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NetBSD 6.1.5 - man page for ipf (netbsd section 4)

IPF(4)											   IPF(4)

       ipf - packet filtering kernel interface

       #include <netinet/ip_compat.h>
       #include <netinet/ip_fil.h>

       To  add	and  delete  rules to the filter list, three 'basic' ioctls are provided for use.
       The ioctl's are called as:

	    ioctl(fd, SIOCADDFR, struct frentry **)
	    ioctl(fd, SIOCDELFR, struct frentry **)
	    ioctl(fd, SIOCIPFFL, int *)

       However, the full complement is as follows:

	    ioctl(fd, SIOCADAFR, struct frentry **) (same as SIOCADDFR)
	    ioctl(fd, SIOCRMAFR, struct frentry **) (same as SIOCDELFR)
	    ioctl(fd, SIOCADIFR, struct frentry **)
	    ioctl(fd, SIOCRMIFR, struct frentry **)
	    ioctl(fd, SIOCINAFR, struct frentry **)
	    ioctl(fd, SIOCINIFR, struct frentry **)
	    ioctl(fd, SIOCSETFF, u_int *)
	    ioctl(fd, SIOGGETFF, u_int *)
	    ioctl(fd, SIOCGETFS, struct friostat **)
	    ioctl(fd, SIOCIPFFL, int *)
	    ioctl(fd, SIOCIPFFB, int *)
	    ioctl(fd, SIOCSWAPA, u_int *)
	    ioctl(fd, SIOCFRENB, u_int *)
	    ioctl(fd, SIOCFRSYN, u_int *)
	    ioctl(fd, SIOCFRZST, struct friostat **)
	    ioctl(fd, SIOCZRLST, struct frentry **)
	    ioctl(fd, SIOCAUTHW, struct fr_info **)
	    ioctl(fd, SIOCAUTHR, struct fr_info **)
	    ioctl(fd, SIOCATHST, struct fr_authstat **)

       The variations, SIOCADAFR vs. SIOCADIFR, allow operation on  the  two  lists,  active  and
       inactive,  respectively.  All of these ioctl's are implemented as being routing ioctls and
       thus the same rules for the various routing ioctls and the file descriptor  are	employed,
       mainly  being  that  the  fd  must be that of the device associated with the module (i.e.,

       The three groups of ioctls above perform adding rules to the end of  the  list  (SIOCAD*),
       deletion  of  rules  from any place in the list (SIOCRM*) and insertion of a rule into the
       list (SIOCIN*).	The rule place into which it is  inserted  is  stored  in  the	"fr_hits"
       field, below.

       typedef struct  frentry {
	       struct  frentry *fr_next;
	       u_short fr_group;       /* group to which this rule belongs */
	       u_short fr_grhead;      /* group # which this rule starts */
	       struct  frentry *fr_grp;
	       int     fr_ref;	       /* reference count - for grouping */
	       void    *fr_ifa;
       #if BSD >= 199306
	       void    *fr_oifa;
		* These are only incremented when a packet  matches this rule and
		* it is the last match
	       U_QUAD_T        fr_hits;
	       U_QUAD_T        fr_bytes;
		* Fields after this may not change whilst in the kernel.
	       struct  fr_ip   fr_ip;
	       struct  fr_ip   fr_mip; /* mask structure */

	       u_char  fr_tcpfm;       /* tcp flags mask */
	       u_char  fr_tcpf;        /* tcp flags */

	       u_short fr_icmpm;       /* data for ICMP packets (mask) */
	       u_short fr_icmp;

	       u_char  fr_scmp;        /* data for port comparisons */
	       u_char  fr_dcmp;
	       u_short fr_dport;
	       u_short fr_sport;
	       u_short fr_stop;        /* top port for <> and >< */
	       u_short fr_dtop;        /* top port for <> and >< */
	       u_32_t  fr_flags;       /* per-rule flags && options (see below) */
	       u_short fr_skip;        /* # of rules to skip */
	       u_short fr_loglevel;    /* syslog log facility + priority */
	       int     (*fr_func) __P((int, ip_t *, fr_info_t *));
	       char    fr_icode;       /* return ICMP code */
	       char    fr_ifname[IFNAMSIZ];
       #if BSD > 199306
	       char    fr_oifname[IFNAMSIZ];
	       struct  frdest  fr_tif; /* "to" interface */
	       struct  frdest  fr_dif; /* duplicate packet interfaces */
       } frentry_t;

       When adding a new rule, all unused fields (in the filter rule) should be initialised to be
       zero.  To insert a rule, at a particular position in the filter list, the  number  of  the
       rule  which it is to be inserted before must be put in the "fr_hits" field (the first rule
       is number 0).

       Flags which are recognised in fr_flags:

	    FR_BLOCK	    0x000001   /* do not allow packet to pass */
	    FR_PASS	    0x000002   /* allow packet to pass */
	    FR_OUTQUE	    0x000004   /* outgoing packets */
	    FR_INQUE	    0x000008   /* ingoing packets */
	    FR_LOG	    0x000010   /* Log */
	    FR_LOGB	    0x000011   /* Log-fail */
	    FR_LOGP	    0x000012   /* Log-pass */
	    FR_LOGBODY	    0x000020   /* log the body of packets too */
	    FR_LOGFIRST     0x000040   /* log only the first packet to match */
	    FR_RETRST	    0x000080   /* return a TCP RST packet if blocked */
	    FR_RETICMP	    0x000100   /* return an ICMP packet if blocked */
	    FR_FAKEICMP     0x00180    /* Return ICMP unreachable with fake source */
	    FR_NOMATCH	    0x000200   /* no match occured */
	    FR_ACCOUNT	    0x000400   /* count packet bytes */
	    FR_KEEPFRAG     0x000800   /* keep fragment information */
	    FR_KEEPSTATE    0x001000   /* keep `connection' state information */
	    FR_INACTIVE     0x002000
	    FR_QUICK	    0x004000   /* match & stop processing list */
	    FR_FASTROUTE    0x008000   /* bypass normal routing */
	    FR_CALLNOW	    0x010000   /* call another function (fr_func) if matches */
	    FR_DUP	    0x020000   /* duplicate the packet */
	    FR_LOGORBLOCK   0x040000   /* block the packet if it can't be logged */
	    FR_NOTSRCIP     0x080000   /* not the src IP# */
	    FR_NOTDSTIP     0x100000   /* not the dst IP# */
	    FR_AUTH	    0x200000   /* use authentication */
	    FR_PREAUTH	    0x400000   /* require preauthentication */

       Values for fr_scomp and fr_dcomp (source and destination port value comparisons) :

	    FR_NONE	    0
	    FR_EQUAL	    1
	    FR_NEQUAL	    2
	    FR_LESST	    3
	    FR_GREATERT     4
	    FR_LESSTE	    5
	    FR_GREATERTE    6
	    FR_OUTRANGE     7
	    FR_INRANGE	    8

       The third ioctl, SIOCIPFFL, flushes either the input filter list, the output  filter  list
       or  both  and it returns the number of filters removed from the list(s).  The values which
       it will take and recognise are FR_INQUE and FR_OUTQUE (see above).   This  ioctl  is  also
       implemented  for  /dev/ipstate and will flush all state tables entries if passed 0 or just
       all those which are not established if passed 1.

       General Logging Flags
       There are two flags which can be set to log  packets  independently  of	the  rules  used.
       These  allow  for  packets  which  are either passed or blocked to be logged.  To set (and
       clear)/get these flags, two ioctls are provided:

       SIOCSETFF       Takes an unsigned integer as the parameter.  The flags  are  then  set  to
		       those provided (clearing/setting all in one).

			    FF_LOGPASS	   0x10000000
			    FF_LOGBLOCK    0x20000000
			    FF_LOGNOMATCH  0x40000000
			    FF_BLOCKNONIP  0x80000000	 /* Solaris 2.x only */

       SIOCGETFF       Takes  a  pointer  to an unsigned integer as the parameter.  A copy of the
		       flags currently in used is copied to user space.

       Filter statistics
       Statistics on the various operations performed by this package on packets is  kept  inside
       the kernel.  These statistics apply to packets traversing through the kernel.  To retrieve
       this structure, use this ioctl:

	    ioctl(fd, SIOCGETFS, struct friostat *)

       struct  friostat        {
	       struct  filterstats     f_st[2];
	       struct  frentry	       *f_fin[2];
	       struct  frentry	       *f_fout[2];
	       struct  frentry	       *f_acctin[2];
	       struct  frentry	       *f_acctout[2];
	       struct  frentry	       *f_auth;
	       u_long  f_froute[2];
	       int     f_active;       /* 1 or 0 - active rule set */
	       int     f_defpass;      /* default pass - from fr_pass */
	       int     f_running;      /* 1 if running, else 0 */
	       int     f_logging;      /* 1 if enabled, else 0 */
	       char    f_version[32];  /* version string */

       struct	 filterstats {
	       u_long  fr_pass;        /* packets allowed */
	       u_long  fr_block;       /* packets denied */
	       u_long  fr_nom;	       /* packets which don't match any rule */
	       u_long  fr_ppkl;        /* packets allowed and logged */
	       u_long  fr_bpkl;        /* packets denied and logged */
	       u_long  fr_npkl;        /* packets unmatched and logged */
	       u_long  fr_pkl;	       /* packets logged */
	       u_long  fr_skip;        /* packets to be logged but buffer full */
	       u_long  fr_ret;	       /* packets for which a return is sent */
	       u_long  fr_acct;        /* packets for which counting was performed */
	       u_long  fr_bnfr;        /* bad attempts to allocate fragment state */
	       u_long  fr_nfr;	       /* new fragment state kept */
	       u_long  fr_cfr;	       /* add new fragment state but complete pkt */
	       u_long  fr_bads;        /* bad attempts to allocate packet state */
	       u_long  fr_ads;	       /* new packet state kept */
	       u_long  fr_chit;        /* cached hit */
	       u_long  fr_pull[2];     /* good and bad pullup attempts */
       #if SOLARIS
	       u_long  fr_notdata;     /* PROTO/PCPROTO that have no data */
	       u_long  fr_nodata;      /* mblks that have no data */
	       u_long  fr_bad;	       /* bad IP packets to the filter */
	       u_long  fr_notip;       /* packets passed through no on ip queue */
	       u_long  fr_drop;        /* packets dropped - no info for them! */
       If we wanted to retrieve all the statistics and reset the counters back	to  0,	then  the
       ioctl() call would be made to SIOCFRZST rather than SIOCGETFS.  In addition to the statis-
       tics above, each rule keeps a hit count, counting both number of packets  and  bytes.   To
       reset  these  counters for a rule, load the various rule information into a frentry struc-
       ture and call SIOCZRLST.

       Swapping Active lists
       IP Filter supports two lists of rules for filtering and accounting: an active list and  an
       inactive  list.	 This  allows for large scale rule base changes to be put in place atomi-
       cally with otherwise minimal interruption.  Which of the two  is  active  can  be  changed
       using  the SIOCSWAPA ioctl.  It is important to note that no passed argument is recognised
       and that the value returned is that of the list which is now inactive.


       ipl(4), ipnat(4), ipf(5), ipf(8), ipfstat(8)

       When a packet encapsulated by ipsec(4) tunnel comes in, ipf(4) looks at wire-format packet
       on  inbound  and  outbound.   ipf(4) will not look at decapsulated packets on inbound, nor
       packets prior to encapsulation on outbound.

       When tunneled packets arrive at the node and are handled by a tunneling	pseudo	interface
       like  gif(4), the packets may go through ipf(4) twice, before and after decapsulation.  In
       some cases it may be necessary to check, in the ipf(4) rules, if the inbound interface  is
       a tunneling pseudo interface or not.


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