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STAT(1) 			   BSD General Commands Manual				  STAT(1)

NAME
     stat, readlink -- display file status

SYNOPSIS
     stat [-FLnq] [-f format | -l | -r | -s | -x] [-t timefmt] [file ...]
     readlink [-fnqsv] [file ...]

DESCRIPTION
     The stat utility displays information about the file pointed to by file.  Read, write, or
     execute permissions of the named file are not required, but all directories listed in the
     pathname leading to the file must be searchable.  If no argument is given, stat displays
     information about the file descriptor for standard input.

     When invoked as readlink, only the target of the symbolic link is printed.  If the given
     argument is not a symbolic link and the -f option is not specified, readlink will print
     nothing and exit with an error.  If the -f option is specified, the output is canonicalized
     by following every symlink in every component of the given path recursively.  readlink will
     resolve both absolute and relative paths, and return the absolute pathname corresponding to
     file.  In this case, the argument does not need to be a symbolic link.

     The information displayed is obtained by calling lstat(2) with the given argument and evalu-
     ating the returned structure.  The default format displays the st_dev, st_ino, st_mode,
     st_nlink, st_uid, st_gid, st_rdev, st_size, st_atime, st_mtime, st_ctime, st_birthtime,
     st_blksize, st_blocks, and st_flags fields, in that order.

     The options are as follows:

     -F 	   As in ls(1), display a slash ('/') immediately after each pathname that is a
		   directory, an asterisk ('*') after each that is executable, an at sign ('@')
		   after each symbolic link, a percent sign ('%') after each whiteout, an equal
		   sign ('=') after each socket, and a vertical bar ('|') after each that is a
		   FIFO.  The use of -F implies -l.

     -f format	   Display information using the specified format.  See the FORMATS section for a
		   description of valid formats.

     -L 	   Use stat(2) instead of lstat(2).  The information reported by stat will refer
		   to the target of file, if file is a symbolic link, and not to file itself.

     -l 	   Display output in ls -lT format.

     -n 	   Do not force a newline to appear at the end of each piece of output.

     -q 	   Suppress failure messages if calls to stat(2) or lstat(2) fail.  When run as
		   readlink, error messages are automatically suppressed.

     -r 	   Display raw information.  That is, for all the fields in the stat-structure,
		   display the raw, numerical value (for example, times in seconds since the
		   epoch, etc.)

     -s 	   Display information in ``shell output'', suitable for initializing variables.
		   When run as readlink, suppress error messages.

     -t timefmt    Display timestamps using the specified format.  This format is passed directly
		   to strftime(3).

     -v 	   Turn off quiet mode.

     -x 	   Display information in a more verbose way as known from some Linux distribu-
		   tions.

   FORMATS
     Format strings are similar to printf(3) formats in that they start with %, are then followed
     by a sequence of formatting characters, and end in a character that selects the field of the
     struct stat which is to be formatted.  If the % is immediately followed by one of n, t, %,
     or @, then a newline character, a tab character, a percent character, or the current file
     number is printed, otherwise the string is examined for the following:

     Any of the following optional flags:

     #	     Selects an alternate output form for string, octal and hexadecimal output.  String
	     output will be encoded in vis(3) style.  Non-zero octal output will have a leading
	     zero.  Non-zero hexadecimal output will have ``0x'' prepended to it.

     +	     Asserts that a sign indicating whether a number is positive or negative should
	     always be printed.  Non-negative numbers are not usually printed with a sign.

     -	     Aligns string output to the left of the field, instead of to the right.

     0	     Sets the fill character for left padding to the 0 character, instead of a space.

     space   Reserves a space at the front of non-negative signed output fields.  A '+' overrides
	     a space if both are used.

     Then the following fields:

     size    An optional decimal digit string specifying the minimum field width.

     prec    An optional precision composed of a decimal point '.' and a decimal digit string
	     that indicates the maximum string length, the number of digits to appear after the
	     decimal point in floating point output, or the minimum number of digits to appear in
	     numeric output.

     fmt     An optional output format specifier which is one of D, O, U, X, F, or S.  These rep-
	     resent signed decimal output, octal output, unsigned decimal output, hexadecimal
	     output, floating point output, and string output, respectively.  Some output formats
	     do not apply to all fields.  Floating point output only applies to timespec fields
	     (the a, m, and c fields).

	     The special output specifier S may be used to indicate that the output, if applica-
	     ble, should be in string format.  May be used in combination with

	     amc     Display date in strftime(3) format.

	     dr      Display actual device name.

	     gu      Display group or user name.

	     p	     Display the mode of file as in ls -lTd.

	     N	     Displays the name of file.

	     T	     Displays the type of file.

	     Y	     Insert a `` -> '' into the output.  Note that the default output format for
		     Y is a string, but if specified explicitly, these four characters are
		     prepended.

     sub     An optional sub field specifier (high, middle, or low).  Only applies to the p, d,
	     r, T, N, and z output formats.  It can be one of the following:

	     H	     ``High'' -- depending on the datum:
		     d, r  Major number for devices
		     p	   ``User'' bits from the string form of permissions or the file ``type''
			   bits from the numeric forms
		     T	   The long output form of file type
		     N	   Directory path of the file, similar to what dirname(1) would show
		     z	   File size, rounded to the nearest gigabyte

	     M	     ``Middle'' -- depending on the datum:
		     p	   The ``group'' bits from the string form of permissions or the
			   ``suid'', ``sgid'', and ``sticky'' bits from the numeric forms
		     z	   File size, rounded to the nearest megabyte

	     L	     ``Low'' -- depending on the datum:
		     r, d  Minor number for devices
		     p	   The ``other'' bits from the string form of permissions or the
			   ``user'', ``group'', and ``other'' bits from the numeric forms
		     T	   The ls -F style output character for file type (the use of L here is
			   optional)
		     N	   Base filename of the file, similar to what basename(1) would show
		     z	   File size, rounded to the nearest kilobyte

     datum   A required field specifier, being one of the following:

	     d		  Device upon which file resides (st_dev).

	     i		  file's inode number (st_ino).

	     p		  File type and permissions (st_mode).

	     l		  Number of hard links to file (st_nlink).

	     u, g	  User-id and group-id of file's owner (st_uid, st_gid).

	     r		  Device number for character and block device special files (st_rdev).

	     a, m, c, B   The time file was last accessed or modified, or when the inode was last
			  changed, or the birth time of the inode (st_atime, st_mtime, st_ctime,
			  st_birthtime).

	     z		  The size of file in bytes (st_size).

	     b		  Number of blocks allocated for file (st_blocks).

	     k		  Optimal file system I/O operation block size (st_blksize).

	     f		  User defined flags for file (st_flags).

	     v		  Inode generation number (st_gen).

	     The following five field specifiers are not drawn directly from the data in struct
	     stat, but are:

	     N	     The name of the file.

	     R	     The absolute pathname corresponding to the file.

	     T	     The file type, either as in ls -F or in a more descriptive form if the sub
		     field specifier H is given.

	     Y	     The target of a symbolic link.

	     Z	     Expands to ``major,minor'' from the rdev field for character or block spe-
		     cial devices and gives size output for all others.

     Only the % and the field specifier are required.  Most field specifiers default to U as an
     output form, with the exception of p which defaults to O; a, m, and c which default to D;
     and Y, T, and N, which default to S.

EXIT STATUS
     stat exits 0 on success, and >0 if an error occurred.

EXAMPLES
     If no options are specified, the default format is "%d %i %Sp %l %Su %Sg %r %z \"%Sa\"
     \"%Sm\" \"%Sc\" \"%SB\" %k %b %#Xf %N".

	   > stat /tmp/bar
	   0 78852 -rw-r--r-- 1 root wheel 0 0 "Jul  8 10:26:03 2004" "Jul  8 10:26:03 2004" "Jul  8 10:28:13 2004" "Jan  1 09:00:00 1970" 16384 0 0 /tmp/bar

     This example produces output very similar to that from find ... -ls (except that find(1)
     displays the time in a different format, and find(1) sometimes adds one or more spaces after
     the comma in ``major,minor'' for device nodes):

	   > stat -f "%7i %6b %-11Sp %3l %-17Su %-17Sg %9Z %Sm %N%SY" /tmp/bar
	     78852	0 -rw-r--r--	1 root		    wheel		      0 Jul  8 10:26:03 2004 /tmp/bar

	   > find /tmp/bar -ls -exit
	     78852	0 -rw-r--r--	1 root		    wheel		      0 Jul  8	2004 /tmp/bar

     This example produces output very similar to that from ls -lTd (except that ls(1) adjusts
     the column spacing differently when listing multiple files, and ls(1) adds at least one
     space after the comma in ``major,minor'' for device nodes):

	   > stat -f "%-11Sp %l %Su  %Sg  %Z %Sm %N%SY" /tmp/bar
	   -rw-r--r--  1 root  wheel  0 Jul  8 10:26:03 2004 /tmp/bar

	   > ls -lTd /tmp/bar
	   -rw-r--r--  1 root  wheel  0 Jul  8 10:26:03 2004 /tmp/bar

     Given a symbolic link ``foo'' that points from /tmp/foo to /, you would use stat as follows:

	   > stat -F /tmp/foo
	   lrwxrwxrwx 1 jschauma cs 1 Apr 24 16:37:28 2002 /tmp/foo@ -> /

	   > stat -LF /tmp/foo
	   drwxr-xr-x 16 root wheel 512 Apr 19 10:57:54 2002 /tmp/foo/

     To initialize some shell-variables, you could use the -s flag as follows:

	   > csh
	   % eval set `stat -s .cshrc`
	   % echo $st_size $st_mtime
	   1148 1015432481

	   > sh
	   $ eval $(stat -s .profile)
	   $ echo $st_size $st_mtime
	   1148 1015432481

     In order to get a list of the kind of files including files pointed to if the file is a sym-
     bolic link, you could use the following format:

	   $ stat -f "%N: %HT%SY" /tmp/*
	   /tmp/bar: Symbolic Link -> /tmp/foo
	   /tmp/output25568: Regular File
	   /tmp/blah: Directory
	   /tmp/foo: Symbolic Link -> /

     In order to get a list of the devices, their types and the major and minor device numbers,
     formatted with tabs and linebreaks, you could use the following format:

	   stat -f "Name: %N%n%tType: %HT%n%tMajor: %Hr%n%tMinor: %Lr%n%n" /dev/*
	   [...]
	   Name: /dev/wt8
		   Type: Block Device
		   Major: 3
		   Minor: 8

	   Name: /dev/zero
		   Type: Character Device
		   Major: 2
		   Minor: 12

     In order to determine the permissions set on a file separately, you could use the following
     format:

	   > stat -f "%Sp -> owner=%SHp group=%SMp other=%SLp" .
	   drwxr-xr-x -> owner=rwx group=r-x other=r-x

     In order to determine the three files that have been modified most recently, you could use
     the following format:

	   > stat -f "%m%t%Sm %N" /tmp/* | sort -rn | head -3 | cut -f2-
	   Apr 25 11:47:00 2002 /tmp/blah
	   Apr 25 10:36:34 2002 /tmp/bar
	   Apr 24 16:47:35 2002 /tmp/foo

     User names, group names, and file names that contain spaces or other special characters may
     be encoded in vis(3) style, using the # modifier:

	   > ln -s 'target with spaces' 'link with spaces'
	   > stat -f "%#N%#SY" 'link with spaces'
	   link\swith\sspaces -> target\swith\sspaces

SEE ALSO
     basename(1), dirname(1), file(1), ls(1), lstat(2), readlink(2), stat(2), printf(3),
     strftime(3)

HISTORY
     The stat utility appeared in NetBSD 1.6.

AUTHORS
     The stat utility was written by Andrew Brown <atatat@NetBSD.org>.	This man page was written
     by Jan Schaumann <jschauma@NetBSD.org>.

BSD					September 22, 2011				      BSD
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