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jpegtran(1)				  User Commands 			      jpegtran(1)

       jpegtran - lossless transformation of JPEG files

       jpegtran [options] [filename]

       jpegtran performs various useful transformations of JPEG files. jpegtran can translate the
       coded representation from one variant of JPEG to another, for example from  baseline  JPEG
       to  progressive	JPEG  or vice versa. jpegtran can also perform some rearrangements of the
       image data, for example turning an image from landscape to portrait format by rotation.

       jpegtran works by rearranging the compressed data (DCT coefficients), without  ever  fully
       decoding  the  image.  Therefore, jpegtran transformations are lossless: there is no image
       degradation at all, which would not be true if you used djpeg followed by cjpeg to  accom-
       plish  the  same  conversion.  However,	jpegtran  cannot perform lossy operations such as
       changing the image quality.

       jpegtran reads the named JPEG/JFIF file, or the standard input if no file  is  named,  and
       produces a JPEG/JFIF file on the standard output.

       All  options  may  be abbreviated. For example, -optimize may be written -opt or -o. Upper
       and lower case are equivalent. British spellings are also accepted.  For  example,  -opti-

       The following options are supported:

       -copy all	       Copy  all extra markers. This option preserves miscellaneous mark-
			       ers found in the source file, such as JFIF thumbnails and  source-
			       application  settings.  In  some files, these extra markers can be

       -copy comments	       Copy only comment markers. This option copies  comments	from  the
			       source  file, but discards any other inessential data. This is the

       -copy none	       Copy no extra markers from the source file. This option suppresses
			       all  comments  and  other excess information present in the source

       -flip horizontal        Create a mirror image horizontally, that is, from left  to  right.
			       This is a lossless transformation.

       -flip vertical	       Create  a  mirror  image  vertically, that is, from top to bottom.
			       This is a lossless transformation.

       -grayscale	       Force grayscale output. This is not a lossless transformation. For
			       more  information  about  the  -grayscale option, see the Extended
			       Description section.

       -maxmemory N	       Set the limit for the amount of memory to use in processing  large
			       images.	N  is  specified in thousands of bytes, or in millions of
			       bytes if "M" is specified with the number. For  example,  -max  4m
			       selects	4000000  bytes.  If more space is needed, temporary files
			       are used.

       -optimize	       Optimize the entropy encoding  parameters.  For	more  information
			       about the -optimize option, see cjpeg(1).

       -outfile name	       Send  the  output image to the named file, instead of to the stan-
			       dard output.

       -progressive	       Create a progressive JPEG file. For  more  information  about  the
			       -progressive option, see cjpeg(1).

       -restart N	       Emit a JPEG restart marker every N MCU rows, or every N MCU blocks
			       if "B" is specified with the number. For  more  information  about
			       the -restart option, see cjpeg(1).

       -rotate 90	       Rotate  the  image 90 degrees clockwise. This is a lossless trans-

       -rotate 180	       Rotate the image 180 degrees clockwise. This is a lossless  trans-

       -rotate 270	       Rotate  the  image 270 degrees clockwise, or 90 degrees anticlock-
			       wise. This is a lossless transformation.

       -scans file	       Use the scan script provided in the specified text file.

       -transpose	       Transpose the image, that is, across the UL-to-LR axis. This is	a
			       lossless  transformation.   For more information about the -trans-
			       pose option, see the Extended Description section.

       -transverse	       Transverse transpose the image, that is, across the UR-to-LL axis.
			       This is a lossless transformation.

       -trim		       Drop  non-transformable edge blocks. This is not a lossless trans-
			       formation. For more information about the -trim	option,  see  the
			       Extended Description section.

       -verbose 	       Display version information at startup, and enable debug printout.
			       The -vv option displays more verbose output than  the  -v  option.
			       The -vvv option displays the most verbose output.

			       You can also use -debug to specify this option.

       The following operands are supported:

       filename 	       The name of the JPEG file to be transformed.

       If  you	do not specify one of the following options, you get a plain baseline-JPEG output
       file: -optimize, -progressive, -restart N, -scans file. In such cases, the quality setting
       and other settings are determined by the input file.

   Lossless Transformations
       The  transpose  transformation has no restrictions as regards image dimensions.	The other
       transformations operate rather oddly if the image dimensions are not  a	multiple  of  the
       iMCU  siz,  usually 8 or 16 pixels, because they can only transform complete blocks of DCT
       coefficient data in the desired way. The default behavior when  transforming  an  odd-size
       image  is  designed  to	preserve  exact reversibility and mathematical consistency of the
       transformation set.

       As stated, transpose can flip the entire image area. Horizontal mirroring leaves any  par-
       tial  iMCU  column at the right edge untouched, but is able to flip all rows of the image.
       Similarly, vertical mirroring leaves any partial iMCU row at the  bottom  edge  untouched,
       but is able to flip all columns.

       The  other  transforms  can be built up as sequences of transpose and flip operations. For
       consistency, their actions on edge pixels are defined to be the same as the end result  of
       the corresponding transpose-and-flip sequence.

   Not-Lossless Transformations
       You may prefer to discard any untransformable edge pixels rather than have a strange-look-
       ing strip along the right or bottom edges of a transformed image.  To  do  this,  use  the
       -trim option. Obviously, a transformation with -trim is not reversible, so strictly speak-
       ing jpegtran with this option is not lossless. Also,  the  expected  mathematical  equiva-
       lences  between the transformations no longer hold. For example, -rot 270 -trim trims only
       the bottom edge, but -rot 90 -trim followed by -rot 180 -trim trims both edges.

       Another not-strictly-lossless transformation option is -grayscale.  This  option  discards
       the  chrominance  channels  if  the input image is YCbCr (that is, a standard color JPEG),
       which results in a grayscale JPEG file. The luminance channel  is  preserved  exactly,  so
       this  is  a  better  method  of	reducing to grayscale than decompression, conversion, and
       recompression.  The -grayscale option is particularly useful for fixing a monochrome  pic-
       ture  that was mistakenly encoded as a color JPEG. In such a case, the space saved by dis-
       carding the near-empty chrominance channels is not large, but  the  decoding  time  for	a
       grayscale JPEG is substantially less than that for a color JPEG.

       Example 1: Converting a Baseline JPEG File to Progressive Form

       example% jpegtran -progressive test.jpg > testprog.jpg

       Example 2: Rotating an Image 90 Degrees Clockwise, Discarding Any Unrotatable Edge Pixels

       example% jpegtran rot 90 -trim test.jpg > test90.jpg

       jpegtran uses the following environment variables:

       JPEGMEM		       The  value  of  this  environment variable, if set, is the default
			       memory limit. The value is specified as described for the -maxmem-
			       ory option. JPEGMEM overrides the default value specified when the
			       program was compiled, and is in turn  overridden  by  an  explicit
			       -maxmemory option.

       See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attributes:

       |      ATTRIBUTE TYPE	     |	    ATTRIBUTE VALUE	   |
       |Availability		     |SUNWjpg			   |
       |Interface stability	     |Uncommitted		   |

       Wallace,  Gregory  K.,  The  JPEG Still Picture Compression Standard Communications of the
       ACM, April 1991 (vol. 34, no. 4), pp. 30-44.

       cjpeg(1), djpeg(1), rdjpgcom(1), wrjpgcom(1)

       Arithmetic coding is not supported.

       The entire image is read into memory and then written out again, even in cases where  this
       is  not	really necessary. Expect swapping on large images, especially when using the more
       complex transform options.

       This man page was originally written by the Independent	JPEG  Group.   Updated	by  Breda
       McColgan, Sun Microsystems Inc., 2004.

SunOS 5.11				   26 Mar 2004				      jpegtran(1)
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