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NetBSD 6.1.5 - man page for hosts.equiv (netbsd section 5)

HOSTS.EQUIV(5)			     BSD File Formats Manual			   HOSTS.EQUIV(5)

NAME
     hosts.equiv, .rhosts -- trusted remote hosts and host-user pairs

DESCRIPTION
     The hosts.equiv and .rhosts files list hosts and users which are ``trusted'' by the local
     host when a connection is made via rlogind(8), rshd(8), or any other server that uses
     ruserok(3).  This mechanism bypasses password checks, and is required for access via rsh(1).

     Each line of these files has the format:

	   hostname [username]

     The hostname may be specified as a host name (typically a fully qualified host name in a DNS
     environment) or address, ``+@netgroup'' (from which only the host names are checked), or a
     ``+'' wildcard (allow all hosts).

     The username, if specified, may be given as a user name on the remote host, ``+@netgroup''
     (from which only the user names are checked), or a ``+'' wildcard (allow all remote users).

     If a username is specified, only that user from the specified host may login to the local
     machine.  If a username is not specified, any user may login with the same user name.

EXAMPLES
     somehost
	   A common usage:  users on somehost may login to the local host as the same user name.
     somehost username
	   The	user  username	on  somehost  may  login  to  the  local  host.   If specified in
	   /etc/hosts.equiv, the user may login with only the same user name.
     +@anetgroup username
	   The user username may login to the local host from any machine listed in the  netgroup
	   anetgroup.
     +
     + +
	   Two severe security hazards.  In the first case, allows a user on any machine to login
	   to the local host as the same user name.  In the second case, allows any user  on  any
	   machine to login to the local host (as any user, if in /etc/hosts.equiv).

WARNINGS
     The username checks provided by this mechanism are not secure, as the remote user name is
     received by the server unchecked for validity.  Therefore this mechanism should only be used
     in an environment where all hosts are completely trusted.

     A numeric host address instead of a host name can help security considerations somewhat; the
     address is then used directly by iruserok(3).

     When a username (or netgroup, or +) is specified in /etc/hosts.equiv, that user (or group of
     users, or all users, respectively) may login to the local host as any local user.	Usernames
     in /etc/hosts.equiv should therefore be used with extreme caution, or not at all.

     A .rhosts file must be owned by the user whose home directory it resides in, and must be
     writable only by that user.

     Logins as root only check root's .rhosts file; the /etc/hosts.equiv file is not checked for
     security.	Access permitted through root's .rhosts file is typically only for rsh(1), as
     root must still login on the console for an interactive login such as rlogin(1).

FILES
     /etc/hosts.equiv  Global trusted host-user pairs list
     ~/.rhosts	       Per-user trusted host-user pairs list

SEE ALSO
     rcp(1), rlogin(1), rsh(1), rcmd(3), ruserok(3), netgroup(5)

HISTORY
     The .rhosts file format appeared in 4.2BSD.

BUGS
     The ruserok(3) implementation currently skips negative entries (preceded with a ``-'' sign)
     and does not treat them as ``short-circuit'' negative entries.

BSD					November 26, 1997				      BSD


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