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OpenSolaris 2009.06 - man page for patch (opensolaris section 1)

patch(1)				  User Commands 				 patch(1)

       patch - apply changes to files

       patch [-blNR] [-c | -e | -n | -u] [-d dir] [-D define]
	    [-i patchfile] [-o outfile] [-p num] [-r rejectfile]

       The patch command reads a source (patch) file containing any of the three forms of differ-
       ence (diff) listings produced by the diff(1) command (normal, context or in the	style  of
       ed(1))  and  apply those differences to a file.	By default, patch reads from the standard

       patch attempts to determine the type of the diff listing, unless overruled by a -c, -e, or
       -n option.

       If the patch file contains more than one patch, patch attempts to apply each of them as if
       they came from separate patch files. (In this case the name of  the  patch  file  must  be
       determinable for each diff listing.)

       The following options are supported:

       -b	    Saves  a copy of the original contents of each modified file, before the dif-
		    ferences are applied, in a file of	the  same  name  with  the  suffix  .orig
		    appended  to  it.  If the file already exists, it is overwritten. If multiple
		    patches are applied to the same file, the .orig file is written only for  the
		    first  patch.  When the -o outfile option is also specified, file.orig is not
		    created but, if outfile already exists, outfile.orig is created.

       -c	    Interprets the patch file as a context difference (the output of the  command
		    diff when the -c or -C options are specified).

       -d dir	    Changes  the  current  directory  to  dir  before  processing as described in

       -D define    Marks changes with the C preprocessor construct:

		      #ifdef define

       The option-argument define is used as the differentiating symbol.

       -e		Interprets the patch file as an ed script, rather than a diff script.

       -i patchfile	Reads the patch information from the file named by the path  name  patch-
			file, rather than the standard input.

       -l		(The  letter ell.) Causes any sequence of blank characters in the differ-
			ence script to match any sequence of blank characters in the input  file.
			Other characters is matched exactly.

       -n		Interprets the script as a normal difference.

       -N		Ignores  patches  where  the differences have already been applied to the
			file; by default, already-applied patches are rejected.

       -o outfile	Instead of modifying the files (specified by the file operand or the dif-
			ference  listings) directly, writes a copy of the file referenced by each
			patch, with the appropriate differences  applied,  to  outfile.  Multiple
			patches  for a single file is applied to the intermediate versions of the
			file created by any previous patches, and results  in multiple,  concate-
			nated versions of the file being written to outfile.

       -p num		For  all path names in the patch file that indicate the names of files to
			be patched, deletes num path name components from the beginning  of  each
			path  name.  If  the path name in the patch file is absolute, any leading
			slashes are considered the first component (that is,  -p  1  removes  the
			leading  slashes).  Specifying -p 0 causes the full path name to be used.
			If -p is not specified, only the basename (the final path name component)
			is used.

       -R		Reverses the sense of the patch script. That is, assumes that the differ-
			ence script was created from the new version to the old version.  The  -R
			option	cannot	be  used  with ed scripts. patch attempts to reverse each
			portion of the script before applying it. Rejected differences	is  saved
			in  swapped  format. If this option is not specified, and until a portion
			of the patch file is successfully applied, patch attempts to  apply  each
			portion  in  its  reversed  sense  as well as in its normal sense. If the
			attempt is successful, the user is prompted to determine if the -R option
			should be set.

       -r rejectfile	Overrides  the	default reject file name. In the default case, the reject
			file has the same name as the output file, with the suffix .rej  appended
			to it. See Patch Application.

       -u		Interprets  the  patch file as a unified context difference, that is, the
			output of the command diff when the -u or -U options are specified.

       The following operand is supported:

       file    A path name of a file to patch.

       The -R option does not work with ed scripts because there is  too  little  information  to
       reconstruct the reverse operation.

       The  -p	option makes it possible to customize a patch file to local user directory struc-
       tures without manually editing the patch file. For example, if the file name in the  patch
       file was /curds/whey/src/blurfl/blurfl.c:

	   o	  Setting -p 0 gives the entire path name unmodified.

	   o	  Setting -p 1 gives:


	   o	  Without the leading slash, -p 4 gives:


	   o	  Not specifying -p at all gives:


       When  using  -b in some file system implementations, the saving of a .orig file might pro-
       duce unwanted results. In the case of 12-, 13-, or 14-character file names, on  file  sys-
       tems supporting 14-character maximum file names, the .orig file overwrites the new file.

       See  environ(5)	for  descriptions  of the following environment variables that affect the
       execution of patch: LANG, LC_ALL, LC_COLLATE, LC_CTYPE, LC_MESSAGES, LC_TIME, and NLSPATH.

       Affirmative responses are processed using the extended regular expression defined for  the
       yesexpr	keyword in the LC_MESSAGES category of the user's locale. The locale specified in
       the LC_COLLATE category defines the behavior of ranges, equivalence  classes,  and  multi-
       character collating elements used in the expression defined for yesexpr. The locale speci-
       fied in LC_CTYPE determines the locale for interpretation of sequences of  bytes  of  text
       data  a	characters,  the behavior of character classes used in the expression defined for
       the yesexpr. See locale(5).

       The output of patch the save files (.orig suffixes) and the reject files  (.rej	suffixes)
       are text files.

       A  patch  file  can  contain  patching instructions for more than one file. File names are
       determined as specified in Patch Determination. When the -b option is specified, for  each
       patched	file,  the  original  is  saved  in a file of the same name with the suffix .orig
       appended to it.

       For each patched file, a reject file can also be created as noted in Patch Application. In
       the  absence of an -r option, the name of this file is formed by appending the suffix .rej
       to the original file name.

   Patch File Format
       The patch file must contain zero or more lines of header information followed  by  one  or
       more  patches.  Each  patch must contain zero or more lines of file name identification in
       the format produced by diff -c, and one or more sets of diff output, which are customarily
       called hunks.

       patch recognizes the following expression in the header information:

       Index:pathname	 The file to be patched is named pathname.

       If  all	lines  (including headers) within a patch begin with the same leading sequence of
       blank characters, patch removes this sequence before proceeding. Within each patch, if the
       type of difference is context, patch recognizes the following expressions:

       *** filename timestamp

	   The patches arose from filename.

       --- filename timestamp

	   The patches should be applied to filename.

       Each  hunk within a patch must be the diff output to change a line range within the origi-
       nal file. The line numbers for successive hunks within a patch  must  occur  in	ascending

   File Name Determination
       If no file operand is specified, patch performs the following steps to obtain a path name:

	   1.	  If the patch contains the strings *** and ---, patch strips components from the
		  beginning of each path name (depending on the  presence  or  value  of  the  -p
		  option),  then  tests  for the existence of both files in the current directory
		  (or directory specified with the -d option).

	   2.	  If both files exist, patch assumes that no path name can be obtained from  this
		  step.  If  the header information contains a line with the string Index:, patch
		  strips components from the beginning of the path name (depending on  -p),  then
		  tests  for  the  existence  of this file in the current directory (or directory
		  specified with the -d option).

	   3.	  If an SCCS directory exists in the current directory, patch attempts to perform
		  a get -e SCCS/s.filename command to retrieve an editable version of the file.

	   4.	  If  no path name can be obtained by applying the previous steps, or if the path
		  names obtained do not exist, patch writes  a	prompt	to  standard  output  and
		  request a file name interactively from standard input.

   Patch Application
       If  the -c, -e, -n, or -u option is present, patch interprets information within each hunk
       as a context difference, an ed difference, a normal difference, or a unified context  dif-
       ference,  respectively.	In the absence of any of these options, patch determines the type
       of difference based on the format of information within the hunk.

       For each hunk, patch begins to search for the place to apply the patch at the line  number
       at the beginning of the hunk, plus or minus any offset used in applying the previous hunk.
       If lines matching the hunk context are not found, patch scans both forwards and	backwards
       at least 1000 bytes for a set of lines that match the hunk context.

       If  no  such place is found and it is a context difference, then another scan takes place,
       ignoring the first and last line of context. If that fails, the first  two  and	last  two
       lines  of  context  is  ignored	and another scan is made. Implementations can search more
       extensively for installation locations.

       If no location can be found, patch appends the hunk to the reject file. The rejected  hunk
       is written in context-difference format regardless of the format of the patch file. If the
       input was a normal or ed -style difference, the reject file can contain	differences  with
       zero  lines  of context. The line numbers on the hunks in the reject file can be different
       from the line numbers in the patch file since they reflect the approximate  locations  for
       the failed hunks in the new file rather than the old one.

       If  the	type  of  patch  is an ed diff, the implementation can accomplish the patching by
       invoking the ed command.

       The following exit values are returned:

       0     Successful completion.

       1     One or more lines were written to a reject file.

       >1    An error occurred.

       See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attributes:

       |      ATTRIBUTE TYPE	     |	    ATTRIBUTE VALUE	   |
       |Availability		     |SUNWcsu			   |
       |Interface Stability	     |Standard			   |

       ed(1), diff(1), attributes(5), environ(5), standards(5)

SunOS 5.11				   17 Jul 2007					 patch(1)

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