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join(1)  				  User Commands 				    join(1) 

NAME
       join - relational database operator

SYNOPSIS
       join [-a filenumber | -v filenumber] [-1 fieldnumber]
	    [-2 fieldnumber] [-o list] [-e string] [-t char] file1 file2

       join [-a filenumber] [-j fieldnumber] [-j1 fieldnumber]
	    [-j2 fieldnumber] [-o list] [-e string] [-t char] file1 file2

DESCRIPTION
       The  join  command forms, on the standard output, a join of the two relations specified by
       the lines of file1 and file2.

       There is one line in the output for each pair of lines in file1 and file2 that have  iden-
       tical join fields. The output line normally consists of the common field, then the rest of
       the line from file1, then the rest of the line from file2. This format can be  changed  by
       using  the  -o option (see below). The -a option can be used to add unmatched lines to the
       output. The -v option can be used to output only unmatched lines.

       The default input field separators are blank, tab, or new-line.	In  this  case,  multiple
       separators  count  as one field separator, and leading separators are ignored. The default
       output field separator is a blank.

       If the input files are not in the appropriate collating sequence, the results are unspeci-
       fied.

OPTIONS
       Some  of the options below use the argument filenumber. This argument should be a 1 or a 2
       referring to either file1 or file2, respectively.

       -a filenumber	   In addition to the normal output, produce a line for  each  unpairable
			   line  in file filenumber, where filenumber is 1 or 2. If both -a 1 and
			   -a 2 are specified, all unpairable lines will be output.

       -e string	   Replace empty output fields in the list selected by option -o with the
			   string string.

       -j fieldnumber	   Equivalent to -1fieldnumber -2fieldnumber.

       -j1 fieldnumber	   Equivalent to -1fieldnumber.

       -j2 fieldnumber	   Equivalent to -2fieldnumber. Fields are numbered starting with 1.

       -o list		   Each  output  line  includes  the  fields  specified  in  list. Fields
			   selected by list that do not appear in the input will  be  treated  as
			   empty  output  fields.  (See the -e option.) Each element of which has
			   the either the form filenumber.fieldnumber, or 0, which represents the
			   join  field.  The  common  field  is  not  printed unless specifically
			   requested.

       -t char		   Use character char as a separator. Every appearance of char in a  line
			   is  significant. The character char is used as the field separator for
			   both input and output. With this option specified, the collating  term
			   should be the same as sort without the -b option.

       -v filenumber	   Instead of the default output, produce a line only for each unpairable
			   line in filenumber, where filenumber is 1 or 2. If both -v 1 and -v	2
			   are specified, all unpairable lines will be output.

       -1 fieldnumber	   Join on the fieldnumberth field of file 1. Fields are decimal integers
			   starting with 1.

       -2fieldnumber	   Join on the fieldnumberth field of file 2. Fields are decimal integers
			   starting with 1.

OPERANDS
       The following operands are supported:

       file1

       file2	 A  path name of a file to be joined. If either of the file1 or file2 operands is
		 -, the standard input is used in its place.

       file1 and file2 must be sorted in increasing collating sequence as determined  by  LC_COL-
       LATE  on  the  fields on which they are to be joined, normally the first in each line (see
         sort(1) ).

USAGE
       See   largefile(5)  for the description of the  behavior  of  join	when  encountering  files
       greater than or equal to 2 Gbyte (2^31 bytes).

EXAMPLES
       Example 1 Joining the password file and group file

       The following command line will join the password file and the group file, matching on the
       numeric group ID, and outputting the login name, the group name and the	login  directory.
       It  is assumed that the files have been sorted in ASCII collating sequence on the group ID
       fields.

	 example% join -j1 4-j2 3 -o 1.1 2.1 1.6 -t:/etc/passwd /etc/group

       Example 2 Using the -o option

       The -o 0 field essentially selects the union of the join fields. For example,  given  file
       phone:

	 !Name		 Phone Number
	 Don		 +1 123-456-7890
	 Hal		 +1 234-567-8901
	 Yasushi	 +2 345-678-9012

       and file fax:

	 !Name		 Fax Number

	 Don		 +1 123-456-7899

	 Keith		 +1 456-789-0122

	 Yasushi	 +2 345-678-9011

       where  the  large expanses of white space are meant to each represent a single tab charac-
       ter), the command:

	 example% join -t"tab" -a 1 -a 2 -e '(unknown)' -o 0,1.2,2.2 phone fax

       would produce

	 !Name		 Phone Number		Fax Number
	 Don		 +1 123-456-7890	 +1 123-456-7899
	 Hal		 +1 234-567-8901	 (unknown
	 Keith		 (unknown)		 +1 456-789-012
	 Yasushi	 +2 345-678-9012	 +2 345-678-9011

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
       See   environ(5)  for descriptions of the following environment  variables	that  affect  the
       execution of join: LANG, LC_ALL, LC_CTYPE, LC_MESSAGES, LC_COLLATE, and NLSPATH.

EXIT STATUS
       The following exit values are returned:

       0      All input files were output successfully.

       >0     An error occurred.

ATTRIBUTES
       See   attributes(5)  for descriptions of the following attributes:

       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |      ATTRIBUTE TYPE	     |	    ATTRIBUTE VALUE	   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |Availability		     |SUNWcsu			   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |CSI			     |Enabled			   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |Interface Stability	     |Standard			   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+

SEE ALSO
         awk(1) ,   comm(1) ,   sort(1) ,   uniq(1) ,   attributes(5) ,   environ(5) ,   largefile(5) ,   standards(5) 

NOTES
       With  default  field  separation,  the collating sequence is that of sort -b; with -t, the
       sequence is that of a plain sort.

       The conventions of the join, sort, comm, uniq, and awk commands are wildly incongruous.

SunOS 5.11				    8 Feb 2000					    join(1)
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