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NetBSD 6.1.5 - man page for mandoc (netbsd section 1)

MANDOC(1)			   BSD General Commands Manual				MANDOC(1)

NAME
     mandoc -- format and display UNIX manuals

SYNOPSIS
     mandoc [-V] [-mformat] [-Ooption] [-Toutput] [-Wlevel] [file ...]

DESCRIPTION
     The mandoc utility formats UNIX manual pages for display.

     By default, mandoc reads mdoc(7) or man(7) text from stdin, implying -mandoc, and produces
     -Tascii output.

     The arguments are as follows:

     -mformat
	     Input format.  See Input Formats for available formats.  Defaults to -mandoc.

     -Ooption
	     Comma-separated output options.

     -Toutput
	     Output format.  See Output Formats for available formats.	Defaults to -Tascii.

     -V      Print version and exit.

     -Wlevel
	     Specify the minimum message level to be reported on the standard error output and to
	     affect the exit status.  The level can be warning, error, or fatal.  The default is
	     -Wfatal; -Wall is an alias for -Wwarning.	See EXIT STATUS and DIAGNOSTICS for
	     details.

	     The special option -Wstop tells mandoc to exit after parsing a file that causes
	     warnings or errors of at least the requested level.  No formatted output will be
	     produced from that file.  If both a level and stop are requested, they can be joined
	     with a comma, for example -Werror,stop.

     file    Read input from zero or more files.  If unspecified, reads from stdin.  If multiple
	     files are specified, mandoc will halt with the first failed parse.

   Input Formats
     The mandoc utility accepts mdoc(7) and man(7) input with -mdoc and -man, respectively.  The
     mdoc(7) format is strongly recommended; man(7) should only be used for legacy manuals.

     A third option, -mandoc, which is also the default, determines encoding on-the-fly: if the
     first non-comment macro is 'Dd' or 'Dt', the mdoc(7) parser is used; otherwise, the man(7)
     parser is used.

     If multiple files are specified with -mandoc, each has its file-type determined this way.
     If multiple files are specified and -mdoc or -man is specified, then this format is used
     exclusively.

   Output Formats
     The mandoc utility accepts the following -T arguments, which correspond to output modes:

     -Tascii   Produce 7-bit ASCII output.  This is the default.  See ASCII Output.

     -Thtml    Produce strict CSS1/HTML-4.01 output.  See HTML Output.

     -Tlint    Parse only: produce no output.  Implies -Wwarning.

     -Tlocale  Encode output using the current locale.	See Locale Output.

     -Tman     Produce man(7) format output.  See Man Output.

     -Tpdf     Produce PDF output.  See PDF Output.

     -Tps      Produce PostScript output.  See PostScript Output.

     -Ttree    Produce an indented parse tree.

     -Tutf8    Encode output in the UTF-8 multi-byte format.  See UTF-8 Output.

     -Txhtml   Produce strict CSS1/XHTML-1.0 output.  See XHTML Output.

     If multiple input files are specified, these will be processed by the corresponding filter
     in-order.

   ASCII Output
     Output produced by -Tascii, which is the default, is rendered in standard 7-bit ASCII docu-
     mented in ascii(7).

     Font styles are applied by using back-spaced encoding such that an underlined character 'c'
     is rendered as '_\[bs]c', where '\[bs]' is the back-space character number 8.  Emboldened
     characters are rendered as 'c\[bs]c'.

     The special characters documented in mandoc_char(7) are rendered best-effort in an ASCII
     equivalent.  If no equivalent is found, '?' is used instead.

     Output width is limited to 78 visible columns unless literal input lines exceed this limit.

     The following -O arguments are accepted:

     indent=indent
	     The left margin for normal text is set to indent blank characters instead of the
	     default of five for mdoc(7) and seven for man(7).	Increasing this is not recom-
	     mended; it may result in degraded formatting, for example overfull lines or ugly
	     line breaks.

     width=width
	     The output width is set to width, which will normalise to >=60.

   HTML Output
     Output produced by -Thtml conforms to HTML-4.01 strict.

     The example.style.css file documents style-sheet classes available for customising output.
     If a style-sheet is not specified with -Ostyle, -Thtml defaults to simple output readable in
     any graphical or text-based web browser.

     Special characters are rendered in decimal-encoded UTF-8.

     The following -O arguments are accepted:

     fragment
	     Omit the <!DOCTYPE> declaration and the <html>, <head>, and <body> elements and only
	     emit the subtree below the <body> element.  The style argument will be ignored.
	     This is useful when embedding manual content within existing documents.

     includes=fmt
	     The string fmt, for example, ../src/%I.html, is used as a template for linked header
	     files (usually via the 'In' macro).  Instances of '%I' are replaced with the include
	     filename.	The default is not to present a hyperlink.

     man=fmt
	     The string fmt, for example, ../html%S/%N.%S.html, is used as a template for linked
	     manuals (usually via the 'Xr' macro).  Instances of '%N' and '%S' are replaced with
	     the linked manual's name and section, respectively.  If no section is included, sec-
	     tion 1 is assumed.  The default is not to present a hyperlink.

     style=style.css
	     The file style.css is used for an external style-sheet.  This must be a valid abso-
	     lute or relative URI.

   Locale Output
     Locale-depending output encoding is triggered with -Tlocale.  This option is not available
     on all systems: systems without locale support, or those whose internal representation is
     not natively UCS-4, will fall back to -Tascii.  See ASCII Output for font style specifica-
     tion and available command-line arguments.

   Man Output
     Translate input format into man(7) output format.	This is useful for distributing manual
     sources to legancy systems lacking mdoc(7) formatters.

     If mdoc(7) is passed as input, it is translated into man(7).  If the input format is man(7),
     the input is copied to the output, expanding any roff(7) 'so' requests.  The parser is also
     run, and as usual, the -W level controls which DIAGNOSTICS are displayed before copying the
     input to the output.

   PDF Output
     PDF-1.1 output may be generated by -Tpdf.	See PostScript Output for -O arguments and
     defaults.

   PostScript Output
     PostScript "Adobe-3.0" Level-2 pages may be generated by -Tps.  Output pages default to let-
     ter sized and are rendered in the Times font family, 11-point.  Margins are calculated as
     1/9 the page length and width.  Line-height is 1.4m.

     Special characters are rendered as in ASCII Output.

     The following -O arguments are accepted:

     paper=name
	     The paper size name may be one of a3, a4, a5, legal, or letter.  You may also manu-
	     ally specify dimensions as NNxNN, width by height in millimetres.	If an unknown
	     value is encountered, letter is used.

   UTF-8 Output
     Use -Tutf8 to force a UTF-8 locale.  See Locale Output for details and options.

   XHTML Output
     Output produced by -Txhtml conforms to XHTML-1.0 strict.

     See HTML Output for details; beyond generating XHTML tags instead of HTML tags, these output
     modes are identical.

EXIT STATUS
     The mandoc utility exits with one of the following values, controlled by the message level
     associated with the -W option:

     0	     No warnings or errors occurred, or those that did were ignored because they were
	     lower than the requested level.
     2	     At least one warning occurred, but no error, and -Wwarning was specified.
     3	     At least one parsing error occurred, but no fatal error, and -Werror or -Wwarning
	     was specified.
     4	     A fatal parsing error occurred.
     5	     Invalid command line arguments were specified.  No input files have been read.
     6	     An operating system error occurred, for example memory exhaustion or an error
	     accessing input files.  Such errors cause mandoc to exit at once, possibly in the
	     middle of parsing or formatting a file.

     Note that selecting -Tlint output mode implies -Wwarning.

EXAMPLES
     To page manuals to the terminal:

	   $ mandoc -Wall,stop mandoc.1 2>&1 | less
	   $ mandoc mandoc.1 mdoc.3 mdoc.7 | less

     To produce HTML manuals with style.css as the style-sheet:

	   $ mandoc -Thtml -Ostyle=style.css mdoc.7 > mdoc.7.html

     To check over a large set of manuals:

	   $ mandoc -Tlint `find /usr/src -name \*\.[1-9]`

     To produce a series of PostScript manuals for A4 paper:

	   $ mandoc -Tps -Opaper=a4 mdoc.7 man.7 > manuals.ps

     Convert a modern mdoc(7) manual to the older man(7) format, for use on systems lacking an
     mdoc(7) parser:

	   $ mandoc -Tman foo.mdoc > foo.man

DIAGNOSTICS
     Standard error messages reporting parsing errors are prefixed by

	   file:line:column: level:

     where the fields have the following meanings:

     file    The name of the input file causing the message.

     line    The line number in that input file.  Line numbering starts at 1.

     column  The column number in that input file.  Column numbering starts at 1.  If the issue
	     is caused by a word, the column number usually points to the first character of the
	     word.

     level   The message level, printed in capital letters.

     Message levels have the following meanings:

     fatal    The parser is unable to parse a given input file at all.	No formatted output is
	      produced from that input file.

     error    An input file contains syntax that cannot be safely interpreted, either because it
	      is invalid or because mandoc does not implement it yet.  By discarding part of the
	      input or inserting missing tokens, the parser is able to continue, and the error
	      does not prevent generation of formatted output, but typically, preparing that out-
	      put involves information loss, broken document structure or unintended formatting.

     warning  An input file uses obsolete, discouraged or non-portable syntax.	All the same, the
	      meaning of the input is unambiguous and a correct rendering can be produced.  Docu-
	      ments causing warnings may render poorly when using other formatting tools instead
	      of mandoc.

     Messages of the warning and error levels are hidden unless their level, or a lower level, is
     requested using a -W option or -Tlint output mode.

     The mandoc utility may also print messages related to invalid command line arguments or
     operating system errors, for example when memory is exhausted or input files cannot be read.
     Such messages do not carry the prefix described above.

COMPATIBILITY
     This section summarises mandoc compatibility with GNU troff.  Each input and output format
     is separately noted.

   ASCII Compatibility
     o	 Unrenderable unicode codepoints specified with '\[uNNNN]' escapes are printed as '?' in
	 mandoc.  In GNU troff, these raise an error.
     o	 The 'Bd -literal' and 'Bd -unfilled' macros of mdoc(7) in -Tascii are synonyms, as are
	 -filled and -ragged.
     o	 In historic GNU troff, the 'Pa' mdoc(7) macro does not underline when scoped under an
	 'It' in the FILES section.  This behaves correctly in mandoc.
     o	 A list or display following the 'Ss' mdoc(7) macro in -Tascii does not assert a prior
	 vertical break, just as it doesn't with 'Sh'.
     o	 The 'na' man(7) macro in -Tascii has no effect.
     o	 Words aren't hyphenated.

   HTML/XHTML Compatibility
     o	 The '\fP' escape will revert the font to the previous '\f' escape, not to the last ren-
	 dered decoration, which is now dictated by CSS instead of hard-coded.	It also will not
	 span past the current scope, for the same reason.  Note that in ASCII Output mode, this
	 will work fine.
     o	 The mdoc(7) 'Bl -hang' and 'Bl -tag' list types render similarly (no break following
	 overreached left-hand side) due to the expressive constraints of HTML.
     o	 The man(7) 'IP' and 'TP' lists render similarly.

SEE ALSO
     eqn(7), man(7), mandoc_char(7), mdoc(7), roff(7), tbl(7)

AUTHORS
     The mandoc utility was written by Kristaps Dzonsons, kristaps@bsd.lv.

CAVEATS
     In -Thtml and -Txhtml, the maximum size of an element attribute is determined by BUFSIZ,
     which is usually 1024 bytes.  Be aware of this when setting long link formats such as
     -Ostyle=really/long/link.

     Nesting elements within next-line element scopes of -man, such as 'br' within an empty 'B',
     will confuse -Thtml and -Txhtml and cause them to forget the formatting of the prior next-
     line scope.

     The ''' control character is an alias for the standard macro control character and does not
     emit a line-break as stipulated in GNU troff.

BSD					December 25, 2011				      BSD


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