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EQN(7)			       BSD Miscellaneous Information Manual			   EQN(7)

NAME
     eqn -- eqn language reference for mandoc

DESCRIPTION
     The eqn language is an equation-formatting language.  It is used within mdoc(7) and man(7)
     UNIX manual pages.  It describes the structure of an equation, not its mathematical meaning.
     This manual describes the eqn language accepted by the mandoc(1) utility, which corresponds
     to the Second Edition eqn specification (see SEE ALSO for references).

     Equations within mdoc(7) or man(7) documents are enclosed by the standalone '.EQ' and '.EN'
     tags.  Equations are multi-line blocks consisting of formulas and control statements.

EQUATION STRUCTURE
     Each equation is bracketed by '.EQ' and '.EN' strings.  Note: these are not the same as
     roff(7) macros, and may only be invoked as '.EQ'.

     The equation grammar is as follows, where quoted strings are case-sensitive literals in the
     input:

	   eqn	   : box | eqn box
	   box	   : text
		   | "{" eqn "}"
		   | "define" text text
		   | "ndefine" text text
		   | "tdefine" text text
		   | "gfont" text
		   | "gsize" text
		   | "set" text text
		   | "undef" text
		   | box pos box
		   | box mark
		   | "matrix" "{" [col "{" list "}" ]*
		   | pile "{" list "}"
		   | font box
		   | "size" text box
		   | "left" text eqn ["right" text]
	   col	   : "lcol" | "rcol" | "ccol" | "col"
	   text    : [^space\"]+ | \".*\"
	   pile    : "lpile" | "cpile" | "rpile" | "pile"
	   pos	   : "over" | "sup" | "sub" | "to" | "from"
	   mark    : "dot" | "dotdot" | "hat" | "tilde" | "vec"
		   | "dyad" | "bar" | "under"
	   font    : "roman" | "italic" | "bold" | "fat"
	   list    : eqn
		   | list "above" eqn
	   space   : [\^~ \t]

     White-space consists of the space, tab, circumflex, and tilde characters.	If within a
     quoted string, these space characters are retained.  Quoted strings are also not scanned for
     replacement definitions.

     The following text terms are translated into a rendered glyph, if available: alpha, beta,
     chi, delta, epsilon, eta, gamma, iota, kappa, lambda, mu, nu, omega, omicron, phi, pi, psi,
     rho, sigma, tau, theta, upsilon, xi, zeta, DELTA, GAMMA, LAMBDA, OMEGA, PHI, PI, PSI, SIGMA,
     THETA, UPSILON, XI, inter (intersection), union (union), prod (product), int (integral), sum
     (summation), grad (gradient), del (vector differential), times (multiply), cdot (centre-
     dot), nothing (zero-width space), approx (approximately equals), prime (prime), half (one-
     half), partial (partial differential), inf (infinity), >> (much greater), << (much less), ->
     (left arrow), <- (right arrow), += (plus-minus), != (not equal), == (equivalence), <= (less-
     than-equal), and >= (more-than-equal).

     The following control statements are available:

     define  Replace all occurrences of a key with a value.  Its syntax is as follows:

		   define key cvalc

	     The first character of the value string, c, is used as the delimiter for the value
	     val.  This allows for arbitrary enclosure of terms (not just quotes), such as

		   define foo 'bar baz'
		   define foo cbar bazc

	     It is an error to have an empty key or val.  Note that a quoted key causes errors in
	     some eqn implementations and should not be considered portable.  It is not expanded
	     for replacements.	Definitions may refer to other definitions; these are evaluated
	     recursively when text replacement occurs and not when the definition is created.

	     Definitions can create arbitrary strings, for example, the following is a legal con-
	     struction.

		   define foo 'define'
		   foo bar 'baz'

	     Self-referencing definitions will raise an error.	The ndefine statement is a syn-
	     onym for define, while tdefine is discarded.

     gfont   Set the default font of subsequent output.  Its syntax is as follows:

		   gfont font

	     In mandoc, this value is discarded.

     gsize   Set the default size of subsequent output.  Its syntax is as follows:

		   gsize size

	     The size value should be an integer.

     set     Set an equation mode.  In mandoc, both arguments are thrown away.	Its syntax is as
	     follows:

		   set key val

	     The key and val are not expanded for replacements.  This statement is a GNU exten-
	     sion.

     undef   Unset a previously-defined key.  Its syntax is as follows:

		   define key

	     Once invoked, the definition for key is discarded.  The key is not expanded for
	     replacements.  This statement is a GNU extension.

COMPATIBILITY
     This section documents the compatibility of mandoc eqn and the troff eqn implementation
     (including GNU troff).

     -	 The text string '\"' is interpreted as a literal quote in troff.  In mandoc, this is
	 interpreted as a comment.
     -	 In troff, The circumflex and tilde white-space symbols map to fixed-width spaces.  In
	 mandoc, these characters are synonyms for the space character.
     -	 The troff implementation of eqn allows for equation alignment with the mark and lineup
	 tokens.  mandoc discards these tokens.  The back n, fwd n, up n, and down n commands are
	 also ignored.

SEE ALSO
     mandoc(1), man(7), mandoc_char(7), mdoc(7), roff(7)

     Brian W. Kernighan and Lorinda L. Cherry, "System for Typesetting Mathematics",
     Communications of the ACM, 18, 151-157, March, 1975.

     Brian W. Kernighan and Lorinda L. Cherry, Typesetting Mathematics, User's Guide, 1976.

     Brian W. Kernighan and Lorinda L. Cherry, Typesetting Mathematics, User's Guide (Second
     Edition), 1978.

HISTORY
     The eqn utility, a preprocessor for troff, was originally written by Brian W. Kernighan and
     Lorinda L. Cherry in 1975.  The GNU reimplementation of eqn, part of the GNU troff package,
     was released in 1989 by James Clark.  The eqn component of mandoc(1) was added in 2011.

AUTHORS
     This eqn reference was written by Kristaps Dzonsons, kristaps@bsd.lv.

BSD					September 25, 2011				      BSD
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