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NetBSD 6.1.5 - man page for makefs (netbsd section 8)

MAKEFS(8)			   BSD System Manager's Manual				MAKEFS(8)

     makefs -- create a file system image from a directory tree

     makefs [-x] [-B endian] [-b free-blocks] [-d debug-mask] [-F mtree-specfile] [-f free-files]
	    [-M minimum-size] [-m maximum-size] [-N userdb-dir] [-o fs-options] [-S sector-size]
	    [-s image-size] [-t fs-type] image-file directory [extra-directory ...]

     The utility makefs creates a file system image into image-file from the directory tree
     directory.  If any optional directory trees are passed in the extra-directory arguments,
     then the directory tree of each argument will be merged into the directory first before cre-
     ating image-file.	No special devices or privileges are required to perform this task.

     The options are as follows:

     -B endian
	   Set the byte order of the image to endian.  Valid byte orders are '4321', 'big', or
	   'be' for big endian, and '1234', 'little', or 'le' for little endian.  Some file sys-
	   tems may have a fixed byte order; in those cases this argument will be ignored.

     -b free-blocks
	   Ensure that a minimum of free-blocks free blocks exist in the image.  An optional '%'
	   suffix may be provided to indicate that free-blocks indicates a percentage of the cal-
	   culated image size.

     -d debug-mask
	   Enable various levels of debugging, depending upon which bits are set in debug-mask.
	   XXX: document these

     -F mtree-specfile
	   Use mtree-specfile as an mtree(8) 'specfile' specification.

	   If a specfile entry exists in the underlying file system, its permissions and modifi-
	   cation time will be used unless specifically overridden by the specfile.  An error
	   will be raised if the type of entry in the specfile conflicts with that of an existing

	   In the opposite case (where a specfile entry does not have an entry in the underlying
	   file system) the following occurs: If the specfile entry is marked optional, the spec-
	   file entry is ignored.  Otherwise, the entry will be created in the image, and it is
	   necessary to specify at least the following parameters in the specfile: type, mode,
	   gname, or gid, and uname or uid, device (in the case of block or character devices),
	   and link (in the case of symbolic links).  If time isn't provided, the current time
	   will be used.  If flags isn't provided, the current file flags will be used.  Missing
	   regular file entries will be created as zero-length files.

     -f free-files
	   Ensure that a minimum of free-files free files (inodes) exist in the image.	An
	   optional '%' suffix may be provided to indicate that free-files indicates a percentage
	   of the calculated image size.

     -M minimum-size
	   Set the minimum size of the file system image to minimum-size.

     -m maximum-size
	   Set the maximum size of the file system image to maximum-size.  An error will be
	   raised if the target file system needs to be larger than this to accommodate the pro-
	   vided directory tree.

     -N userdb-dir
	   Use the user database text file master.passwd and group database text file group from
	   userdb-dir, rather than using the results from the system's getpwnam(3) and
	   getgrnam(3) (and related) library calls.

     -o fs-options
	   Set file system specific options.  fs-options is a comma separated list of options.
	   Valid file system specific options are detailed below.

     -S sector-size
	   Set the file system sector size to sector-size.  Defaults to 512.

     -s image-size
	   Set the size of the file system image to image-size.

     -t fs-type
	   Create an fs-type file system image.  The following file system types are supported:

		 ffs	 BSD fast file system (default).

		 cd9660  ISO 9660 file system.

		 v7fs	 7th Edition(V7) file system.

     -x    Exclude file system nodes not explicitly listed in the specfile.

     Where sizes are specified, a decimal number of bytes is expected.	Two or more numbers may
     be separated by an ``x'' to indicate a product.  Each number may have one of the following
     optional suffixes:
	   b	Block; multiply by 512
	   k	Kibi; multiply by 1024 (1 KiB)
	   m	Mebi; multiply by 1048576 (1 MiB)
	   g	Gibi; multiply by 1073741824 (1 GiB)
	   t	Tebi; multiply by 1099511627776 (1 TiB)
	   w	Word; multiply by the number of bytes in an integer

   FFS-specific options
     ffs images have ffs-specific optional parameters that may be provided.  Each of the options
     consists of a keyword, an equal sign ('='), and a value.  The following keywords are sup-

	   avgfilesize	 Expected average file size.
	   avgfpdir	 Expected number of files per directory.
	   bsize	 Block size.
	   density	 Bytes per inode.
	   fsize	 Fragment size.
	   label	 Label name of the image.
	   maxbpg	 Maximum blocks per file in a cylinder group.
	   minfree	 Minimum % free.
	   optimization  Optimization preference; one of 'space' or 'time'.
	   extent	 Maximum extent size.
	   maxbpcg	 Maximum total number of blocks in a cylinder group.
	   version	 UFS version.  1 for FFS (default), 2 for UFS2.

   CD9660-specific options
     cd9660 images have ISO9660-specific optional parameters that may be provided.  The arguments
     consist of a keyword and, optionally, an equal sign ('='), and a value.  The following key-
     words are supported:

	   allow-deep-trees	 Allow the directory structure to exceed the maximum specified in
				 the spec.
	   allow-max-name	 Allow 37 instead of 33 characters for filenames by omitting the
				 version id.
	   allow-multidot	 Allow multiple dots in a filename.
	   applicationid	 Application ID of the image.
	   archimedes		 Use the 'ARCHIMEDES' extension to encode RISC OS metadata.
	   chrp-boot		 Write an MBR partition table to the image to allow older CHRP
				 hardware to boot.
	   boot-load-segment	 Set load segment for the boot image.
	   bootimage		 Filename of a boot image in the format ``sysid;filename'', where
				 ``sysid'' is one of 'i386', 'mac68k', 'macppc', or 'powerpc'.
	   generic-bootimage	 Load a generic boot image into the first 32K of the cd9660
	   hard-disk-boot	 Boot image is a hard disk image.
	   keep-bad-images	 Don't throw away images whose write was aborted due to an error.
				 For debugging purposes.
	   label		 Label name of the image.
	   no-boot		 Boot image is not bootable.
	   no-emul-boot 	 Boot image is a ``no emulation'' ElTorito image.
	   no-trailing-padding	 Do not pad the image (apparently Linux needs the padding).
	   preparer		 Preparer ID of the image.
	   publisher		 Publisher ID of the image.
	   rockridge		 Use RockRidge extensions (for longer filenames, etc.).
	   volumeid		 Volume set identifier of the image.

   V7FS-specific options
     The following keywords are supported:

	   pdp		 PDP endian.
	   progress	 Display a progress meter for the file system construction and file popu-

     strsuftoll(3), installboot(8), mtree(8), newfs(8)

     The makefs utility appeared in NetBSD 1.6.

     Luke Mewburn <lukem@NetBSD.org> (original program),
     Daniel Watt,
     Walter Deignan,
     Ryan Gabrys,
     Alan Perez-Rathke,
     Ram Vedam (cd9660 support),
     UCHIYAMA Yasushi (v7fs support).

BSD					 January 27, 2012				      BSD

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