MMAP(2) BSD System Calls Manual MMAP(2)
mmap -- map files or devices into memory
mmap(void *addr, size_t len, int prot, int flags, int fd, off_t offset);
The mmap function causes the pages starting at addr and continuing for at most len bytes to be mapped from the object described by fd, start-
ing at byte offset offset. If offset or len is not a multiple of the pagesize, the mapped region may extend past the specified range.
If addr is non-zero, it is used as a hint to the system. (As a convenience to the system, the actual address of the region may differ from
the address supplied.) If addr is zero, an address will be selected by the system. The actual starting address of the region is returned.
A successful mmap deletes any previous mapping in the allocated address range.
The protections (region accessibility) are specified in the prot argument by or'ing the following values:
PROT_EXEC Pages may be executed.
PROT_READ Pages may be read.
PROT_WRITE Pages may be written.
The flags parameter specifies the type of the mapped object, mapping options and whether modifications made to the mapped copy of the page
are private to the process or are to be shared with other references. Sharing, mapping type and options are specified in the flags argument
by or'ing the following values:
MAP_ANON Map anonymous memory not associated with any specific file. The file descriptor used for creating MAP_ANON regions is used only
for naming, and may be specified as -1 if no name is associated with the region.
MAP_FILE Mapped from a regular file or character-special device memory. (This is the default mapping type, and need not be specified.)
MAP_FIXED Do not permit the system to select a different address than the one specified. If the specified address cannot be used, mmap
will fail. If MAP_FIXED is specified, addr must be a multiple of the pagesize. Use of this option is discouraged.
Notify the kernel that the region may contain semaphores and that special handling may be necessary.
Modifications are private.
MAP_SHARED Modifications are shared.
The close(2) function does not unmap pages, see munmap(2) for further information.
The current design does not allow a process to specify the location of swap space. In the future we may define an additional mapping type,
MAP_SWAP, in which the file descriptor argument specifies a file or device to which swapping should be done.
Upon successful completion, mmap returns a pointer to the mapped region. Otherwise, a value of -1 is returned and errno is set to indicate
Mmap() will fail if:
[EACCES] The flag PROT_READ was specified as part of the prot parameter and fd was not open for reading. The flags PROT_WRITE and
MAP_SHARED were specified as part of the flags and prot parameters and fd was not open for writing.
[EBADF] fd is not a valid open file descriptor.
[EINVAL] MAP_FIXED was specified and the parameter was not page aligned. fd did not reference a regular or character special file.
[ENOMEM] MAP_FIXED was specified and the addr parameter wasn't available. MAP_ANON was specified and insufficient memory was
getpagesize(2), msync(2), munmap(2), mprotect(2), madvise(2), mincore(2), mlock(2)
4th Berkeley Distribution June 4, 1993 4th Berkeley Distribution