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icmp(4) [opendarwin man page]

ICMP(4) 						   BSD Kernel Interfaces Manual 						   ICMP(4)

NAME
icmp -- Internet Control Message Protocol SYNOPSIS
#include <sys/socket.h> #include <netinet/in.h> int socket(AF_INET, SOCK_RAW, proto); DESCRIPTION
ICMP is the error and control message protocol used by IP and the Internet protocol family. It may be accessed through a ``raw socket'' for network monitoring and diagnostic functions. The proto parameter to the socket call to create an ICMP socket is obtained from getprotobyname(3). ICMP sockets are connectionless, and are normally used with the sendto and recvfrom calls, though the connect(2) call may also be used to fix the destination for future packets (in which case the read(2) or recv(2) and write(2) or send(2) system calls may be used). Outgoing packets automatically have an IP header prepended to them (based on the destination address). Incoming packets are received with the IP header and options intact. Non-privileged ICMP ICMP sockets can be opened with the SOCK_DGRAM socket type without requiring root privileges. The synopsis is the following: socket(AF_INET, SOCK_DGRAM, IPPROTO_ICMP) This can be used by non root privileged processes to send ICMP echo requests to gauge the quality of the connectivity to a host, to receive ICMP destination unreachable message for path MTU discovery, or to receveive time exceeded message for traceroute. Datagram oriented ICMP sockets offer a subset of the functionality available to raw ICMP sockets. Only IMCP request messages of the following types can be sent: ICMP_ECHO, ICMP_TSTAMP or ICMP_MASKREQ. The code field must be the value zero (0). The minimal length of an ICMP message request is eight (8) octets. The following IP level option can be used with datagram oriented ICMP sockets: IP_OPTIONS IP_HDRINCL IP_TOS IP_TTL IP_RECVOPTS IP_RECVRETOPTS IP_RECVDSTADDR IP_RETOPTS IP_MULTICAST_IF IP_MULTICAST_TTL IP_MULTICAST_LOOP IP_ADD_MEMBERSHIP IP_DROP_MEMBERSHIP IP_MULTICAST_VIF IP_PORTRANGE IP_RECVIF IP_IPSEC_POLICY IP_STRIPHDR When the IP option IP_HDRINCL is used, the provided IP header must obey the following rules: ip_v Must be IPVERSION (4); ip_hl Between 5 and 10 (inclusive); ip_tos Any value; ip_len Must be the total length of IP datagram (IP header + ICMP message); ip_id Must be zero, will be automatically set; ip_off Must be zero, will be automatically set; ip_ttl Any value; ip_p Must be IPPROTO_IP; ip_sum Value ignored, will be automatically set; ip_src Must be an IP address currently assigned to one of the local interface or INADDR_ANY; ip_dst Any address; ip_opts Any option. The maximum length of a IMCP message that can be sent is controlled by the sysctl variable net.inet.raw.maxdgram. DIAGNOSTICS
A socket operation may fail with one of the following errors returned: [EISCONN] when trying to establish a connection on a socket which already has one, or when trying to send a datagram with the destina- tion address specified and the socket is already connected; [ENOTCONN] when trying to send a datagram, but no destination address is specified, and the socket hasn't been connected; [ENOBUFS] when the system runs out of memory for an internal data structure; [EADDRNOTAVAIL] when an attempt is made to create a socket with a network address for which no network interface exists; [EINVAL] when an invalid value is used with IMCP datagram socket for a field of the IP or ICMP header. SEE ALSO
send(2), recv(2), intro(4), inet(4), ip(4) HISTORY
The icmp protocol appeared in 4.3BSD. 4.3 Berkeley Distribution June 19, 2002 4.3 Berkeley Distribution

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icmp(7P)							     Protocols								  icmp(7P)

NAME
icmp, ICMP - Internet Control Message Protocol SYNOPSIS
#include <sys/socket.h> #include <netinet/in.h> #include <netinet/ip_icmp.h> s = socket(AF_INET, SOCK_RAW, proto); t = t_open("/dev/icmp", O_RDWR); DESCRIPTION
ICMP is the error and control message protocol used by the Internet protocol family. It is used by the kernel to handle and report errors in protocol processing. It may also be accessed by programs using the socket interface or the Transport Level Interface (TLI) for network monitoring and diagnostic functions. When used with the socket interface, a "raw socket" type is used. The protocol number for ICMP, used in the proto parameter to the socket call, can be obtained from getprotobyname(3SOCKET). ICMP file descriptors and sockets are connection- less, and are normally used with the t_sndudata / t_rcvudata and the sendto() / recvfrom() calls. Outgoing packets automatically have an Internet Protocol (IP) header prepended to them. Incoming packets are provided to the user with the IP header and options intact. ICMP is an datagram protocol layered above IP. It is used internally by the protcol code for various purposes including routing, fault iso- lation, and congestion control. Receipt of an ICMP "redirect" message will add a new entry in the routing table, or modify an existing one. ICMP messages are routinely sent by the protocol code. Received ICMP messages may be reflected back to users of higher-level protocols such as TCP or UDP as error returns from system calls. A copy of all ICMP message received by the system is provided to every holder of an open ICMP socket or TLI descriptor. SEE ALSO
getprotobyname(3SOCKET), recv(3SOCKET), send(3SOCKET), t_rcvudata(3NSL), t_sndudata(3NSL), inet(7P), ip(7P), routing(7P) Postel, Jon, Internet Control Message Protocol -- DARPA Internet Program Protocol Specification, RFC 792, Network Information Center, SRI International, Menlo Park, Calif., September 1981. DIAGNOSTICS
A socket operation may fail with one of the following errors returned: EISCONN An attempt was made to establish a connection on a socket which already has one, or when trying to send a datagram with the destination address specified and the socket is already connected. ENOTCONN An attempt was made to send a datagram, but no destination address is specified, and the socket has not been con- nected. ENOBUFS The system ran out of memory for an internal data structure. EADDRNOTAVAIL An attempt was made to create a socket with a network address for which no network interface exists. NOTES
Replies to ICMP "echo" messages which are source routed are not sent back using inverted source routes, but rather go back through the nor- mal routing mechanisms. SunOS 5.10 3 Jul 1990 icmp(7P)
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