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NetBSD 6.1.5 - man page for grops (netbsd section 1)

GROPS(1)										 GROPS(1)

NAME
       grops - PostScript driver for groff

SYNOPSIS
       grops [ -glmv ] [ -bn ] [ -cn ] [ -Fdir ] [ -Idir ] [ -ppapersize ] [ -Pprologue ] [ -wn ]
	     [ files... ]

       It is possible to have whitespace between a command line option and its parameter.

DESCRIPTION
       grops translates the output of GNU troff to PostScript.	Normally grops should be  invoked
       by using the groff command with a -Tps option.  (Actually, this is the default for groff.)
       If no files are given, grops will read the standard input.  A  filename	of  -  will  also
       cause grops to read the standard input.	PostScript output is written to the standard out-
       put.  When grops is run by groff options can be passed to grops using the groff -P option.

       Note that grops doesn't produce a valid document structure  (conforming	to  the  Document
       Structuring  Convention)  if  called with multiple file arguments.  To print such concate-
       nated output it is necessary to deactivate DSC handling in the printing	program  or  pre-
       viewer.

OPTIONS
       -bn    Provide  workarounds for older printers, broken spoolers, and previewers.  Normally
	      grops produces output at PostScript LanguageLevel 2 that conforms to  the  Document
	      Structuring Conventions version 3.0.  Some older printers, spoolers, and previewers
	      can't handle such output.  The value of n controls what grops does to make its out-
	      put  acceptable  to such programs.  A value of 0 will cause grops not to employ any
	      workarounds.

	      Add 1 if no %%BeginDocumentSetup and %%EndDocumentSetup comments should  be  gener-
	      ated; this is needed for early versions of TranScript that get confused by anything
	      between the %%EndProlog comment and the first %%Page comment.

	      Add 2 if lines in included files beginning with %!  should be stripped out; this is
	      needed for Sun's pageview previewer.

	      Add  4  if  %%Page,  %%Trailer  and  %%EndProlog comments should be stripped out of
	      included files; this is needed for spoolers  that  don't	understand  the  %%Begin-
	      Document and %%EndDocument comments.

	      Add  8  if  the first line of the PostScript output should be %!PS-Adobe-2.0 rather
	      than %!PS-Adobe-3.0; this is needed when using Sun's Newsprint with a printer  that
	      requires page reversal.

	      Add  16  if  no media size information should be included in the document (this is,
	      neither use %%DocumentMedia nor the setpagedevice PostScript  command).	This  was
	      the  behaviour of groff version 1.18.1 and earlier; it is needed for older printers
	      which don't understand PostScript LanguageLevel 2.  It is  also  necessary  if  the
	      output is further processed to get an encapsulated PS (EPS) file -- see below.

	      The default value can be specified by a

		     broken n

	      command in the DESC file.  Otherwise the default value is 0.

       -cn    Print n copies of each page.

       -Fdir  Prepend  directory  dir/devname  to  the search path for prologue, font, and device
	      description files; name is the name of the device, usually ps.

       -g     Guess the page length.  This  generates  PostScript  code  that  guesses	the  page
	      length.	The  guess  will be correct only if the imageable area is vertically cen-
	      tered on the page.  This option allows  you  to  generate  documents  that  can  be
	      printed both on letter (8.5x11) paper and on A4 paper without change.

       -Idir  This  option  may be used to specify a directory to search for files on the command
	      line and files named in \X'ps: import'  and  \X'ps:  file'  escapes.   The  current
	      directory  is  always searched first.  This option may be specified more than once;
	      the directories will be searched in the order specified.	No  directory  search  is
	      performed for files specified using an absolute path.

       -l     Print the document in landscape format.

       -m     Turn manual feed on for the document.

       -ppaper-size
	      Set  physical  dimension	of  output  medium.  This overrides the papersize, paper-
	      length, and paperwidth commands in the DESC file; it accepts the same arguments  as
	      the papersize command.  See groff_font (5) for details.

       -Pprologue-file
	      Use  the	file  prologue-file  (in  the  font  path) as the prologue instead of the
	      default prologue file prologue.  This option  overrides  the  environment  variable
	      GROPS_PROLOGUE.

       -wn    Lines  should be drawn using a thickness of n thousandths of an em.  If this option
	      is not given, the line thickness defaults to 0.04 em.

       -v     Print the version number.

USAGE
       There are styles called R, I, B, and BI mounted at font positions 1 to 4.  The  fonts  are
       grouped into families A, BM, C, H, HN, N, P, and T having members in each of these styles:

	      AR     AvantGarde-Book
	      AI     AvantGarde-BookOblique
	      AB     AvantGarde-Demi
	      ABI    AvantGarde-DemiOblique
	      BMR    Bookman-Light
	      BMI    Bookman-LightItalic
	      BMB    Bookman-Demi
	      BMBI   Bookman-DemiItalic
	      CR     Courier
	      CI     Courier-Oblique
	      CB     Courier-Bold
	      CBI    Courier-BoldOblique
	      HR     Helvetica
	      HI     Helvetica-Oblique
	      HB     Helvetica-Bold
	      HBI    Helvetica-BoldOblique
	      HNR    Helvetica-Narrow
	      HNI    Helvetica-Narrow-Oblique
	      HNB    Helvetica-Narrow-Bold
	      HNBI   Helvetica-Narrow-BoldOblique
	      NR     NewCenturySchlbk-Roman
	      NI     NewCenturySchlbk-Italic
	      NB     NewCenturySchlbk-Bold
	      NBI    NewCenturySchlbk-BoldItalic
	      PR     Palatino-Roman
	      PI     Palatino-Italic
	      PB     Palatino-Bold
	      PBI    Palatino-BoldItalic
	      TR     Times-Roman
	      TI     Times-Italic
	      TB     Times-Bold
	      TBI    Times-BoldItalic

       There is also the following font which is not a member of a family:

	      ZCMI   ZapfChancery-MediumItalic

       There  are  also  some  special	fonts called S for the PS Symbol font, and SS, containing
       slanted lowercase Greek letters taken from PS Symbol.  Zapf Dingbats is	available  as  ZD
       and  a  reversed version of ZapfDingbats (with symbols pointing in the opposite direction)
       is available as ZDR; most characters in these fonts are unnamed and must be accessed using
       \N.

       The  default  color  for  \m and \M is black; for colors defined in the `rgb' color space,
       setrgbcolor is used, for `cmy' and `cmyk' setcmykcolor, and for `gray' setgray.	Note that
       setcmykcolor  is a PostScript LanguageLevel 2 command and thus not available on some older
       printers.

       grops understands various X commands produced using the \X  escape  sequence;  grops  will
       only interpret commands that begin with a ps: tag.

       \X'ps: exec code'
	      This  executes  the arbitrary PostScript commands in code.  The PostScript current-
	      point will be set to the position of the \X command  before  executing  code.   The
	      origin  will be at the top left corner of the page, and y coordinates will increase
	      down the page.  A procedure u will be defined that  converts  groff  units  to  the
	      coordinate system in effect.  For example,

		     .nr x 1i
		     \X'ps: exec \nx u 0 rlineto stroke'

	      will  draw  a horizontal line one inch long.  code may make changes to the graphics
	      state, but any changes will persist only to the end of the page.	A dictionary con-
	      taining the definitions specified by the def and mdef will be on top of the dictio-
	      nary stack.  If your code adds definitions to this dictionary, you should  allocate
	      space  for  them	using \X'ps mdef n'.  Any definitions will persist only until the
	      end of the page.	If you use the \Y escape sequence with an argument that  names	a
	      macro, code can extend over multiple lines.  For example,

		     .nr x 1i
		     .de y
		     ps: exec
		     \nx u 0 rlineto
		     stroke
		     ..
		     \Yy

	      is another way to draw a horizontal line one inch long.

       \X'ps: file name'
	      This  is	the same as the exec command except that the PostScript code is read from
	      file name.

       \X'ps: def code'
	      Place a PostScript definition contained in code in the prologue.	There  should  be
	      at  most one definition per \X command.  Long definitions can be split over several
	      \X commands; all the code arguments are simply joined together  separated  by  new-
	      lines.  The definitions are placed in a dictionary which is automatically pushed on
	      the dictionary stack when an exec command is executed.  If you use  the  \Y  escape
	      sequence with an argument that names a macro, code can extend over multiple lines.

       \X'ps: mdef n code'
	      Like  def,  except  that code may contain up to n definitions.  grops needs to know
	      how many definitions code contains so that it can  create  an  appropriately  sized
	      PostScript dictionary to contain them.

       \X'ps: import file llx lly urx ury width [ height ]'
	      Import  a  PostScript graphic from file.	The arguments llx, lly, urx, and ury give
	      the bounding box of the graphic in the default PostScript coordinate  system;  they
	      should  all  be integers; llx and lly are the x and y coordinates of the lower left
	      corner of the graphic; urx and ury are the x and y coordinates of the  upper  right
	      corner  of  the  graphic; width and height are integers that give the desired width
	      and height in groff units of the graphic.  The graphic will be scaled  so  that  it
	      has  this  width	and  height  and  translated so that the lower left corner of the
	      graphic is located at the position associated with \X command.  If the height argu-
	      ment  is	omitted  it will be scaled uniformly in the x and y directions so that it
	      has the specified width.	Note that the contents of the \X command are  not  inter-
	      preted  by troff; so vertical space for the graphic is not automatically added, and
	      the width and height arguments are not allowed to have attached scaling indicators.
	      If the PostScript file complies with the Adobe Document Structuring Conventions and
	      contains a %%BoundingBox comment,  then  the  bounding  box  can	be  automatically
	      extracted from within groff by using the psbb request.

	      See  groff_tmac(5) for a description of the PSPIC macro which provides a convenient
	      high-level interface for inclusion of PostScript graphics.

       \X'ps: invis'
       \X'ps: endinvis'
	      No output will be generated for text and drawing commands that are  bracketed  with
	      these \X commands.  These commands are intended for use when output from troff will
	      be previewed before being processed with grops; if the previewer is unable to  dis-
	      play  certain  characters  or other constructs, then other substitute characters or
	      constructs can be used for previewing by bracketing them with these \X commands.

	      For example, gxditview is not able to display a proper \(em character  because  the
	      standard X11 fonts do not provide it; this problem can be overcome by executing the
	      following request

		     .char \(em \X'ps: invis'\
		     \Z'\v'-.25m'\h'.05m'\D'l .9m 0'\h'.05m''\
		     \X'ps: endinvis'\(em

	      In this case, gxditview will be unable to display the \(em character and will  draw
	      the  line,  whereas  grops  will print the \(em character and ignore the line (this
	      code is already in file Xps.tmac which will be loaded if a  document  intended  for
	      grops is previewed with gxditview).

       The  input  to  grops  must  be	in  the  format output by troff(1).  This is described in
       groff_out(5).

       In addition, the device and font description files for the device used must  meet  certain
       requirements.  The device and font description files supplied for ps device meet all these
       requirements.  afmtodit(1) can be used to create font files from AFM files.   The  resolu-
       tion  must be an integer multiple of 72 times the sizescale.  The ps device uses a resolu-
       tion of 72000 and a sizescale of 1000.

       The device description file must contain a valid paper size; see  groff_font(5)	for  more
       information.

       Each font description file must contain a command

	      internalname psname

       which says that the PostScript name of the font is psname.  It may also contain a command

	      encoding enc_file

       which  says  that  the PostScript font should be reencoded using the encoding described in
       enc_file; this file should consist of a sequence of lines of the form:

	      pschar code

       where pschar is the PostScript name of the character, and code  is  its	position  in  the
       encoding  expressed  as	a decimal integer; valid values are in the range 0 to 255.  Lines
       starting with # and blank lines are ignored.  The code for each	character  given  in  the
       font  file  must correspond to the code for the character in encoding file, or to the code
       in the default encoding for the font if the PostScript font is not to be reencoded.   This
       code can be used with the \N escape sequence in troff to select the character, even if the
       character does not have a groff name.  Every character in the font file must exist in  the
       PostScript  font,  and the widths given in the font file must match the widths used in the
       PostScript font.  grops will assume that a character with a groff name of space	is  blank
       (makes  no  marks on the page); it can make use of such a character to generate more effi-
       cient and compact PostScript output.

       Note that grops is able to display  all	glyphs	in  a  PostScript  font,  not  only  256.
       enc_file (or the default encoding if no encoding file specified) just defines the order of
       glyphs for the first 256 characters; all other glyphs are accessed with additional  encod-
       ing vectors which grops produces on the fly.

       grops  can  automatically  include the downloadable fonts necessary to print the document.
       Such fonts must be in PFA format.  Use pfbtops(1) to convert a Type 1 font in PFB  format.
       Any downloadable fonts which should, when required, be included by grops must be listed in
       the file /usr/share/groff_font/devps/download; this should consist of lines of the form

	      font filename

       where font is the PostScript name of the font, and filename is the name of the  file  con-
       taining	the font; lines beginning with # and blank lines are ignored; fields may be sepa-
       rated by tabs or spaces; filename will be searched for using the same  mechanism  that  is
       used  for  groff  font  metric  files.  The download file itself will also be searched for
       using this mechanism; currently, only the first found file in the font path is used.

       If the file containing a downloadable font or imported document conforms to the Adobe Doc-
       ument  Structuring Conventions, then grops will interpret any comments in the files suffi-
       ciently to ensure that its own output is conforming.  It will also supply any needed  font
       resources  that	are listed in the download file as well as any needed file resources.  It
       is also able to handle inter-resource dependencies.  For example, suppose that you have	a
       downloadable  font  called  Garamond, and also a downloadable font called Garamond-Outline
       which depends on Garamond (typically it would be defined to copy Garamond's  font  dictio-
       nary,  and change the PaintType), then it is necessary for Garamond to appear before Gara-
       mond-Outline in the PostScript document.  grops will handle  this  automatically  provided
       that  the downloadable font file for Garamond-Outline indicates its dependence on Garamond
       by means of the Document Structuring Conventions, for example by beginning with	the  fol-
       lowing lines

	      %!PS-Adobe-3.0 Resource-Font
	      %%DocumentNeededResources: font Garamond
	      %%EndComments
	      %%IncludeResource: font Garamond

       In  this  case  both Garamond and Garamond-Outline would need to be listed in the download
       file.  A downloadable font should not  include  its  own  name  in  a  %%DocumentSupplied-
       Resources comment.

       grops   will  not  interpret  %%DocumentFonts  comments.   The  %%DocumentNeededResources,
       %%DocumentSuppliedResources, %%IncludeResource, %%BeginResource,  and  %%EndResource  com-
       ments  (or possibly the old %%DocumentNeededFonts, %%DocumentSuppliedFonts, %%IncludeFont,
       %%BeginFont, and %%EndFont comments) should be used.

   Encapsulated PostScript
       grops itself doesn't emit bounding box information.  With the help of GhostScript the fol-
       lowing commands will produce an encapsulated PS file foo.eps from input file foo:

	      groff -P-b16 foo > foo.ps
	      gs -dNOPAUSE -sDEVICE=bbox -- foo.ps 2> foo.bbox
	      cat foo.ps | sed -e '/%%Orientation/rfoo.bbx' > foo.eps
	      rm foo.bbx

   TrueType fonts
       TrueType  fonts	can  be used with grops if converted first to Type 42 format, an especial
       PostScript wrapper equivalent to the PFA format mentioned in pfbtops(1).  There	are  sev-
       eral  different methods to generate a type42 wrapper and most of them involve the use of a
       PostScript interpreter such as Ghostscript -- see gs(1).  Yet, the easiest method involves
       the  use  of  the  application ttftot42.  This program uses freetype(3) (version 1.3.1) to
       generate type42 font wrappers and well-formed AFM files that can be fed to the afmtodit(1)
       script to create appropriate metric files.  The resulting font wrappers should be added to
       the download file.  ttftot42 source code can be downloaded from ftp://www.giga.or.at/pub/
       nih/ttftot42/ <ftp://www.giga.or.at/pub/nih/ttftot42/>.

ENVIRONMENT
       GROPS_PROLOGUE
	      If  this is set to foo, then grops will use the file foo (in the font path) instead
	      of the default prologue file prologue.  The option -P  overrides	this  environment
	      variable.

FILES
       /usr/share/groff_font/devps/DESC      Device description file.

       /usr/share/groff_font/devps/F	     Font description file for font F.

       /usr/share/groff_font/devps/download  List of downloadable fonts.

       /usr/share/groff_font/devps/text.enc  Encoding used for text fonts.

       /usr/share/tmac/ps.tmac		     Macros  for  use with grops; automatically loaded by
					     troffrc

       /usr/share/tmac/pspic.tmac	     Definition of PSPIC macro, automatically  loaded  by
					     ps.tmac.

       /usr/share/tmac/psold.tmac	     Macros  to  disable use of characters not present in
					     older PostScript printers (e.g. `eth' or `thorn').

       /tmp/gropsXXXXXX 		     Temporary file.

SEE ALSO
       afmtodit(1), groff(1), troff(1), pfbtops(1), groff_out(5),  groff_font(5),  groff_char(7),
       groff_tmac(5)

       PostScript Language Document Structuring Conventions Specification <http://
       partners.adobe.com/public/developer/en/ps/5001.DSC_Spec.pdf>

Groff Version 1.19.2			 February 6, 2006				 GROPS(1)


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