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OpenDarwin 7.2.1 - man page for chpass (opendarwin section 1)

CHPASS(1)			   BSD General Commands Manual				CHPASS(1)

NAME
     chpass, chfn, chsh, -- add or change user database information

SYNOPSIS
     chpass [-a list] [-p encpass] [-e expiretime] [-s newshell] [user]

DESCRIPTION
     The chpass utility allows editing of the user database information associated with user or,
     by default, the current user.

     The chfn, and chsh utilities behave identically to chpass.  (There is only one program.)

     The information is formatted and supplied to an editor for changes.

     Only the information that the user is allowed to change is displayed.

     The options are as follows:

     -a      The super-user is allowed to directly supply a user database entry, in the format
	     specified by passwd(5), as an argument.  This argument must be a colon (``:'') sepa-
	     rated list of all the user database fields, although they may be empty.  [Note that
	     this only changes the user database, master.passwd.]

     -p      The super-user is allowed to directly supply an encrypted password field, in the
	     format used by crypt(3), as an argument.  [See the discussion in getpwent(3) about
	     types of passwords; this option may not be appropriate.]

     -e expiretime
	     Change the account expire time.  This option is used to set the expire time from a
	     script as if it was done in the interactive editor.

     -s newshell
	     Attempt to change the user's shell to newshell.

     Possible display items are as follows:

	   Login:	       user's login name
	   Password:	       user's encrypted password [do not use this to change a password;
			       use passwd(1) instead]
	   Uid: 	       user's login
	   Gid: 	       user's login group
	   Class:	       user's general classification
	   Change:	       password change time
	   Expire:	       account expiration time
	   Full Name:	       user's real name (*)
	   Home Directory:     user's home directory
	   Shell:	       user's login shell

	   NOTE(*) -	       Historically, the so-call "GECOS" field in the user database entry
			       contain the full name plus other information.  Only the full name
			       is currently supported.

     The login field is the user name used to access the computer account.

     The password field contains the encrypted form of the user's password.  Do not use this to
     change a password; use passwd(1) instead.

     The uid field is the number associated with the login field.  Both of these fields should be
     unique across the system (and often across a group of systems) as they control file access.

     While it is possible to have multiple entries with identical login names and/or identical
     user id's, it is usually a mistake to do so.  Routines that manipulate these files will
     often return only one of the multiple entries, and that one by random selection.

     The group field is the group that the user will be placed in at login.  Since BSD supports
     multiple groups (see groups(1)) this field currently has little special meaning.  This field
     may be filled in with either a number or a group name (see group(5)).

     The class field references class descriptions in /etc/login.conf and is typically used to
     initialize the user's system resource limits when they login.

     The change field is the date by which the password must be changed.

     The expire field is the date on which the account expires.

     Both the change and expire fields should be entered in the form ``month day year'' where
     month is the month name (the first three characters are sufficient), day is the day of the
     month, and year is the year.

     The full name field contains the full name of the user.

     The user's home directory is the full UNIX path name where the user will be placed at login.

     The shell field is the command interpreter the user prefers.  If the shell field is empty,
     the Bourne shell, /bin/sh, is assumed.  When altering a login shell, and not the super-user,
     the user may not change from a non-standard shell or to a non-standard shell.  Non-standard
     is defined as a shell not found in /etc/shells.

     Once the information has been verified, chpass uses pwd_mkdb(8) to update the user database.

LOOKUPD AND DIRECTORY SERVICE AWARENESS
     User database entries (among other things) are under the control of lookupd(8) and may be
     physically located in many different places, including local and remote netinfo(5) data-
     bases, directory service agents such as LDAP servers and flat file databases such as
     master.passwd.  This version of chpass is currently limited to changing user database
     entries in the flat file and local netinfo databases.

ENVIRONMENT
     The vi(1) editor will be used unless the environment variable EDITOR is set to an alternate
     editor.  When the editor terminates, the information is re-read and used to update the user
     database itself.  Only the user, or the super-user, may edit the information associated with
     the user.

     See pwd_mkdb(8) for an explanation of the impact of setting the PW_SCAN_BIG_IDS environment
     variable.

FILES
     /etc/master.passwd  the user database
     /etc/passwd	 a Version 7 format password file
     /etc/chpass.XXXXXX  temporary copy of the password file
     /etc/shells	 the list of approved shells

SEE ALSO
     finger(1), login(1), passwd(1), getusershell(3), login.conf(5), passwd(5), pwd_mkdb(8),
     vipw(8)

     and Robert Morris and Ken Thompson, UNIX Password security.

BUGS
     User information should (and eventually will) be stored elsewhere.

HISTORY
     The chpass utility appeared in 4.3BSD-Reno.

BSD					December 30, 1993				      BSD


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