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IP(4)				   BSD Kernel Interfaces Manual 			    IP(4)

NAME
     ip -- Internet Protocol

SYNOPSIS
     #include <sys/socket.h>
     #include <netinet/in.h>

     int
     socket(AF_INET, SOCK_RAW, proto);

DESCRIPTION
     IP is the transport layer protocol used by the Internet protocol family.  Options may be set
     at the IP level when using higher-level protocols that are based on IP (such as TCP and
     UDP).  It may also be accessed through a ``raw socket'' when developing new protocols, or
     special-purpose applications.

     There are several IP-level setsockopt(2) /getsockopt(2) options.  IP_OPTIONS may be used to
     provide IP options to be transmitted in the IP header of each outgoing packet or to examine
     the header options on incoming packets.  IP options may be used with any socket type in the
     Internet family.  The format of IP options to be sent is that specified by the IP protocol
     specification (RFC-791), with one exception: the list of addresses for Source Route options
     must include the first-hop gateway at the beginning of the list of gateways.  The first-hop
     gateway address will be extracted from the option list and the size adjusted accordingly
     before use.  To disable previously specified options, use a zero-length buffer:

     setsockopt(s, IPPROTO_IP, IP_OPTIONS, NULL, 0);

     IP_TOS and IP_TTL may be used to set the type-of-service and time-to-live fields in the IP
     header for SOCK_STREAM and SOCK_DGRAM sockets. For example,

     int tos = IPTOS_LOWDELAY;	     /* see <netinet/in.h> */
     setsockopt(s, IPPROTO_IP, IP_TOS, &tos, sizeof(tos));

     int ttl = 60;		     /* max = 255 */
     setsockopt(s, IPPROTO_IP, IP_TTL, &ttl, sizeof(ttl));

     If the IP_RECVDSTADDR option is enabled on a SOCK_DGRAM socket, the recvmsg call will return
     the destination IP address for a UDP datagram.  The msg_control field in the msghdr struc-
     ture points to a buffer that contains a cmsghdr structure followed by the IP address.  The
     cmsghdr fields have the following values:

     cmsg_len = sizeof(struct in_addr)
     cmsg_level = IPPROTO_IP
     cmsg_type = IP_RECVDSTADDR

   Multicast Options
     IP multicasting is supported only on AF_INET sockets of type SOCK_DGRAM and SOCK_RAW, and
     only on networks where the interface driver supports multicasting.

     The IP_MULTICAST_TTL option changes the time-to-live (TTL) for outgoing multicast datagrams
     in order to control the scope of the multicasts:

     u_char ttl;     /* range: 0 to 255, default = 1 */
     setsockopt(s, IPPROTO_IP, IP_MULTICAST_TTL, &ttl, sizeof(ttl));

     Datagrams with a TTL of 1 are not forwarded beyond the local network.  Multicast datagrams
     with a TTL of 0 will not be transmitted on any network, but may be delivered locally if the
     sending host belongs to the destination group and if multicast loopback has not been dis-
     abled on the sending socket (see below).  Multicast datagrams with TTL greater than 1 may be
     forwarded to other networks if a multicast router is attached to the local network.

     For hosts with multiple interfaces, each multicast transmission is sent from the primary
     network interface.  The IP_MULTICAST_IF option overrides the default for subsequent trans-
     missions from a given socket:

     struct in_addr addr;
     setsockopt(s, IPPROTO_IP, IP_MULTICAST_IF, &addr, sizeof(addr));

     where "addr" is the local IP address of the desired interface or INADDR_ANY to specify the
     default interface.  An interface's local IP address and multicast capability can be obtained
     via the SIOCGIFCONF and SIOCGIFFLAGS ioctls.  Normal applications should not need to use
     this option.

     If a multicast datagram is sent to a group to which the sending host itself belongs (on the
     outgoing interface), a copy of the datagram is, by default, looped back by the IP layer for
     local delivery.  The IP_MULTICAST_LOOP option gives the sender explicit control over whether
     or not subsequent datagrams are looped back:

     u_char loop;    /* 0 = disable, 1 = enable (default) */
     setsockopt(s, IPPROTO_IP, IP_MULTICAST_LOOP, &loop, sizeof(loop));

     This option improves performance for applications that may have no more than one instance on
     a single host (such as a router demon), by eliminating the overhead of receiving their own
     transmissions.  It should generally not be used by applications for which there may be more
     than one instance on a single host (such as a conferencing program) or for which the sender
     does not belong to the destination group (such as a time querying program).

     A multicast datagram sent with an initial TTL greater than 1 may be delivered to the sending
     host on a different interface from that on which it was sent, if the host belongs to the
     destination group on that other interface.  The loopback control option has no effect on
     such delivery.

     A host must become a member of a multicast group before it can receive datagrams sent to the
     group.  To join a multicast group, use the IP_ADD_MEMBERSHIP option:

     struct ip_mreq mreq;
     setsockopt(s, IPPROTO_IP, IP_ADD_MEMBERSHIP, &mreq, sizeof(mreq));

     where mreq is the following structure:

     struct ip_mreq {
	 struct in_addr imr_multiaddr; /* multicast group to join */
	 struct in_addr imr_interface; /* interface to join on */
     }

     imr_interface should be INADDR_ANY to choose the default multicast interface, or the IP
     address of a particular multicast-capable interface if the host is multihomed.  Membership
     is associated with a single interface; programs running on multihomed hosts may need to join
     the same group on more than one interface.  Up to IP_MAX_MEMBERSHIPS (currently 20) member-
     ships may be added on a single socket.

     To drop a membership, use:

     struct ip_mreq mreq;
     setsockopt(s, IPPROTO_IP, IP_DROP_MEMBERSHIP, &mreq, sizeof(mreq));

     where mreq contains the same values as used to add the membership.  Memberships are dropped
     when the socket is closed or the process exits.

   Raw IP Sockets
     Raw IP sockets are connectionless, and are normally used with the sendto and recvfrom calls,
     though the connect(2) call may also be used to fix the destination for future packets (in
     which case the read(2) or recv(2) and write(2) or send(2) system calls may be used).

     If proto is 0, the default protocol IPPROTO_RAW is used for outgoing packets, and only
     incoming packets destined for that protocol are received.	If proto is non-zero, that proto-
     col number will be used on outgoing packets and to filter incoming packets.

     Outgoing packets automatically have an IP header prepended to them (based on the destination
     address and the protocol number the socket is created with), unless the IP_HDRINCL option
     has been set.  Incoming packets are received with IP header and options intact.

     IP_HDRINCL indicates the complete IP header is included with the data and may be used only
     with the SOCK_RAW type.

     #include <netinet/ip.h>

     int hincl = 1;		     /* 1 = on, 0 = off */
     setsockopt(s, IPPROTO_IP, IP_HDRINCL, &hincl, sizeof(hincl));

     Unlike previous BSD releases, the program must set all the fields of the IP header, includ-
     ing the following:

     ip->ip_v = IPVERSION;
     ip->ip_hl = hlen >> 2;
     ip->ip_id = 0;  /* 0 means kernel set appropriate value */
     ip->ip_off = htons(offset);
     ip->ip_len = htons(len);
     Additionally note that starting with OpenBSD 2.1 the ip_off and ip_len fields are in network
     byte order.  If the header source address is set to INADDR_ANY, the kernel will choose an
     appropriate address.

DIAGNOSTICS
     A socket operation may fail with one of the following errors returned:

     [EISCONN]	      when trying to establish a connection on a socket which already has one, or
		      when trying to send a datagram with the destination address specified and
		      the socket is already connected;

     [ENOTCONN]       when trying to send a datagram, but no destination address is specified,
		      and the socket hasn't been connected;

     [ENOBUFS]	      when the system runs out of memory for an internal data structure;

     [EADDRNOTAVAIL]  when an attempt is made to create a socket with a network address for which
		      no network interface exists.

     [EACESS]	      when an attempt is made to create a raw IP socket by a non-privileged
		      process.

     The following errors specific to IP may occur when setting or getting IP options:

     [EINVAL]	      An unknown socket option name was given.

     [EINVAL]	      The IP option field was improperly formed; an option field was shorter than
		      the minimum value or longer than the option buffer provided.

SEE ALSO
     getsockopt(2), send(2), recv(2), intro(4), icmp(4), inet(4)

HISTORY
     The ip protocol appeared in 4.2BSD.

4.2 Berkeley Distribution		November 30, 1993		4.2 Berkeley Distribution
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