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OpenDarwin 7.2.1 - man page for pwd_mkdb (opendarwin section 8)

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PWD_MKDB(8)			   BSD System Manager's Manual			      PWD_MKDB(8)

     pwd_mkdb -- generate the password databases

     pwd_mkdb [-c] [-p | -s] [-d directory] [-u username] file

     pwd_mkdb creates db(3) style secure and insecure databases for the specified file.  These
     databases are then installed into /etc/spwd.db and /etc/pwd.db, respectively.  The file is
     installed into /etc/master.passwd.  The file must be in the correct format (see passwd(5)).
     It is important to note that the format used in this system is different from the historic
     Version 7 style format.

     The options are as follows:

     -c      Check if the password file is in the correct format.  Do not change, add, or remove
	     any files.

     -p      Create a Version 7 style password file and install it into /etc/passwd.

     -s      Only update the secure version of the database.  This is most commonly used in con-
	     junction with the -u flag during a password change.  Because the insecure database
	     doesn't contain the password there is no reason to update it if the only change is
	     in the password field.  Cannot be used in conjunction with the -p flag.

     -d directory
	     Operate in a base directory other than the default of /etc.  All absolute paths
	     (including file) will be made relative to directory.  Any directories specified as a
	     part of file will be stripped off.  This option is used to create password databases
	     in directories other than etc; for instance in a chroot(8) jail.

     -u username
	     Only update the record for the specified user.  Utilities that operate on a single
	     user can use this option to avoid the overhead of rebuilding the entire database.
	     This option must never be used if the line number of the user's record in
	     /etc/master.passwd has changed.

     file    The absolute path to a file in master.passwd format, as described in passwd(5).

     The two databases differ in that the secure version contains the user's encrypted password
     and the insecure version has an asterisk ('*').

     The databases are used by the C library password routines (see getpwent(3)).

     pwd_mkdb exits zero on success, non-zero on failure.

     /etc/master.passwd  current password file
     /etc/passwd	 a Version 7 format password file
     /etc/pwd.db	 insecure password database file
     /etc/pwd.db.tmp	 temporary file
     /etc/spwd.db	 secure password database file
     /etc/spwd.db.tmp	 temporary file

     chpass(1), passwd(1), db(3), getpwent(3), passwd(5), vipw(8)

     Previous versions of the system had a program similar to pwd_mkdb, mkpasswd, which built
     dbm(3) style databases for the password file but depended on the calling programs to install
     them.  The program was renamed in order that previous users of the program not be surprised
     by the changes in functionality.

     Because of the necessity for atomic update of the password files, pwd_mkdb uses rename(2) to
     install them.  This, however, requires that the file specified on the command line live on
     the same file system as the /etc directory.

     There are the obvious races with multiple people running pwd_mkdb on different password
     files at the same time.  The front-ends to pwd_mkdb, chpass(1), passwd(1), and vipw(8) han-
     dle the locking necessary to avoid this problem.

BSD					   June 6, 1993 				      BSD
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