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NetBSD 6.1.5 - man page for fsck_lfs (netbsd section 8)

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FSCK_LFS(8)			   BSD System Manager's Manual			      FSCK_LFS(8)

NAME
     fsck_lfs -- Log-structured File System consistency check and interactive repair

SYNOPSIS
     fsck_lfs [-dfpqU] [-b block] [-m mode] [-y | -n] filesystem ...

DESCRIPTION
     fsck_lfs performs interactive filesystem consistency checks and repair for each of the
     filesystems specified on the command line.  It is normally invoked from fsck(8).

     The design of LFS takes care that no filesystem inconsistencies can happen unless hardware
     or software failures intervene.  fsck_lfs will report and optionally correct any such incon-
     sistencies.

     For each corrected inconsistency one or more lines will be printed identifying the filesys-
     tem on which the correction will take place, and the nature of the correction.  After suc-
     cessfully correcting a filesystem, fsck_lfs will print the number of files on that filesys-
     tem, the number of used and free blocks, and the percentage of fragmentation.

     If sent a QUIT signal, fsck_lfs will finish the filesystem checks, then exit with an abnor-
     mal return status.

     Without the -p option, fsck_lfs audits and interactively repairs inconsistent conditions for
     filesystems.  If the filesystem is inconsistent, the operator is prompted for concurrence
     before each correction is attempted.  It should be noted that some of the corrective actions
     will result in some loss of data.	The amount and severity of data lost may be determined
     from the diagnostic output.  The default action for each consistency correction is to wait
     for the operator to respond yes or no.  If the operator does not have write permission on
     the filesystem fsck_lfs will default to a -n action.

     The following flags are interpreted by fsck_lfs:

     -b block	 Use block as the super block for the filesystem.

     -d 	 Print debugging output.

     -f 	 Force checking of file systems.  Normally, if a file system is cleanly
		 unmounted, the kernel will set a ``clean flag'' in the file system superblock,
		 and fsck_lfs will not check the file system.  This option forces fsck_lfs to
		 check the file system, regardless of the state of the clean flag.

     -m mode	 Use mode specified in octal as the permission bits to use when creating the
		 lost+found directory rather than the default 1700.  In particular, systems that
		 do not wish to have lost files accessible by all users on the system should use
		 a more restrictive set of permissions such as 700.

     -n 	 Assume a no response to all questions asked by fsck_lfs except for 'CONTINUE?',
		 which is assumed to be affirmative; do not open the filesystem for writing.

     -p 	 Specify ``preen'' mode.  Currently, in this mode fsck_lfs rolls forward from the
		 older checkpoint, and performs no other action.

     -q 	 Quiet mode, do not output any messages for clean filesystems.

     -U 	 Resolve user ids to user names.

     -y 	 Assume a yes response to all questions asked by fsck_lfs; this should be used
		 with great caution as this is a free license to continue after essentially
		 unlimited trouble has been encountered.

     Inconsistencies checked are as follows:
	   1.	Blocks claimed by more than one inode.
	   2.	Blocks claimed by an inode outside the range of the filesystem.
	   3.	Incorrect link counts.
	   4.	Size checks:
		      Directory size not a multiple of DIRBLKSIZ.
		      Partially truncated file.
	   5.	Bad inode format.
	   6.	Directory checks:
		      File pointing to unallocated inode.
		      Inode number out of range.
		      Dot or dot-dot not the first two entries of a directory or having the wrong
		      inode number.
	   7.	Super Block checks:
		      More blocks for inodes than there are in the filesystem.
	   8.	Index File checks:
		      ``In use'' inodes on free list, or free inodes not on free list.
		      Segment block counts incorrect, or ``clean'' segments containing live data.

     Orphaned files and directories (allocated but unreferenced) are, with the operator's concur-
     rence, reconnected by placing them in the lost+found directory.  The name assigned is the
     inode number.  If the lost+found directory does not exist, it is created.	If there is
     insufficient space its size is increased.

     Because of inconsistencies between the block device and the buffer cache, the raw device
     should always be used.

DIAGNOSTICS
     The diagnostics produced by fsck_lfs are fully enumerated and explained in Appendix A of
     Fsck - The UNIX File System Check Program.

SEE ALSO
     fstab(5), fsck(8), newfs_lfs(8), reboot(8)

HISTORY
     The fsck_lfs program was first made available in NetBSD 1.4.

AUTHORS
     Most of the fsck_lfs program was taken from fsck_ffs(8); what was not was written by Konrad
     Schroder <perseant@NetBSD.org>.

BSD					 October 9, 2008				      BSD
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