ld(1) User Commands ld(1)
ld - link-editor for object files
ld [-64] [-a | -r] [-b] [-Bdirect | nodirect]
[-B dynamic | static] [-B eliminate] [-B group] [-B local]
[-B reduce] [-B symbolic] [-c name] [-C] [-d y | n]
[-D token,...] [-e epsym] [-f name | -F name] [-G] [-h name]
[-i] [-I name] [-l x] [-L path] [-m] [-M mapfile]
[-N string] [-o outfile] [-p auditlib] [-P auditlib]
[-Q y | n] [-R path] [-s] [-S supportlib] [-t]
[-u symname] [-V] [-Y P,dirlist] [-z absexec]
[-z allextract | defaultextract | weakextract ]
[-z altexec64] [-z combreloc | nocombreloc ] [-z defs | nodefs]
[-z direct | nodirect] [-z endfiltee] [-z finiarray=function]
[-z globalaudit] [-z groupperm | nogroupperm] [-z help ]
[-z ignore | record] [-z initarray=function] [-z initfirst]
[-z interpose] [-z lazyload | nolazyload]
[-z ld32=arg1,arg2,...] [-z ld64=arg1,arg2,...]
[-z loadfltr] [-z muldefs] [-z nocompstrtab] [-z nodefaultlib]
[-z nodelete] [-z nodlopen] [-z nodump] [-z noldynsym]
[-z nopartial] [-z noversion] [-z now] [-z origin]
[-z preinitarray=function] [-z redlocsym] [-z relaxreloc]
[-z rescan-now] [-z recan] [-z rescan-start ... -z rescan-end]]
[-z target=sparc|x86] [-z text | textwarn | textoff]
[-z verbose] filename...
The link-editor, ld, combines relocatable object files by resolving symbol references to symbol definitions, together with performing relo-
cations. ld operates in two modes, static or dynamic, as governed by the -d option. In all cases, the output of ld is left in the file
a.out by default. See NOTES.
In dynamic mode, -dy, the default, relocatable object files that are provided as arguments are combined to produce an executable object
file. This file is linked at execution with any shared object files that are provided as arguments. If the -G option is specified, relocat-
able object files are combined to produce a shared object. Without the -G option, a dynamic executable is created.
In static mode, -dn, relocatable object files that are provided as arguments are combined to produce a static executable file. If the -r
option is specified, relocatable object files are combined to produce one relocatable object file. See Static Executables.
Dynamic linking is the most common model for combining relocatable objects, and the eventual creation of processes within Solaris. This
environment tightly couples the work of the link-editor and the runtime linker, ld.so.1(1). Both of these utilities, together with their
related technologies and utilities, are extensively documented in the Linker and Libraries Guide.
If any argument is a library, ld by default searches the library exactly once at the point the library is encountered on the argument list.
The library can be either a shared object or relocatable archive. See ar.h(3HEAD)).
A shared object consists of an indivisible, whole unit that has been generated by a previous link-edit of one or more input files. When the
link-editor processes a shared object, the entire contents of the shared object become a logical part of the resulting output file image.
The shared object is not physically copied during the link-edit as its actual inclusion is deferred until process execution. This logical
inclusion means that all symbol entries defined in the shared object are made available to the link-editing process. See Chapter 4, Shared
Objects, in Linker and Libraries Guide
For an archive library, ld loads only those routines that define an unresolved external reference. ld searches the symbol table of the ar-
chive library sequentially to resolve external references that can be satisfied by library members. This search is repeated until no exter-
nal references can be resolved by the archive. Thus, the order of members in the library is functionally unimportant, unless multiple
library members exist that define the same external symbol. Archive libraries that have interdependencies can require multiple command line
definitions, or the use of one of the -z rescan options. See Archive Processing in Linker and Libraries Guide.
ld is a cross link-editor, able to link 32-bit objects or 64-bit objects, for Sparc or x86 targets. ld uses the ELF class and machine type
of the first relocatable object on the command line to govern the mode in which to operate. The mixing of 32-bit objects and 64-bit objects
is not permitted. Similarly, only objects of a single machine type are allowed. See the -64 and -z target options, and the LD_NOEXEC_64
The creation of static executables has been discouraged for many releases. In fact, 64-bit system archive libraries have never been pro-
vided. Because a static executable is built against system archive libraries, the executable contains system implementation details. This
self-containment has a number of drawbacks.
o The executable is immune to the benefits of system patches delivered as shared objects. The executable therefore, must be
rebuilt to take advantage of many system improvements.
o The ability of the executable to run on future releases can be compromised.
o The duplication of system implementation details negatively affects system performance.
With Solaris 10, 32-bit system archive libraries are no longer provided. Without these libraries, specifically libc.a, the creation of
static executables is no longer achievable without specialized system knowledge. However, the capability of ld to process static linking
options, and the processing of archive libraries, remains unchanged.
The following options are supported.
Creates a 64-bit object. By default, the class of the object being generated is determined from the first ELF object processed from the
command line. This option is useful when creating an object directly with ld whose input is solely from an archive library or a map-
file. See The 32-bit link-editor and 64-bit link-editor in Linker and Libraries Guide.
In static mode only, produces an executable object file. Undefined references are not permitted. This option is the default behavior
for static mode. The -a option can not be used with the -r option. See Static Executables under DESCRIPTION.
In dynamic mode only, provides no special processing for dynamic executable relocations that reference symbols in shared objects. With-
out the -b option, the link-editor applies techniques within a dynamic executable so that the text segment can remain read-only. One
technique is the creation of special position-independent relocations for references to functions that are defined in shared objects.
Another technique arranges for data objects that are defined in shared objects to be copied into the memory image of an executable at
The -b option is intended for specialized dynamic objects and is not recommended for general use. Its use suppresses all specialized
processing required to ensure an object's shareability, and can even prevent the relocation of 64-bit executables.
-B direct | nodirect
These options govern direct binding. -B direct establishes direct binding information by recording the relationship between each symbol
reference together with the dependency that provides the definition. In addition, direct binding information is established between
each symbol reference and an associated definition within the object being created. The runtime linker uses this information to search
directly for a symbol in the associated object rather than to carry out a default symbol search.
Direct binding information can only be established to dependencies specified with the link-edit. Thus, you should use the -z defs
option. Objects that wish to interpose on symbols in a direct binding environment should identify themselves as interposers with the -z
interpose option. The use of -B direct enables -z lazyload for all dependencies.
The -B nodirect option prevents any direct binding to the interfaces offered by the object being created. The object being created can
continue to directly bind to external interfaces by specifying the -z direct option. See Appendix D, Direct Bindings, in Linker and
-B dynamic | static
Options governing library inclusion. -B dynamic is valid in dynamic mode only. These options can be specified any number of times on
the command line as toggles: if the -B static option is given, no shared objects are accepted until -B dynamic is seen. See the -l
Causes any global symbols, not assigned to a version definition, to be eliminated from the symbol table. Version definitions can be
supplied by means of a mapfile to indicate the global symbols that should remain visible in the generated object. This option achieves
the same symbol elimination as the auto-elimination directive that is available as part of a mapfile version definition. This option
can be useful when combining versioned and non-versioned relocatable objects. See also the -B local option and the -B reduce option.
See Defining Additional Symbols with a mapfile in Linker and Libraries Guide.
Establishes a shared object and its dependencies as a group. Objects within the group are bound to other members of the group at run-
time. This mode is similar to adding the object to the process by using dlopen(3C) with the RTLD_GROUP mode. An object that has an
explicit dependency on a object identified as a group, becomes a member of the group.
As the group must be self contained, use of the -B group option also asserts the -z defs option.
Causes any global symbols, not assigned to a version definition, to be reduced to local. Version definitions can be supplied by means
of a mapfile to indicate the global symbols that should remain visible in the generated object. This option achieves the same symbol
reduction as the auto-reduction directive that is available as part of a mapfile version definition. This option can be useful when
combining versioned and non-versioned relocatable objects. See also the -B eliminate option and the -B reduce option. See Defining
Additional Symbols with a mapfile in Linker and Libraries Guide.
When generating a relocatable object, causes the reduction of symbolic information defined by any version definitions. Version defini-
tions can be supplied by means of a mapfile to indicate the global symbols that should remain visible in the generated object. By
default, when a relocatable object is generated, version definitions are only recorded in the output image. The actual reduction of
symbolic information is carried out when the object is used in the construction of a dynamic executable or shared object. The -B reduce
option is applied automatically when a dynamic executable or shared object is created.
In dynamic mode only. When building a shared object, binds references to global symbols to their definitions, if available, within the
object. Normally, references to global symbols within shared objects are not bound until runtime, even if definitions are available.
This model allows definitions of the same symbol in an executable or other shared object to override the object's own definition. ld
issues warnings for undefined symbols unless -z defs overrides.
The -B symbolic option is intended for specialized dynamic objects and is not recommended for general use. To reduce the runtime relo-
cation processing that is required an object, the creation of a version definition is recommended.
Records the configuration file name for use at runtime. Configuration files can be employed to alter default search paths, provide a
directory cache, together with providing alternative object dependencies. See crle(1).
Demangles C++ symbol names displayed in diagnostic messages.
-d y | n
When -d y, the default, is specified, ld uses dynamic linking. When -d n is specified, ld uses static linking. See Static Executables
under DESCRIPTION, and -B dynamic|static.
Prints debugging information as specified by each token, to the standard error. The special token help indicates the full list of
tokens available. See Debugging Aids in Linker and Libraries Guide.
Sets the entry point address for the output file to be the symbol epsym.
Useful only when building a shared object. Specifies that the symbol table of the shared object is used as an auxiliary filter on the
symbol table of the shared object specified by name. Multiple instances of this option are allowed. This option can not be combined
with the -F option. See Generating Auxiliary Filters in Linker and Libraries Guide.
Useful only when building a shared object. Specifies that the symbol table of the shared object is used as a filter on the symbol table
of the shared object specified by name. Multiple instances of this option are allowed. This option can not be combined with the -f
option. See Generating Standard Filters in Linker and Libraries Guide.
In dynamic mode only, produces a shared object. Undefined symbols are allowed. See Chapter 4, Shared Objects, in Linker and Libraries
In dynamic mode only, when building a shared object, records name in the object's dynamic section. name is recorded in any dynamic
objects that are linked with this object rather than the object's file system name. Accordingly, name is used by the runtime linker as
the name of the shared object to search for at runtime. See Recording a Shared Object Name in Linker and Libraries Guide.
Ignores LD_LIBRARY_PATH. This option is useful when an LD_LIBRARY_PATH setting is in effect to influence the runtime library search,
which would interfere with the link-editing being performed.
When building an executable, uses name as the path name of the interpreter to be written into the program header. The default in static
mode is no interpreter. In dynamic mode, the default is the name of the runtime linker, ld.so.1(1). Either case can be overridden by -I
name. exec(2) loads this interpreter when the a.out is loaded, and passes control to the interpreter rather than to the a.out directly.
Searches a library libx.so or libx.a, the conventional names for shared object and archive libraries, respectively. In dynamic mode,
unless the -B static option is in effect, ld searches each directory specified in the library search path for a libx.so or libx.a file.
The directory search stops at the first directory containing either. ld chooses the file ending in .so if -lx expands to two files with
names of the form libx.so and libx.a. If no libx.so is found, then ld accepts libx.a. In static mode, or when the -B static option is
in effect, ld selects only the file ending in .a. ld searches a library when the library is encountered, so the placement of -l is sig-
nificant. See Linking With Additional Libraries in Linker and Libraries Guide.
Adds path to the library search directories. ld searches for libraries first in any directories specified by the -L options and then in
the standard directories. This option is useful only if the option precedes the -l options to which the -L option applies. See Directo-
ries Searched by the Link-Editor in Linker and Libraries Guide.
The environment variable LD_LIBRARY_PATH can be used to supplement the library search path, however the -L option is recommended, as
the environment variable is also interpreted by the runtime environment. See LD_LIBRARY_PATH under ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES.
Produces a memory map or listing of the input/output sections, together with any non-fatal multiply-defined symbols, on the standard
Reads mapfile as a text file of directives to ld. This option can be specified multiple times. If mapfile is a directory, then all reg-
ular files, as defined by stat(2), within the directory are processed. See Chapter 9, Mapfile Option, in Linker and Libraries Guide.
Example mapfiles are provided in /usr/lib/ld. See FILES.
This option causes a DT_NEEDED entry to be added to the .dynamic section of the object being built. The value of the DT_NEEDED string
is the string that is specified on the command line. This option is position dependent, and the DT_NEEDED .dynamic entry is relative to
the other dynamic dependencies discovered on the link-edit line. This option is useful for specifying dependencies within device driver
relocatable objects when combined with the -dy and -r options.
Produces an output object file that is named outfile. The name of the default object file is a.out.
Identifies an audit library, auditlib. This audit library is used to audit the object being created at runtime. A shared object identi-
fied as requiring auditing with the -p option, has this requirement inherited by any object that specifies the shared object as a
dependency. See the -P option. See Runtime Linker Auditing Interface in Linker and Libraries Guide.
Identifies an audit library, auditlib. This audit library is used to audit the dependencies of the object being created at runtime.
Dependency auditing can also be inherited from dependencies that are identified as requiring auditing. See the -p option, and the -z
globalaudit option. See Runtime Linker Auditing Interface in Linker and Libraries Guide.
-Q y | n
Under -Q y, an ident string is added to the .comment section of the output file. This string identifies the version of the ld used to
create the file. This results in multiple ld idents when there have been multiple linking steps, such as when using ld -r. This identi-
fication is identical with the default action of the cc command. -Q n suppresses version identification. .comment sections can be
manipulated by the mcs(1) utility.
Combines relocatable object files to produce one relocatable object file. ld does not complain about unresolved references. This option
cannot be used with the -a option.
A colon-separated list of directories used to specify library search directories to the runtime linker. If present and not NULL, the
path is recorded in the output object file and passed to the runtime linker. Multiple instances of this option are concatenated
together with each path separated by a colon. See Directories Searched by the Runtime Linker in Linker and Libraries Guide.
The use of a runpath within an associated object is preferable to setting global search paths such as through the LD_LIBRARY_PATH envi-
ronment variable. Only the runpaths that are necessary to find the objects dependencies should be recorded. ldd(1) can also be used to
discover unused runpaths in dynamic objects, when used with the -U option.
Various tokens can also be supplied with a runpath that provide a flexible means of identifying system capabilities or an objects loca-
tion. See Appendix C, Establishing Dependencies with Dynamic String Tokens, in Linker and Libraries Guide. The $ORIGIN token is espe-
cially useful in allowing dynamic objects to be relocated to different locations in the file system.
Strips symbolic information from the output file. Any debugging information, that is, .line, .debug*, and .stab* sections, and their
associated relocation entries are removed. Except for relocatable files, a symbol table SHT_SYMTAB and its associated string table sec-
tion are not created in the output object file. The elimination of a SHT_SYMTAB symbol table can reduce the .stab* debugging informa-
tion that is generated using the compiler drivers -g option. See the -z redlocsym and -z noldynsym options.
The shared object supportlib is loaded with ld and given information regarding the linking process. Shared objects that are defined by
using the -S option can also be supplied using the SGS_SUPPORT environment variable. See Link-Editor Support Interface in Linker and
Turns off the warning for multiply-defined symbols that have different sizes or different alignments.
Enters symname as an undefined symbol in the symbol table. This option is useful for loading entirely from an archive library. In this
instance, an unresolved reference is needed to force the loading of the first routine. The placement of this option on the command line
is significant. This option must be placed before the library that defines the symbol. See Defining Additional Symbols with the u
option in Linker and Libraries Guide.
Outputs a message giving information about the version of ld being used.
Changes the default directories used for finding libraries. dirlist is a colon-separated path list.
Useful only when building a dynamic executable. Specifies that references to external absolute symbols should be resolved immediately
instead of being left for resolution at runtime. In very specialized circumstances, this option removes text relocations that can
result in excessive swap space demands by an executable.
-z allextract | defaultextract | weakextract
--whole-archive | --no-whole-archive
Alters the extraction criteria of objects from any archives that follow. By default, archive members are extracted to satisfy undefined
references and to promote tentative definitions with data definitions. Weak symbol references do not trigger extraction. Under the -z
allextract or --whole-archive options, all archive members are extracted from the archive. Under -z weakextract, weak references trig-
ger archive extraction. The -z defaultextract or --no-whole-archive options provide a means of returning to the default following use
of the former extract options. See Archive Processing in Linker and Libraries Guide.
Execute the 64-bit ld. The creation of very large 32-bit objects can exhaust the virtual memory that is available to the 32-bit ld. The
-z altexec64 option can be used to force the use of the associated 64-bit ld. The 64-bit ld provides a larger virtual address space for
building 32-bit objects. See The 32-bit link-editor and 64-bit link-editor in Linker and Libraries Guide.
-z combreloc | nocombreloc
By default, ld combines multiple relocation sections when building executables or shared objects. This section combination differs from
relocatable objects, in which relocation sections are maintained in a one-to-one relationship with the sections to which the reloca-
tions must be applied. The -z nocombreloc option disables this merging of relocation sections, and preserves the one-to-one relation-
ship found in the original relocatable objects.
ld sorts the entries of data relocation sections by their symbol reference. This sorting reduces runtime symbol lookup. When multiple
relocation sections are combined, this sorting produces the least possible relocation overhead when objects are loaded into memory, and
speeds the runtime loading of dynamic objects.
Historically, the individual relocation sections were carried over to any executable or shared object, and the -z combreloc option was
required to enable the relocation section merging previously described. Relocation section merging is now the default. The -z combreloc
option is still accepted for the benefit of old build environments, but the option is unnecessary, and has no effect.
-z defs | nodefs
The -z defs option and the --no-undefined option force a fatal error if any undefined symbols remain at the end of the link. This mode
is the default when an executable is built. For historic reasons, this mode is not the default when building a shared object. Use of
the -z defs option is recommended, as this mode assures the object being built is self-contained. A self-contained object has all sym-
bolic references resolved internally, or to the object's immediate dependencies.
The -z nodefs option allows undefined symbols. For historic reasons, this mode is the default when a shared object is built. When used
with executables, the behavior of references to such undefined symbols is unspecified. Use of the -z nodefs option is not recommended.
-z direct | nodirect
Enables or disables direct binding to any dependencies that follow on the command line. These options allow finer control over direct
binding than the global counterpart -B direct. The -z direct option also differs from the -B direct option in the following areas.
Direct binding information is not established between a symbol reference and an associated definition within the object being created.
Lazy loading is not enabled.
Marks a filtee so that when processed by a filter, the filtee terminates any further filtee searches by the filter. See Reducing Filtee
Searches in Linker and Libraries Guide.
Appends an entry to the .finiarray section of the object being built. If no .finiarray section is present, a section is created. The
new entry is initialized to point to function. See Initialization and Termination Sections in Linker and Libraries Guide.
This option supplements an audit library definition that has been recorded with the -P option. This option is only meaningful when
building a dynamic executable. Audit libraries that are defined within an object with the -P option typically allow for the auditing of
the immediate dependencies of the object. The -z globalaudit promotes the auditor to a global auditor, thus allowing the auditing of
all dependencies. See Invoking the Auditing Interface in Linker and Libraries Guide.
An auditor established with the -P option and the -z globalaudit option, is equivalent to the auditor being established with the
LD_AUDIT environment variable. See ld.so.1(1).
-z groupperm | nogroupperm
Assigns, or deassigns each dependency that follows to a unique group. The assignment of a dependency to a group has the same effect as
if the dependency had been built using the -B group option.
Print a summary of the command line options on the standard output and exit.
-z ignore | record
Ignores, or records, dynamic dependencies that are not referenced as part of the link-edit. Ignores, or records, unreferenced ELF sec-
tions from the relocatable objects that are read as part of the link-edit. By default, -z record is in effect.
If an ELF section is ignored, the section is eliminated from the output file being generated. A section is ignored when three condi-
tions are true. The eliminated section must contribute to an allocatable segment. The eliminated section must provide no global sym-
bols. No other section from any object that contributes to the link-edit, must reference an eliminated section.
Appends an entry to the .initarray section of the object being built. If no .initarray section is present, a section is created. The
new entry is initialized to point to function. See Initialization and Termination Sections in Linker and Libraries Guide.
Marks the object so that its runtime initialization occurs before the runtime initialization of any other objects brought into the
process at the same time. In addition, the object runtime finalization occurs after the runtime finalization of any other objects
removed from the process at the same time. This option is only meaningful when building a shared object.
Marks the object as an interposer. At runtime, an object is identified as an explicit interposer if the object has been tagged using
the -z interpose option. An explicit interposer is also established when an object is loaded using the LD_PRELOAD environment variable.
Implicit interposition can occur because of the load order of objects, however, this implicit interposition is unknown to the runtime
linker. Explicit interposition can ensure that interposition takes place regardless of the order in which objects are loaded. Explicit
interposition also ensures that the runtime linker searches for symbols in any explicit interposers when direct bindings are in effect.
-z lazyload | nolazyload
Enables or disables the marking of dynamic dependencies to be lazily loaded. Dynamic dependencies which are marked lazyload are not
loaded at initial process start-up. These dependencies are delayed until the first binding to the object is made. Note: Lazy loading
requires the correct declaration of dependencies, together with associated runpaths for each dynamic object used within a process. See
Lazy Loading of Dynamic Dependencies in Linker and Libraries Guide.
The class of the link-editor is affected by the class of the output file being created and by the capabilities of the underlying oper-
ating system. The -z ld[32|64] options provide a means of defining any link-editor argument. The defined argument is only interpreted,
respectively, by the 32-bit class or 64-bit class of the link-editor.
For example, support libraries are class specific, so the correct class of support library can be ensured using:
ld ... -z ld32=-Saudit32.so.1 -z ld64=-Saudit64.so.1 ...
The class of link-editor that is invoked is determined from the ELF class of the first relocatable file that is seen on the command
line. This determination is carried out prior to any -z ld[32|64] processing.
Marks a filter to indicate that filtees must be processed immediately at runtime. Normally, filter processing is delayed until a symbol
reference is bound to the filter. The runtime processing of an object that contains this flag mimics that which occurs if the LD_LOAD-
FLTR environment variable is in effect. See the ld.so.1(1).
Allows multiple symbol definitions. By default, multiple symbol definitions that occur between relocatable objects result in a fatal
error condition. This option, suppresses the error condition, allowing the first symbol definition to be taken.
Disables the compression of ELF string tables. By default, string compression is applied to SHT_STRTAB sections, and to SHT_PROGBITS
sections that have their SHF_MERGE and SHF_STRINGS section flags set.
Marks the object so that the runtime default library search path, used after any LD_LIBRARY_PATH or runpaths, is ignored. This option
implies that all dependencies of the object can be satisfied from its runpath.
Marks the object as non-deletable at runtime. This mode is similar to adding the object to the process by using dlopen(3C) with the
Marks the object as not available to dlopen(3C), either as the object specified by the dlopen(), or as any form of dependency required
by the object specified by the dlopen(). This option is only meaningful when building a shared object.
Marks the object as not available to dldump(3C).
Prevents the inclusion of a .SUNW_ldynsym section in dynamic executables or sharable libraries. The .SUNW_ldynsym section augments the
.dynsym section by providing symbols for local functions. Local function symbols allow debuggers to display local function names in
stack traces from stripped programs. Similarly, dladdr(3C) is able to supply more accurate results.
The -z noldynsym option also prevents the inclusion of the two symbol sort sections that are related to the .SUNW_ldynsym section. The
.SUNW_dynsymsort section provides sorted access to regular function and variable symbols. The .SUNW_dyntlssort section provides sorted
access to thread local storage (TLS) variable symbols.
The .SUNW_ldynsym, .SUNW_dynsymsort, and .SUNW_dyntlssort sections, which becomes part of the allocable text segment of the resulting
file, cannot be removed by strip(1). Therefore, the -z noldynsym option is the only way to prevent their inclusion. See the -s and -z
Partially initialized symbols, that are defined within relocatable object files, are expanded in the output file being generated.
Does not record any versioning sections. Any version sections or associated .dynamic section entries are not generated in the output
Marks the object as requiring non-lazy runtime binding. This mode is similar to adding the object to the process by using dlopen(3C)
with the RTLD_NOW mode. This mode is also similar to having the LD_BIND_NOW environment variable in effect. See ld.so.1(1).
Marks the object as requiring immediate $ORIGIN processing at runtime. This option is only maintained for historic compatibility, as
the runtime analysis of objects to provide for $ORIGIN processing is now default.
Appends an entry to the .preinitarray section of the object being built. If no .preinitarray section is present, a section is created.
The new entry is initialized to point to function. See Initialization and Termination Sections in Linker and Libraries Guide.
Eliminates all local symbols except for the SECT symbols from the symbol table SHT_SYMTAB. All relocations that refer to local symbols
are updated to refer to the corresponding SECT symbol. This option allows specialized objects to greatly reduce their symbol table
sizes. Eliminated local symbols can reduce the .stab* debugging information that is generated using the compiler drivers -g option. See
the -s and -z noldynsym options.
ld normally issues a fatal error upon encountering a relocation using a symbol that references an eliminated COMDAT section. If -z
relaxreloc is enabled, ld instead redirects such relocations to the equivalent symbol in the COMDAT section that was kept. -z relaxre-
loc is a specialized option, mainly of interest to compiler authors, and is not intended for general use.
These options rescan the archive files that are provided to the link-edit. By default, archives are processed once as the archives
appear on the command line. Archives are traditionally specified at the end of the command line so that their symbol definitions
resolve any preceding references. However, specifying archives multiple times to satisfy their own interdependencies can be necessary.
-z rescan-now is a positional option, and is processed by the link-editor immediately when encountered on the command line. All ar-
chives seen on the command line up to that point are immediately reprocessed in an attempt to locate additional archive members that
resolve symbol references. This archive rescanning is repeated until a pass over the archives occurs in which no new members are
-z rescan is a position independent option. The link-editor defers the rescan operation until after it has processed the entire command
line, and then initiates a final rescan operation over all archives seen on the command line. The -z rescan operation can interact
incorrectly with objects that contain initialization (.init) or finalization (.fini) sections, preventing the code in those sections
from running. For this reason, -z rescan is deprecated, and use of -z rescan-now is advised.
-z rescan-start ... -z rescan-end
--start-group ... --end-group
-( ... -)
Defines an archive rescan group. This is a positional construct, and is processed by the link-editor immediately upon encountering the
closing delimiter option. Archives found within the group delimiter options are reprocessed as a group in an attempt to locate addi-
tional archive members that resolve symbol references. This archive rescanning is repeated until a pass over the archives On the
occurs in which no new members are extracted. Archive rescan groups cannot be nested.
Specifies the machine type for the output object. Supported targets are Sparc and x86. The 32-bit machine type for the specified target
is used unless the -64 option is also present, in which case the corresponding 64-bit machine type is used. By default, the machine
type of the object being generated is determined from the first ELF object processed from the command line. This option is useful when
creating an object directly with ld whose input is solely from an archive library or a mapfile. See the -M option. See The 32-bit link-
editor and 64-bit link-editor in Linker and Libraries Guide.
In dynamic mode only, forces a fatal error if any relocations against non-writable, allocatable sections remain. For historic reasons,
this mode is not the default when building an executable or shared object. However, its use is recommended to ensure that the text seg-
ment of the dynamic object being built is shareable between multiple running processes. A shared text segment incurs the least reloca-
tion overhead when loaded into memory. See Position-Independent Code in Linker and Libraries Guide.
In dynamic mode only, allows relocations against all allocatable sections, including non-writable ones. This mode is the default when
building a shared object.
In dynamic mode only, lists a warning if any relocations against non-writable, allocatable sections remain. This mode is the default
when building an executable.
This option provides additional warning diagnostics during a link-edit. Presently, this option conveys suspicious use of displacement
relocations. This option also conveys the restricted use of static TLS relocations when building shared objects. In future, this option
might be enhanced to provide additional diagnostics that are deemed too noisy to be generated by default.
An alternative link-editor path name. ld executes, and passes control to this alternative link-editor. This environment variable pro-
vides a generic means of overriding the default link-editor that is called from the various compiler drivers. See the -z altexec64
A list of directories in which to search for the libraries specified using the -l option. Multiple directories are separated by a
colon. In the most general case, this environment variable contains two directory lists separated by a semicolon:
If ld is called with any number of occurrences of -L, as in:
ld ... -Lpath1 ... -Lpathn ...
then the search path ordering is:
dirlist1 path1 ... pathn dirlist2 LIBPATH
When the list of directories does not contain a semicolon, the list is interpreted as dirlist2.
The LD_LIBRARY_PATH environment variable also affects the runtime linkers search for dynamic dependencies.
This environment variable can be specified with a _32 or _64 suffix. This makes the environment variable specific, respectively, to
32-bit or 64-bit processes and overrides any non-suffixed version of the environment variable that is in effect.
Suppresses the automatic execution of the 64-bit link-editor. By default, the link-editor executes the 64-bit version when the ELF
class of the first relocatable file identifies a 64-bit object. The 64-bit image that a 32-bit link-editor can create, has some limita-
tions. However, some link-edits might find the use of the 32-bit link-editor faster.
A default set of options to ld. LD_OPTIONS is interpreted by ld just as though its value had been placed on the command line, immedi-
ately following the name used to invoke ld, as in:
ld $LD_OPTIONS ... other-arguments ...
An alternative mechanism for specifying a runpath to the link-editor. See the -R option. If both LD_RUN_PATH and the -R option are
specified, -R supersedes.
Provides a colon-separated list of shared objects that are loaded with the link-editor and given information regarding the linking
process. This environment variable can be specified with a _32 or _64 suffix. This makes the environment variable specific, respec-
tively, to the 32-bit or 64-bit class of ld and overrides any non-suffixed version of the environment variable that is in effect. See
the -S option.
Notice that environment variable-names that begin with the characters 'LD_' are reserved for possible future enhancements to ld and
libx.so shared object libraries.
libx.a archive libraries.
a.out default output file.
LIBPATH For 32-bit libraries, the default search path is /usr/ccs/lib, followed by /lib, and finally /usr/lib. For 64-bit libraries,
the default search path is /lib/64, followed by /usr/lib/64.
/usr/lib/ld A directory containing several mapfiles that can be used during link-editing. These mapfiles provide various capabilities,
such as defining memory layouts, aligning bss, and defining non-executable stacks.
See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attributes:
| ATTRIBUTE TYPE | ATTRIBUTE VALUE |
|Availability |SUNWtoo |
|Interface Stability |Committed |
as(1), crle(1), gprof(1), ld.so.1(1), ldd(1), mcs(1), pvs(1), exec(2), stat(2), dlopen(3C), dldump(3C), elf(3ELF), ar.h(3HEAD), a.out(4),
Linker and Libraries Guide
Default options applied by ld are maintained for historic reasons. In today's programming environment, where dynamic objects dominate,
alternative defaults would often make more sense. However, historic defaults must be maintained to ensure compatibility with existing pro-
gram development environments. Historic defaults are called out wherever possible in this manual. For a description of the current recom-
mended options, see Appendix A, Link-Editor Quick Reference, in Linker and Libraries Guide.
If the file being created by ld already exists, the file is unlinked after all input files have been processed. A new file with the speci-
fied name is then created. This allows ld to create a new version of the file, while simultaneously allowing existing processes that are
accessing the old file contents to continue running. If the old file has no other links, the disk space of the removed file is freed when
the last process referencing the file terminates.
The behavior of ld when the file being created already exists was changed with SXCE build 43. In older versions, the existing file was
rewritten in place, an approach with the potential to corrupt any running processes that is using the file. This change has an implication
for output files that have multiple hard links in the file system. Previously, all links would remain intact, with all links accessing the
new file contents. The new ld behavior breaks such links, with the result that only the specified output file name references the new file.
All the other links continue to reference the old file. To ensure consistent behavior, applications that rely on multiple hard links to
linker output files should explicitly remove and relink the other file names.
SunOS 5.11 18 Sept 2008 ld(1)