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OpenSolaris 2009.06 - man page for grep (opensolaris section 1)

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grep(1)  				  User Commands 				    grep(1) 

NAME
       grep - search a file for a pattern

SYNOPSIS
       /usr/bin/grep [-bchilnsvw] limited-regular-expression
	    [filename]...

       /usr/xpg4/bin/grep [-E | -F] [-c | -l | -q] [-bhinsvwx] -e pattern_list...
	    [-f pattern_file]... [file]...

       /usr/xpg4/bin/grep [-E | -F] [-c | -l | -q] [-bhinsvwx]
	    [-e pattern_list]... -f pattern_file... [file]...

       /usr/xpg4/bin/grep [-E | -F] [-c | -l | -q] [-bhinsvwx] pattern
	    [file]...

DESCRIPTION
       The  grep utility searches text files for a pattern and prints all lines that contain that
       pattern.  It uses a compact non-deterministic algorithm.

       Be careful using the characters $, *, [, ^, |, (, ), and \  in  the  pattern_list  because
       they  are also meaningful to the shell. It is safest to enclose the entire pattern_list in
       single quotes a'...a'.

       If no files are specified, grep assumes standard  input.  Normally,  each  line	found  is
       copied  to  standard  output.  The file name is printed before each line found if there is
       more than one input file.

   /usr/bin/grep
       The /usr/bin/grep utility uses limited regular expressions like	those  described  on  the
         regexp(5)  manual page to match the patterns.

   /usr/xpg4/bin/grep
       The  options -E and -F affect the way /usr/xpg4/bin/grep interprets pattern_list. If -E is
       specified, /usr/xpg4/bin/grep interprets pattern_list as a full regular expression (see -E
       for  description).  If -F is specified, grep interprets pattern_list as a fixed string. If
       neither are specified, grep interprets pattern_list  as	a  basic  regular  expression  as
       described on   regex(5)  manual page.

OPTIONS
       The following options are supported for both /usr/bin/grep and /usr/xpg4/bin/grep:

       -b    Precedes  each line by the block number on which it was found. This can be useful in
	     locating block numbers by context (first block is 0).

       -c    Prints only a count of the lines that contain the pattern.

       -h    Prevents the name of the file containing the matching line from being  prepended  to
	     that line.  Used when searching multiple files.

       -i    Ignores upper/lower case distinction during comparisons.

       -l    Prints only the names of files with matching lines, separated by NEWLINE characters.
	     Does not repeat the names of files when the pattern is found more than once.

       -n    Precedes each line by its line number in the file (first line is 1).

       -s    Suppresses error messages about nonexistent or unreadable files.

       -v    Prints all lines except those that contain the pattern.

       -w    Searches for the expression as a word as if surrounded by \< and \>.

   /usr/xpg4/bin/grep
       The following options are supported for /usr/xpg4/bin/grep only:

       -e pattern_list	  Specifies one or more patterns to be used during the search for  input.
			  Patterns  in	pattern_list  must be separated by a NEWLINE character. A
			  null pattern can be specified by two	adjacent  newline  characters  in
			  pattern_list.  Unless  the -E or -F option is also specified, each pat-
			  tern is treated as a basic regular  expression.   Multiple  -e  and  -f
			  options  are	accepted  by grep. All of the specified patterns are used
			  when matching lines, but the order of evaluation is unspecified.

       -E		  Matches using full regular expressions. Treats each  pattern	specified
			  as  a  full  regular	expression. If any entire full regular expression
			  pattern matches an input line, the line is matched. A null full regular
			  expression  matches  every  line. Each pattern is interpreted as a full
			  regular expression as described on the   regex(5)  manual page, except for
			  \( and \), and including:

			      1.     A	full regular expression followed by + that matches one or
				     more occurrences of the full regular expression.

			      2.     A full regular expression followed by ? that matches 0 or	1
				     occurrences of the full regular expression.

			      3.     Full  regular  expressions  separated  by | or by a new-line
				     that match strings that are matched by any  of  the  expres-
				     sions.

			      4.     A full regular expression that is enclosed in parentheses ()
				     for grouping.
			  The order of precedence of operators is [], then *?+,  then  concatena-
			  tion, then | and new-line.

       -f pattern_file	  Reads  one  or  more patterns from the file named by the path name pat-
			  tern_file. Patterns in pattern_file are terminated by a NEWLINE charac-
			  ter.	A null pattern can be specified by an empty line in pattern_file.
			  Unless the -E or -F option is also specified, each pattern  is  treated
			  as a basic regular expression.

       -F		  Matches  using fixed strings. Treats each pattern specified as a string
			  instead of a regular expression. If an input line contains any  of  the
			  patterns as a contiguous sequence of bytes, the line is matched. A null
			  string matches every line. See   fgrep(1)  for more information.

       -q		  Quiet. Does not write anything to the standard  output,  regardless  of
			  matching lines. Exits with zero status if an input line is selected.

       -x		  Considers only input lines that use all characters in the line to match
			  an entire fixed string or regular expression to be matching lines.

OPERANDS
       The following operands are supported:

       file    A path name of a file to be searched for the patterns. If  no  file  operands  are
	       specified, the standard input is used.

   /usr/bin/grep
       pattern	  Specifies a pattern to be used during the search for input.

   /usr/xpg4/bin/grep
       pattern	  Specifies one or more patterns to be used during the search for input. This op-
		  erand is treated as if it were specified as -e pattern_list.

USAGE
       The -e pattern_list option has the same effect as the pattern_list operand, but is  useful
       when pattern_list begins with the hyphen delimiter. It is also useful when it is more con-
       venient to provide multiple patterns as separate arguments.

       Multiple -e and -f options are accepted and grep uses all of  the  patterns  it	is  given
       while  matching input text lines. Notice that the order of evaluation is not specified. If
       an implementation finds a null string as a pattern, it is  allowed  to  use  that  pattern
       first, matching every line, and effectively ignore any other patterns.

       The  -q option provides a means of easily determining whether or not a pattern (or string)
       exists in a group of files. When  searching  several  files,  it  provides  a  performance
       improvement  (because  it  can quit as soon as it finds the first match) and requires less
       care by the user in choosing the set of files to supply as  arguments  (because	it  exits
       zero if it finds a match even if grep detected an access or read error on earlier file op-
       erands).

   Large File Behavior
       See   largefile(5)  for the description of the  behavior  of  grep	when  encountering  files
       greater than or equal to 2 Gbyte ( 2^31 bytes).

EXAMPLES
       Example 1 Finding All Uses of a Word

       To  find  all  uses  of the word "Posix" (in any case) in the file text.mm, and write with
       line numbers:

	 example% /usr/bin/grep -i -n posix text.mm

       Example 2 Finding All Empty Lines

       To find all empty lines in the standard input:

	 example% /usr/bin/grep ^$

       or

	 example% /usr/bin/grep -v .

       Example 3 Finding Lines Containing Strings

       All of the following commands print all lines containing strings abc or def or both:

	 example% /usr/xpg4/bin/grep 'abc
	 def'
	 example% /usr/xpg4/bin/grep -e 'abc
	 def'
	 example% /usr/xpg4/bin/grep -e 'abc' -e 'def'
	 example% /usr/xpg4/bin/grep -E 'abc|def'
	 example% /usr/xpg4/bin/grep -E -e 'abc|def'
	 example% /usr/xpg4/bin/grep -E -e 'abc' -e 'def'
	 example% /usr/xpg4/bin/grep -E 'abc
	 def'
	 example% /usr/xpg4/bin/grep -E -e 'abc
	 def'
	 example% /usr/xpg4/bin/grep -F -e 'abc' -e 'def'
	 example% /usr/xpg4/bin/grep -F 'abc
	 def'
	 example% /usr/xpg4/bin/grep -F -e 'abc
	 def'

       Example 4 Finding Lines with Matching Strings

       Both of the following commands print all lines matching exactly abc or def:

	 example% /usr/xpg4/bin/grep -E '^abc$ ^def$'
	 example% /usr/xpg4/bin/grep -F -x 'abc def'

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
       See   environ(5)  for descriptions of the following environment  variables	that  affect  the
       execution of grep: LANG, LC_ALL, LC_COLLATE, LC_CTYPE, LC_MESSAGES, and NLSPATH.

EXIT STATUS
       The following exit values are returned:

       0    One or more matches were found.

       1    No matches were found.

       2    Syntax errors or inaccessible files (even if matches were found).

ATTRIBUTES
       See   attributes(5)  for descriptions of the following attributes:

   /usr/bin/grep
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |      ATTRIBUTE TYPE	     |	    ATTRIBUTE VALUE	   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |Availability		     |SUNWcsu			   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |CSI			     |Not Enabled		   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+

   /usr/xpg4/bin/grep
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |      ATTRIBUTE TYPE	     |	    ATTRIBUTE VALUE	   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |Availability		     |SUNWxcu4			   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |CSI			     |Enabled			   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |Interface Stability	     |Committed 		   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |Standard		     |See   standards(5) . 	   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+

SEE ALSO
         egrep(1) ,   fgrep(1) ,   sed(1) ,   sh(1) ,   attributes(5) ,   environ(5) ,   largefile(5) ,   regex(5) , reg-
         exp(5) ,   standards(5) 

NOTES
   /usr/bin/grep
       Lines are limited only by the size of the available virtual memory. If  there  is  a  line
       with  embedded  nulls,  grep  only  matches up to the first null. If the line matches, the
       entire line is printed.

   /usr/xpg4/bin/grep
       The results are unspecified if input files contain lines longer	than  LINE_MAX	bytes  or
       contain binary data. LINE_MAX is defined in /usr/include/limits.h.

SunOS 5.11				   26 Feb 2008					    grep(1)
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