib/libcant.so.1.1
		      /usrlocal/lib/libcant.sa.1.1 /usr/local/include/{*.h}
		      /usr/local/bin )

	 (${FILES}) -> (${HOSTS})
	       install -R ;
	 ${FILES} :: /usr/local/lib/timestamp
		     notify merlin@druid ;

       ~/.rhosts	      User's trusted hosts and users

       /etc/host.equiv	      system trusted hosts and users

       /tmp/rdist*	      Temporary file for update lists

       $HOME/.k5login	      File containing Kerberos principals that are allowed access

       /etc/krb5/krb5.conf    Kerberos configuration file

       See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attributes:

       |      ATTRIBUTE TYPE	     |	    ATTRIBUTE VALUE	   |
       |Availability		     |SUNWrcmdc 		   |

       csh(1),	ed(1),	make(1S),  sh(1),  in.rshd(1M),  stat(2),  hosts.equiv(4),  krb5.conf(4),
       attributes(5), krb5_auth_rules(5), ip6(7P)

       A complaint about mismatch of rdist version numbers might really stem  from  some  problem
       with starting your shell, for example, you are in too many groups.

       The super-user does not have its accustomed access privileges on NFS mounted file systems.
       Using rdist to copy to such a file system might fail, or the copies might be owned by user

       Source files must reside or be mounted on the local host.

       There  is  no  easy  way to have a special command executed only once after all files in a
       directory have been updated.

       Variable expansion only works for name lists; there should be a general macro facility.

       rdist aborts on files that have a negative modification time (before Jan 1, 1970).

       There should be a "force" option to allow replacement of non-empty directories by  regular
       files  or symlinks. A means of updating file modes and owners of otherwise identical files
       is also needed.

SunOS 5.11				   23 Dec 2008					 rdist(1)

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