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OpenSolaris 2009.06 - man page for od (opensolaris section 1)

od(1)					  User Commands 				    od(1)

NAME
       od - octal dump

SYNOPSIS
       /usr/bin/od [-bcCDdFfOoSsvXx] [-] [file] [offset_string]

       /usr/bin/od [-bcCDdFfOoSsvXx] [-A address_base] [-j skip]
	    [-N count] [-t type_string]... [-] [file]...

       /usr/xpg4/bin/od [-bcCDdFfOoSsvXx] [file] [offset_string]

       /usr/xpg4/bin/od [-bcCDdFfOoSsvXx] [-A address_base]
	    [-j skip] [-N count] [-t type_string]... [file]...

DESCRIPTION
       The  od	command copies sequentially each input file to standard output and transforms the
       input data according to the output types specified by the -t or	-bcCDdFfOoSsvXx  options.
       If  no  output  type  is  specified, the default output is as if -t o2 had been specified.
       Multiple types can be specified by using multiple -bcCDdFfOoSstvXx options.  Output  lines
       are  written for each type specified in the order in which the types are specified.  If no
       file is specified, the standard input is used.  The [offset_string]  operand  is  mutually
       exclusive  from	the -A, -j, -N, and -t options. For the purposes of this description, the
       following terms are used:

       word		   Refers to a 16-bit unit, independent of the word size of the machine.

       long word	   Refers to a 32-bit unit.

       double long word    Refers to a 64-bit unit.

OPTIONS
       The following options are supported:

       -A address_base	   Specifies the input offset base. The address_base option-argument must
			   be  a  character.   The  characters d, o and x specify that the offset
			   base will be written in decimal, octal or  hexadecimal,  respectively.
			   The	character n specifies that the offset will not be written. Unless
			   -A n is specified, the output line will be preceded by the input  off-
			   set, cumulative across input files, of the next byte to be written. In
			   addition, the offset of the byte following the last byte written  will
			   be  displayed after all the input data has been processed. Without the
			   -A address_base option and the [offset_string] operand, the input off-
			   set base is displayed in octal.

       -b		   Interprets bytes in octal.  This is equivalent to -t o1.

   /usr/bin/od
       -c     Displays	single-byte  characters.  Certain non-graphic characters appear as C-lan-
	      guage escapes:

		null	     \0
		backspace    \b
		form-feed    \f
		new-line     \n
		return	     \r
		tab	     \t

	      Others appear as 3-digit octal numbers. For example:

		echo "hello world" | od -c
		0000000   h   e   l   l   o	  w   o   r   l   d  \n
		0000014

   /usr/xpg4/bin/od
       -c		  Interprets bytes as single-byte or multibyte	characters  according  to
			  the  current	setting of the LC_CTYPE locale category. Printable multi-
			  byte characters are written in the area corresponding to the first byte
			  of  the character. The two-character sequence ** is written in the area
			  corresponding to each remaining byte in the character, as an indication
			  that the character is continued. Non-graphic characters appear the same
			  as they would using the -C option.

       -C		  Interprets bytes as single-byte or multibyte	characters  according  to
			  the  current	setting of the LC_CTYPE locale category. Printable multi-
			  byte characters are written in the area corresponding to the first byte
			  of  the character. The two-character sequence ** is written in the area
			  corresponding to each remaining byte in the character, as an indication
			  that	the character is continued. Certain non-graphic characters appear
			  as C escapes:

			    null	 \0
			    backspace	 \b
			    form-feed	 \f
			    new-line	 \n
			    return	 \r
			    tab 	 \t

			  Other non-printable characters appear as one three-digit  octal  number
			  for each byte in the character.

       -d		  Interprets words in unsigned decimal.  This is equivalent to -t u2.

       -D		  Interprets long words in unsigned decimal. This is equivalent to -t u4.

       -f		  Interprets long words in floating point.  This is equivalent to -t f4.

       -F		  Interprets  double long words in extended precision. This is equivalent
			  to -t f8.

       -j skip		  Jumps over skip bytes from the beginning of the input. The  od  command
			  will	read  or seek past the first skip bytes in the concatenated input
			  files.  If the combined input is not at least skip bytes long,  the  od
			  command will write a diagnostic message to standard error and exit with
			  a non-zero exit status.

			  By default, the skip option-argument is interpreted as a  decimal  num-
			  ber.	With a leading 0x or 0X, the offset is interpreted as a hexadeci-
			  mal number; otherwise, with a leading 0, the offset will be interpreted
			  as  an octal number.	Appending the character b, k, or m to offset will
			  cause it to be interpreted as a multiple of 512, 1024 or 1048576 bytes,
			  respectively. If the skip number is hexadecimal, any appended b is con-
			  sidered to be the final hexadecimal digit.  The  address  is	displayed
			  starting  at	0000000,  and  its base is not implied by the base of the
			  skip option-argument.

       -N count 	  Formats no more than count bytes of input. By default, count is  inter-
			  preted  as  a decimal number.  With a leading 0x or 0X, count is inter-
			  preted as a hexadecimal number; otherwise, with  a  leading  0,  it  is
			  interpreted as an octal number. If count bytes of input (after success-
			  fully skipping, if -jskip is specified) are not available, it will  not
			  be  considered  an  error. The od command will format the input that is
			  available.  The base of the address displayed is  not  implied  by  the
			  base of the count option-argument.

       -o		  Interprets words in octal. This is equivalent to -t o2.

       -O		  Interprets long words in unsigned octal.  This is equivalent to -t o4.

       -s		  Interprets words in signed decimal. This is equivalent to -t d2.

       -S		  Interprets long words in signed decimal. This is equivalent to -t d4.

       -t type_string	  Specifies  one  or  more  output types. The type_string option-argument
			  must be a string specifying the types to be used when writing the input
			  data. The string must consist of the type specification characters:

			  a	Named  character.  Interprets bytes as named characters. Only the
				least significant seven bits of each byte will be used	for  this
				type specification. Bytes with the values listed in the following
				table will be written using the  corresponding	names  for  those
				characters.

				The following are named characters in od:

				  Value   Name

				   00	 nul
				   01	 soh
				   02	 stx
				   03	 etx
				   04	 eot
				   05	 enq
				   06	 ack
				   07	 bel
				   10	 bs
				   11	 ht
				   12	 lf
				   13	 vt
				   14	 ff
				   15	 cr
				   16	 so
				   17	 si
				   20	 dle
				   21	 dc1
				   22	 dc2
				   23	 dc3
				   24	 dc4
				   25	 nak
				   26	 syn
				   27	 etb
				   30	 can
				   31	 em
				   32	 sub
				   33	 esc
				   34	 fs
				   35	 gs
				   36	 rs
				   37	 us
				   40	 sp
				  177	 del

			  c	Character.  Interprets	bytes as single-byte or multibyte charac-
				ters specified by the current setting of the LC_CTYPE locale cat-
				egory.	Printable  multibyte  characters  are written in the area
				corresponding to the first byte of the character. The two-charac-
				ter  sequence  **  is  written	in the area corresponding to each
				remaining byte in the character, as an indication that the  char-
				acter  is  continued.  Certain non-graphic characters appear as C
				escapes: \0, \a, \b, \f, \n,  \r,  \t,	\v.  Other  non-printable
				characters  appear  as one three-digit octal number for each byte
				in the character.

			  The type specification characters d, f, o, u, and x can be followed  by
			  an optional unsigned decimal integer that specifies the number of bytes
			  to be transformed by each instance of the output type.

			  f		    Floating point. Can be followed by an optional F,  D,
					    or L indicating that the conversion should be applied
					    to an item of type float,  double,	or  long  double,
					    respectively.

			  d, o, u, and x    Signed decimal, octal, unsigned decimal, and hexadec-
					    imal, respectively. Can be followed by an optional C,
					    S,	I,  or L indicating that the conversion should be
					    applied to an item of type char, short, int, or long,
					    respectively.

			  Multiple types can be concatenated within the same type_string and mul-
			  tiple -t options can be specified. Output lines are  written	for  each
			  type	specified in the order in which the type specification characters
			  are specified.

       -v		  Shows all input data (verbose). Without the -v option,  all  groups  of
			  output  lines that would be identical to the immediately preceding out-
			  put line (except for byte offsets), will be replaced with a  line  con-
			  taining only an asterisk (*).

       -x		  Interprets words in hex. This is equivalent to -t x2.

       -X		  Interprets long words in hex. This is equivalent to -t x4.

OPERANDS
   /usr/bin/od
       The following operands are supported for /usr/bin/od only:

       -			 Uses  the  standard  input  in  addition to any files specified.
				 When this operand is not given, the standard input is used  only
				 if no file operands are specified.

       file			 A path name of a file to be read. If no file operands are speci-
				 fied, the standard input will be used. If there are no more than
				 two  operands,  none  of the -A, -j, -N, or -t options is speci-
				 fied, and any of the following are true:

				     1.     the first character of the last  operand  is  a  plus
					    sign (+)

				     2.     the first character of the second operand is numeric

				     3.     the  first	character  of the second operand is x and
					    the second character  of  the  second  operand  is	a
					    lower-case hexadecimal character or digit

				     4.     the second operand is named "x"

				     5.     the second operand is named "."
				 then  the corresponding operand is assumed to be an offset oper-
				 and rather than a file operand.

				 Without the -N count option, the display continues until an end-
				 of-file is reached.

       [+][0] offset [.][b|B]	 The  offset_string operand specifies the byte offset in the file
       [+][0][offset] [.]	 where dumping is to commence.	 The  offset  is  interpreted  in
       [+][0x|x][offset]	 octal	bytes by default. If offset begins with "0", it is inter-
       [+][0x|x] offset[B]	 preted in octal. If offset begins with "x" or "0x", it is inter-
				 preted  in  hexadecimal and any appended "b" is considered to be
				 the final hexadecimal digit. If "." is appended, the  offset  is
				 interpreted in decimal. If "b" or "B" is appended, the offset is
				 interpreted in units of 512 bytes. If the file argument is omit-
				 ted,  the  offset  argument must be preceded by a plus sign (+).
				 The address is displayed starting  at	the  given  offset.   The
				 radix	of  the address will be the same as the radix of the off-
				 set, if specified, otherwise it will be  octal.   Decimal  over-
				 rides	octal, and it is an error to specify both hexadecimal and
				 decimal conversions in the same offset operand.

   /usr/xpg4/bin/od
       The following operands are supported for /usr/xpg4/bin/od only:

       file			    Same as /usr/bin/od, except only one of the first two  condi-
				    tions must be true.

       [+] [0] offset [.][b|B]	    Description of offset_string is the same as for /usr/bin/od.
       + [offset] [.]
       [+][0x][offset]
ENVIRONMENT0VARIABLES[B]
       See[oenviron(5)	for  descriptions  of the following environment variables that affect the
       execution[of od: LANG, LC_ALL, LC_CTYPE, LC_MESSAGES, LC_NUMERIC, and NLSPATH.

EXIT STATUS
       The following exit values are returned:

       0      Successful completion.

       >0     An error occurred.

ATTRIBUTES
       See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attributes:

   /usr/bin/od
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |      ATTRIBUTE TYPE	     |	    ATTRIBUTE VALUE	   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |Availability		     |SUNWtoo			   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |CSI			     |enabled			   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+

   /usr/xpg4/bin/od
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |      ATTRIBUTE TYPE	     |	    ATTRIBUTE VALUE	   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |Availability		     |SUNWxcu4			   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |CSI			     |enabled			   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |Interface Stability	     |Standard			   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+

SEE ALSO
       sed(1), attributes(5), environ(5), standards(5)

SunOS 5.11				   20 May 2005					    od(1)


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