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FIND(1) 			   BSD General Commands Manual				  FIND(1)

NAME
     find -- walk a file hierarchy

SYNOPSIS
     find [-H | -L | -P] [-EXdsx] [-f pathname] [pathname ...] expression

DESCRIPTION
     Find recursively descends the directory tree for each pathname listed, evaluating an
     expression (composed of the ``primaries'' and ``operands'' listed below) in terms of each
     file in the tree.

     The options are as follows:

     -E      Interpret regular expressions followed by -regex and -iregex options as extended
	     (modern) regular expressions rather than basic regular expressions (BRE's).  The
	     re_format(7) manual page fully describes both formats.

     -H      The -H option causes the file information and file type (see stat(2)) returned for
	     each symbolic link specified on the command line to be those of the file referenced
	     by the link, not the link itself.	If the referenced file does not exist, the file
	     information and type will be for the link itself.	File information of all symbolic
	     links not on the command line is that of the link itself.

     -L      The -L option causes the file information and file type (see stat(2)) returned for
	     each symbolic link to be those of the file referenced by the link, not the link
	     itself.  If the referenced file does not exist, the file information and type will
	     be for the link itself.

     -P      The -P option causes the file information and file type (see stat(2)) returned for
	     each symbolic link to be those of the link itself.  This is the default.

     -X      The -X option is a modification to permit find to be safely used in conjunction with
	     xargs(1).	If a file name contains any of the delimiting characters used by
	     xargs(1), a diagnostic message is displayed on standard error, and the file is
	     skipped.  The delimiting characters include single (`` ' '') and double (`` " '')
	     quotes, backslash (``\''), space, tab and newline characters.

     -d      The -d option causes find to perform a depth-first traversal, i.e., directories are
	     visited in post-order and all entries in a directory will be acted on before the
	     directory itself.	By default, find visits directories in pre-order, i.e., before
	     their contents.  Note, the default is not a breadth-first traversal.

     -f      The -f option specifies a file hierarchy for find to traverse.  File hierarchies may
	     also be specified as the operands immediately following the options.

     -s      The -s option causes find to traverse the file hierarchies in lexicographical order,
	     i.e., alphabetical order within each directory.  Note: 'find -s' and 'find | sort'
	     may give different results.

     -x      The -x option prevents find from descending into directories that have a device num-
	     ber different than that of the file from which the descent began.

PRIMARIES
     -amin n
	     True if the difference between the file last access time and the time find was
	     started, rounded up to the next full minute, is n minutes.

     -anewer file
	     Same as -neweram.

     -atime n
	     True if the difference between the file last access time and the time find was
	     started, rounded up to the next full 24-hour period, is n 24-hour periods.

     -cmin n
	     True if the difference between the time of last change of file status information
	     and the time find was started, rounded up to the next full minute, is n minutes.

     -cnewer file
	     Same as -newercm.

     -ctime n
	     True if the difference between the time of last change of file status information
	     and the time find was started, rounded up to the next full 24-hour period, is n
	     24-hour periods.

     -delete
	     Delete found files and/or directories.  Always returns true.  This executes from the
	     current working directory as find recurses down the tree.	It will not attempt to
	     delete a filename with a ``/'' character in its pathname relative to ``.'' for secu-
	     rity reasons.  Depth-first traversal processing is implied by this option.

     -depth  Always true; same as the -d option.  -depth can be useful when find is used with
	     cpio(1) to process files that are contained in directories with unusual permissions.
	     It enures that you have write permission while you are placing files in a directory,
	     then sets the directory's permissions as the last thing.

     -empty  True if the current file or directory is empty.

     -exec utility [argument ...];
	     True if the program named utility returns a zero value as its exit status.  Optional
	     arguments may be passed to the utility.  The expression must be terminated by a
	     semicolon (``;'').  If the string ``{}'' appears anywhere in the utility name or the
	     arguments it is replaced by the pathname of the current file.  Utility will be exe-
	     cuted from the directory from which find was executed.  Utility and arguments are
	     not subject to the further expansion of shell patterns and constructs.

     -execdir utility [argument ...];
	     The -execdir primary is identical to the -exec primary with the exception that
	     utility will be executed from the directory that holds the current file.  The file-
	     name substituted for the string ``{}'' is not qualified.

     -flags [-|+]flags,notflags
	     The flags are specified using symbolic names (see chflags(1)).  Those with the "no"
	     prefix (except "nodump") are said to be notflags.	Flags in flags are checked to be
	     set, and flags in notflags are checked to be not set.  Note that this is different
	     from -perm, which only allows the user to specify mode bits that are set.

	     If flags are preceded by a dash (``-''), this primary evaluates to true if at least
	     all of the bits in flags and none of the bits in notflags are set in the file's
	     flags bits.  If flags are preceded by a plus (``+''), this primary evaluates to true
	     if any of the bits in flags is set in the file's flags bits, or any of the bits in
	     notflags is not set in the file's flags bits.  Otherwise, this primary evaluates to
	     true if the bits in flags exactly match the file's flags bits, and none of the flags
	     bits match those of notflags.

     -fstype type
	     True if the file is contained in a file system of type type.  The sysctl(8) command
	     can be used to find out the types of filesystems that are available on the system:

		   sysctl vfs

	     In addition, there are two pseudo-types, ``local'' and ``rdonly''.  The former
	     matches any file system physically mounted on the system where the find is being
	     executed and the latter matches any file system which is mounted read-only.

     -group gname
	     True if the file belongs to the group gname.  If gname is numeric and there is no
	     such group name, then gname is treated as a group ID.

     -iname pattern
	     Like -name, but the match is case insensitive.

     -inum n
	     True if the file has inode number n.

     -ipath pattern
	     Like -path, but the match is case insensitive.

     -iregex pattern
	     Like -regex, but the match is case insensitive.

     -links n
	     True if the file has n links.

     -ls     This primary always evaluates to true.  The following information for the current
	     file is written to standard output: its inode number, size in 512-byte blocks, file
	     permissions, number of hard links, owner, group, size in bytes, last modification
	     time, and pathname.  If the file is a block or character special file, the major and
	     minor numbers will be displayed instead of the size in bytes.  If the file is a sym-
	     bolic link, the pathname of the linked-to file will be displayed preceded by ``->''.
	     The format is identical to that produced by ls -dgils.

     -maxdepth n
	     True if the depth of the current file into the tree is less than or equal to n.

     -mindepth n
	     True if the depth of the current file into the tree is greater than or equal to n.

     -mmin n
	     True if the difference between the file last modification time and the time find was
	     started, rounded up to the next full minute, is n minutes.

     -mnewer file
	     Same as -newer.

     -mtime n
	     True if the difference between the file last modification time and the time find was
	     started, rounded up to the next full 24-hour period, is n 24-hour periods.

     -name pattern
	     True if the last component of the pathname being examined matches pattern.  Special
	     shell pattern matching characters (``['', ``]'', ``*'', and ``?'') may be used as
	     part of pattern.  These characters may be matched explicitly by escaping them with a
	     backslash (``\'').

     -newer file
	     True if the current file has a more recent last modification time than file.

     -newerXY file
	     True if the current file has a more recent last access time (X=a), change time
	     (X=c), or modification time (X=m) than the last access time (Y=a), change time
	     (Y=c), or modification time (Y=m) of file.  In addition, if Y=t, then file is
	     instead interpreted as a direct date specification of the form understood by cvs(1).
	     Note that -newermm is equivalent to -newer.

     -nogroup
	     True if the file belongs to an unknown group.

     -nouser
	     True if the file belongs to an unknown user.

     -ok utility [argument ...];
	     The -ok primary is identical to the -exec primary with the exception that find
	     requests user affirmation for the execution of the utility by printing a message to
	     the terminal and reading a response.  If the response is other than ``y'' the com-
	     mand is not executed and the value of the -ok expression is false.

     -okdir utility [argument ...];
	     The -okdir primary is identical to the -execdir primary with the same exception as
	     described for the -ok primary.

     -path pattern
	     True if the pathname being examined matches pattern.  Special shell pattern matching
	     characters (``['', ``]'', ``*'', and ``?'') may be used as part of pattern.  These
	     characters may be matched explicitly by escaping them with a backslash (``\'').
	     Slashes (``/'') are treated as normal characters and do not have to be matched
	     explicitly.

     -perm [-|+]mode
	     The mode may be either symbolic (see chmod(1)) or an octal number.  If the mode is
	     symbolic, a starting value of zero is assumed and the mode sets or clears permis-
	     sions without regard to the process' file mode creation mask.  If the mode is octal,
	     only bits 07777 (S_ISUID | S_ISGID | S_ISTXT | S_IRWXU | S_IRWXG | S_IRWXO) of the
	     file's mode bits participate in the comparison.  If the mode is preceded by a dash
	     (``-''), this primary evaluates to true if at least all of the bits in the mode are
	     set in the file's mode bits.  If the mode is preceded by a plus (``+''), this pri-
	     mary evaluates to true if any of the bits in the mode are set in the file's mode
	     bits.  Otherwise, this primary evaluates to true if the bits in the mode exactly
	     match the file's mode bits.  Note, the first character of a symbolic mode may not be
	     a dash (``-'').

     -print  This primary always evaluates to true.  It prints the pathname of the current file
	     to standard output.  If none of -exec, -ls, -print0, or -ok is specified, the given
	     expression shall be effectively replaced by ( given expression ) -print.

     -print0
	     This primary always evaluates to true.  It prints the pathname of the current file
	     to standard output, followed by an ASCII NUL character (character code 0).

     -prune  This primary always evaluates to true.  It causes find to not descend into the cur-
	     rent file.  Note, the -prune primary has no effect if the -d option was specified.

     -regex pattern
	     True if the whole path of the file matches pattern using regular expression.  To
	     match a file named ``./foo/xyzzy'', you can use the regular expression ``.*/[xyz]*''
	     or ``.*/foo/.*'', but not ``xyzzy'' or ``/foo/''.

     -size n[c]
	     True if the file's size, rounded up, in 512-byte blocks is n.  If n is followed by a
	     c, then the primary is true if the file's size is n bytes (characters).

     -type t
	     True if the file is of the specified type.  Possible file types are as follows:

	     b	     block special
	     c	     character special
	     d	     directory
	     f	     regular file
	     l	     symbolic link
	     p	     FIFO
	     s	     socket

     -user uname
	     True if the file belongs to the user uname.  If uname is numeric and there is no
	     such user name, then uname is treated as a user ID.

     All primaries which take a numeric argument allow the number to be preceded by a plus sign
     (``+'') or a minus sign (``-'').  A preceding plus sign means ``more than n'', a preceding
     minus sign means ``less than n'' and neither means ``exactly n''.

OPERATORS
     The primaries may be combined using the following operators.  The operators are listed in
     order of decreasing precedence.

     ( expression )  This evaluates to true if the parenthesized expression evaluates to true.

     ! expression
     -false expression
     -not expression
		     This is the unary NOT operator.  It evaluates to true if the expression is
		     false.

     expression -and expression
     expression expression
		     The -and operator is the logical AND operator.  As it is implied by the jux-
		     taposition of two expressions it does not have to be specified.  The expres-
		     sion evaluates to true if both expressions are true.  The second expression
		     is not evaluated if the first expression is false.

     expression -or expression
		     The -or operator is the logical OR operator.  The expression evaluates to
		     true if either the first or the second expression is true.  The second
		     expression is not evaluated if the first expression is true.

     All operands and primaries must be separate arguments to find.  Primaries which themselves
     take arguments expect each argument to be a separate argument to find.

EXAMPLES
     The following examples are shown as given to the shell:

     find / \! -name "*.c" -print
	     Print out a list of all the files whose names do not end in .c.

     find / -newer ttt -user wnj -print
	     Print out a list of all the files owned by user ``wnj'' that are newer than the file
	     ttt.

     find / \! \( -newer ttt -user wnj \) -print
	     Print out a list of all the files which are not both newer than ttt and owned by
	     ``wnj''.

     find / \( -newer ttt -or -user wnj \) -print
	     Print out a list of all the files that are either owned by ``wnj'' or that are newer
	     than ttt.

     find . -newerct '1 minute ago' -print
	     Print out a list of all the files whose inode change time is more recent than the
	     current time minus one minute.

SEE ALSO
     chflags(1), chmod(1), cvs(1), locate(1), whereis(1), which(1), stat(2), fts(3), getgrent(3),
     getpwent(3), strmode(3), re_format(7), symlink(7)

STANDARDS
     The find utility syntax is a superset of the syntax specified by the IEEE Std 1003.2
     (``POSIX.2'') standard.

     All the single character options as well as the -iname, -inum, -iregex, -print0, -delete,
     -ls, and -regex primaries are extensions to IEEE Std 1003.2 (``POSIX.2'').

     Historically, the -d, -h and -x options were implemented using the primaries -depth,
     -follow, and -xdev.  These primaries always evaluated to true.  As they were really global
     variables that took effect before the traversal began, some legal expressions could have
     unexpected results.  An example is the expression -print -o -depth.  As -print always evalu-
     ates to true, the standard order of evaluation implies that -depth would never be evaluated.
     This is not the case.

     The operator -or was implemented as -o, and the operator -and was implemented as -a.

     Historic implementations of the -exec and -ok primaries did not replace the string ``{}'' in
     the utility name or the utility arguments if it had preceding or following non-whitespace
     characters.  This version replaces it no matter where in the utility name or arguments it
     appears.

     The -E option was implemented on the analogy of grep(1) and sed(1).

BUGS
     The special characters used by find are also special characters to many shell programs.  In
     particular, the characters ``*'', ``['', ``]'', ``?'', ``('', ``)'', ``!'', ``\'' and ``;''
     may have to be escaped from the shell.

     As there is no delimiter separating options and file names or file names and the expression,
     it is difficult to specify files named -xdev or !.  These problems are handled by the -f
     option and the getopt(3) ``--'' construct.

     The -delete primary does not interact well with other options that cause the filesystem tree
     traversal options to be changed.

HISTORY
     A find command appeared in Version 1 AT&T UNIX.

BSD					   May 3, 2001					      BSD
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