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NetBSD 6.1.5 - man page for icmp (netbsd section 4)

ICMP(4) 			   BSD Kernel Interfaces Manual 			  ICMP(4)

     icmp -- Internet Control Message Protocol

     #include <sys/socket.h>
     #include <netinet/in.h>

     socket(AF_INET, SOCK_RAW, proto);

     ICMP is the error and control message protocol used by IP and the Internet protocol family.
     It may be accessed through a ``raw socket'' for network monitoring and diagnostic functions.
     The proto parameter to the socket call to create an ICMP socket is obtained from
     getprotobyname(3).  ICMP sockets are connectionless, and are normally used with the
     sendto(2) and recvfrom(2) calls, though the connect(2) call may also be used to fix the des-
     tination for future packets (in which case the read(2) or recv(2) and write(2) or send(2)
     system calls may be used).

     Outgoing packets automatically have an IP header prepended to them (based on the destination
     address).	Incoming packets are received with the IP header and options intact.

     A socket operation may fail with one of the following errors returned:

     [EISCONN]	      when trying to establish a connection on a socket which already has one, or
		      when trying to send a datagram with the destination address specified and
		      the socket is already connected;

     [ENOTCONN]       when trying to send a datagram, but no destination address is specified,
		      and the socket hasn't been connected;

     [ENOBUFS]	      when the system runs out of memory for an internal data structure;

     [EADDRNOTAVAIL]  when an attempt is made to create a socket with a network address for which
		      no network interface exists.

     recv(2), send(2), inet(4), intro(4), ip(4)

     Internet Control Message Protocol, RFC, 792, September 1981.

     Requirements for Internet Hosts -- Communication Layers, RFC, 1122, October 1989.

     The icmp protocol appeared in 4.3BSD.

BSD					   June 5, 1993 				      BSD

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