👤
Home Man
Search
Today's Posts
Register

Linux & Unix Commands - Search Man Pages
Man Page or Keyword Search:
Select Section of Man Page:
Select Man Page Repository:

NetBSD 6.1.5 - man page for groff_out (netbsd section 5)

GROFF_OUT(5)									     GROFF_OUT(5)

NAME
       groff_out - groff intermediate output format

DESCRIPTION
       This manual page describes the intermediate output format of the GNU roff(7) text process-
       ing system groff(1).  This output is produced by a run of the GNU  troff(1)  program.   It
       contains  already  all  device-specific	information,  but it is not yet fed into a device
       postprocessor program.

       As the GNU roff processor groff(1) is a wrapper program around  troff  that  automatically
       calls  a  postprocessor,  this output does not show up normally.  This is why it is called
       intermediate within the groff system.  The groff program provides the option -Z to inhibit
       postprocessing, such that the produced intermediate output is sent to standard output just
       like calling troff manually.

       In this document, the term troff output describes what is output by the GNU troff program,
       while  intermediate output refers to the language that is accepted by the parser that pre-
       pares this output for the postprocessors.  This parser is smarter on whitespace and imple-
       ments obsolete elements for compatibility, otherwise both formats are the same.	Both for-
       mats can be viewed directly with gxditview(1).

       The main purpose of the intermediate output concept is to facilitate  the  development  of
       postprocessors by providing a common programming interface for all devices.  It has a lan-
       guage of its own that is completely different from the groff(7) language.  While the groff
       language is a high-level programming language for text processing, the intermediate output
       language is a kind of low-level assembler language by specifying all positions on the page
       for writing and drawing.

       The  pre-groff roff versions are denoted as classical troff.  The intermediate output pro-
       duced by groff is fairly readable, while classical troff output	was  hard  to  understand
       because of strange habits that are still supported, but not used any longer by GNU troff.

LANGUAGE CONCEPTS
       During  the run of troff, the roff input is cracked down to the information on what has to
       be printed at what position on the intended device.  So the language of	the  intermediate
       output  format  can  be quite small.  Its only elements are commands with or without argu-
       ments.  In this document, the term "command" always refers to the intermediate output lan-
       guage,  never  to  the roff language used for document formatting.  There are commands for
       positioning and text writing, for drawing, and for device controlling.

   Separation
       Classical troff output had strange requirements on whitespace.  The groff  output  parser,
       however,  is smart about whitespace by making it maximally optional.  The whitespace char-
       acters, i.e., the tab, space, and newline characters, always have a  syntactical  meaning.
       They  are  never printable because spacing within the output is always done by positioning
       commands.

       Any sequence of space or tab characters is treated as a single syntactical space.  It sep-
       arates  commands  and  arguments,  but  is only required when there would occur a clashing
       between the command code and the arguments without the space.  Most  often,  this  happens
       when  variable  length command names, arguments, argument lists, or command clusters meet.
       Commands and arguments with a known, fixed length need not  be  separated  by  syntactical
       space.

       A  line	break  is  a syntactical element, too.	Every command argument can be followed by
       whitespace, a comment, or a newline character.  Thus a syntactical line break  is  defined
       to  consist  of optional syntactical space that is optionally followed by a comment, and a
       newline character.

       The normal commands, those for positioning and text, consist of a single letter	taking	a
       fixed  number  of arguments.  For historical reasons, the parser allows to stack such com-
       mands on the same line, but fortunately, in groff intermediate output, every command  with
       at least one argument is followed by a line break, thus providing excellent readability.

       The  other commands -- those for drawing and device controlling -- have a more complicated
       structure; some recognize long command names, and some take a  variable	number	of  argu-
       ments.	So  all  D and x commands were designed to request a syntactical line break after
       their last argument.  Only one command, `x X' has an argument that can stretch  over  sev-
       eral  lines,  all  other commands must have all of their arguments on the same line as the
       command, i.e., the arguments may not be splitted by a line break.

       Empty lines, i.e., lines containing only space and/or a	comment,  can  occur  everywhere.
       They are just ignored.

   Argument Units
       Some commands take integer arguments that are assumed to represent values in a measurement
       unit, but the letter for the corresponding scale indicator is not written with the  output
       command arguments; see groff(7) and the groff info file for more on this topic.	Most com-
       mands assume the scale indicator u, the basic unit of the device, some use z,  the  scaled
       point  unit of the device, while others, such as the color commands expect plain integers.
       Note that these scale indicators are relative to the chosen device.  They are  defined  by
       the parameters specified in the device's DESC file; see groff_font(5).

       Note  that  single  characters  can have the eighth bit set, as can the names of fonts and
       special characters.  The names of characters and fonts can  be  of  arbitrary  length.	A
       character that is to be printed will always be in the current font.

       A  string  argument  is always terminated by the next whitespace character (space, tab, or
       newline); an embedded # character is regarded as part of the argument, not as  the  begin-
       ning  of  a  comment  command.  An integer argument is already terminated by the next non-
       digit character, which then is regarded as the first character of  the  next  argument  or
       command.

   Document Parts
       A correct intermediate output document consists of two parts, the prologue and the body.

       The task of the prologue is to set the general device parameters using three exactly spec-
       ified commands.	The groff prologue is guaranteed to consist of the following three  lines
       (in that order):

	      x T device
	      x res n h v
	      x init

       with the arguments set as outlined in the section Device Control Commands.  But the parser
       for the intermediate output format is able to swallow additional whitespace  and  comments
       as well.

       The  body  is  the  main section for processing the document data.  Syntactically, it is a
       sequence of any commands different from the ones used in the prologue.  Processing is ter-
       minated	as  soon  as  the first x stop command is encountered; the last line of any groff
       intermediate output always contains such a command.

       Semantically, the body is page oriented.  A new page is started by a p command.	Position-
       ing, writing, and drawing commands are always done within the current page, so they cannot
       occur before the first p command.  Absolute positioning (by the H and V commands) is  done
       relative  to the current page, all other positioning is done relative to the current loca-
       tion within this page.

COMMAND REFERENCE
       This section describes all intermediate output commands, the classical commands as well as
       the groff extensions.

   Comment Command
       #anything<end_of_line>
	      A comment.  Ignore any characters from the # character up to the next newline char-
	      acter.

       This command is the only possibility for commenting in the intermediate output.	Each com-
       ment  can be preceded by arbitrary syntactical space; every command can be terminated by a
       comment.

   Simple Commands
       The commands in this subsection have a command code consisting of a single character, tak-
       ing a fixed number of arguments.  Most of them are commands for positioning and text writ-
       ing.  These commands are smart about whitespace.  Optionally,  syntactical  space  can  be
       inserted  before,  after,  and between the command letter and its arguments.  All of these
       commands are stackable, i.e., they can be preceded by other simple commands or followed by
       arbitrary  other commands on the same line.  A separating syntactical space is only neces-
       sary when two integer arguments would clash or if  the  preceding  argument  ends  with	a
       string argument.

       C xxx<white_space>
	      Print  a special groff character named xxx.  The trailing syntactical space or line
	      break is necessary to allow character names of arbitrary length.	The character  is
	      printed  at  the current print position; the character's size is read from the font
	      file.  The print position is not changed.

       c c    Print character c at the current print position; the character's size is read  from
	      the font file.  The print position is not changed.

       f n    Set font to font number n (a non-negative integer).

       H n    Move  right  to  the  absolute vertical position n (a non-negative integer in basic
	      units u) relative to left edge of current page.

       h n    Move  n  (a  non-negative  integer)  basic  units  u  horizontally  to  the  right.
	      [CSTR #54] allows negative values for n also, but groff doesn't use this.

       m color_scheme [component ...]
	      Set  the	color for text (glyphs), line drawing, and the outline of graphic objects
	      using different color schemes; the analoguous command  for  the  filling	color  of
	      graphic  objects	is  DF.   The color components are specified as integer arguments
	      between 0 and 65536.  The number of color components and their meaning vary for the
	      different color schemes.	These commands are generated by the groff escape sequence
	      \m.  No position changing.  These commands are a groff extension.

	      mc cyan magenta yellow
		     Set color using the CMY color scheme, having the 3  color	components  cyan,
		     magenta, and yellow.

	      md     Set  color  to  the default color value (black in most cases).  No component
		     arguments.

	      mg gray
		     Set color to the shade of gray given by the argument, an integer  between	0
		     (black) and 65536 (white).

	      mk cyan magenta yellow black
		     Set  color  using the CMYK color scheme, having the 4 color components cyan,
		     magenta, yellow, and black.

	      mr red green blue
		     Set color using the RGB color scheme, having the  3  color  components  red,
		     green, and blue.

       N n    Print  character	with  index  n (an integer, normally non-negative) of the current
	      font.  The print position is not changed.  If -T html is used, negative values  are
	      emitted  also  to  indicate  an  unbreakable  space with given width.  For example,
	      N -193 represents an unbreakable space which has a width of 193u.  This command  is
	      a groff extension.

       n b a  Inform  the  device about a line break, but no positioning is done by this command.
	      In classical troff, the integer arguments b and a informed about the  space  before
	      and  after  the  current	line  to make the intermediate output more human readable
	      without performing any action.  In groff, they are just ignored, but they  must  be
	      provided for compatibility reasons.

       p n    Begin  a new page in the outprint.  The page number is set to n.	This page is com-
	      pletely independent of pages formerly processed even if those have  the  same  page
	      number.	The  vertical  position  on  the outprint is automatically set to 0.  All
	      positioning, writing, and drawing is always done relative to a page, so a p command
	      must be issued before any of these commands.

       s n    Set  point  size to n scaled points (this is unit z in GNU troff).  Classical troff
	      used the unit points (p) instead; see section COMPATIBILITY.

       t xxx<white_space>
       t xxx dummy_arg<white_space>
	      Print a word, i.e., a sequence of characters xxx terminated by a space character or
	      a  line break; an optional second integer argument is ignored (this allows the for-
	      matter to generate an even number of arguments).	The  first  character  should  be
	      printed  at  the	current  position, the current horizontal position should then be
	      increased by the width of the first character, and so on for each  character.   The
	      widths  of the characters are read from the font file, scaled for the current point
	      size, and rounded to a multiple of the horizontal resolution.   Special  characters
	      cannot  be  printed  using  this	command (use the C command for named characters).
	      This command is a groff extension; it is only used for devices whose DESC file con-
	      tains the tcommand keyword; see groff_font(5).

       u n xxx<white_space>
	      Print word with track kerning.  This is the same as the t command except that after
	      printing each character, the current horizontal position is increased by the sum of
	      the width of that character and n (an integer in basic units u).	This command is a
	      groff extension; it is only used for devices whose DESC file contains the  tcommand
	      keyword; see groff_font(5).

       V n    Move  down  to  the  absolute  vertical position n (a non-negative integer in basic
	      units u) relative to upper edge of current page.

       v n    Move n basic units u down (n is a non-negative integer).	[CSTR #54]  allows  nega-
	      tive values for n also, but groff doesn't use this.

       w      Informs  about  a  paddable whitespace to increase readability.  The spacing itself
	      must be performed explicitly by a move command.

   Graphics Commands
       Each graphics or drawing command in the intermediate output starts with the letter D  fol-
       lowed  by  one or two characters that specify a subcommand; this is followed by a fixed or
       variable number of integer arguments that are separated by a single  space  character.	A
       D  command may not be followed by another command on the same line (apart from a comment),
       so each D command is terminated by a syntactical line break.

       troff output follows the classical spacing rules (no space between command and subcommand,
       all  arguments  are  preceded by a single space character), but the parser allows optional
       space between the command letters and makes the space before the first argument	optional.
       As usual, each space can be any sequence of tab and space characters.

       Some  graphics  commands  can take a variable number of arguments.  In this case, they are
       integers representing a size measured in basic units u.	The arguments called h1, h2, ...,
       hn  h1,	h2,  ...,  hn stand for horizontal distances where positive means right, negative
       left.  The arguments called v1, v2, ..., vn v1, v2, ..., vn stand for  vertical	distances
       where  positive	means down, negative up.  All these distances are offsets relative to the
       current location.

       Unless indicated otherwise, each graphics command directly corresponds to a similar  groff
       \D escape sequence; see groff(7).

       Unknown	D  commands  are  assumed  to  be  device-specific.   Its arguments are parsed as
       strings; the whole information is then sent to the postprocessor.

       In the following command reference, the syntax element <line_break>  means  a  syntactical
       line break as defined in section Separation.

       D~ h1 v1 h2 v2 ... hn vn<line_break>
	      Draw  B-spline from current position to offset (h1, v1), then to offset (h2, v2) if
	      given, etc. up to (hn, vn). This command takes a variable number of argument pairs;
	      the current position is moved to the terminal point of the drawn curve.

       Da h1 v1 h2 v2<line_break>
	      Draw  arc  from current position to (h1, v1)+(h2, v2) with center at (h1, v1); then
	      move the current position to the final point of the arc.

       DC d<line_break>
       DC d dummy_arg<line_break>
	      Draw a solid circle using the current fill color with diameter d (integer in  basic
	      units  u)  with leftmost point at the current position; then move the current posi-
	      tion to the rightmost point of the circle.  An optional second integer argument  is
	      ignored  (this  allows  to  the formatter to generate an even number of arguments).
	      This command is a groff extension.

       Dc d<line_break>
	      Draw circle line with diameter d (integer in basic units u) with leftmost point  at
	      the  current position; then move the current position to the rightmost point of the
	      circle.

       DE h v<line_break>
	      Draw a solid ellipse in the current fill color with a horizontal diameter of h  and
	      a  vertical  diameter of v (both integers in basic units u) with the leftmost point
	      at the current position; then move to the rightmost point  of  the  ellipse.   This
	      command is a groff extension.

       De h v<line_break>
	      Draw  an	outlined  ellipse with a horizontal diameter of h and a vertical diameter
	      of v (both integers in basic units u) with the leftmost point at current	position;
	      then move to the rightmost point of the ellipse.

       DF color_scheme [component ...]<line_break>
	      Set  fill  color	for solid drawing objects using different color schemes; the ana-
	      loguous command for setting the color of text, line graphics, and  the  outline  of
	      graphic  objects	is  m.	 The  color components are specified as integer arguments
	      between 0 and 65536.  The number of color components and their meaning vary for the
	      different  color	schemes.   These  commands  are  generated  by	the  groff escape
	      sequences \D'F ...'  and \M (with no other corresponding	graphics  commands).   No
	      position changing.  This command is a groff extension.

	      DFc cyan magenta yellow<line_break>
		     Set  fill color for solid drawing objects using the CMY color scheme, having
		     the 3 color components cyan, magenta, and yellow.

	      DFd <line_break>
		     Set fill color for solid drawing objects to the  default  fill  color  value
		     (black in most cases).  No component arguments.

	      DFg gray<line_break>
		     Set  fill	color for solid drawing objects to the shade of gray given by the
		     argument, an integer between 0 (black) and 65536 (white).

	      DFk cyan magenta yellow black<line_break>
		     Set fill color for solid drawing objects using the CMYK color scheme, having
		     the 4 color components cyan, magenta, yellow, and black.

	      DFr red green blue<line_break>
		     Set  fill color for solid drawing objects using the RGB color scheme, having
		     the 3 color components red, green, and blue.

       Df n<line_break>
	      The argument n must be an integer in the range -32767 to 32767.

	      0 <= n <= 1000
		     Set the color for filling solid drawing objects to a shade of gray, where	0
		     corresponds to solid white, 1000 (the default) to solid black, and values in
		     between to intermediate shades of gray; this is obsoleted by command DFg.

	      n < 0 or n > 1000
		     Set the filling color to the color that is currently being used for the text
		     and the outline, see command m.  For example, the command sequence
			    mg 0 0 65536
			    Df -1
		     sets all colors to blue.

	      No position changing.  This command is a groff extension.

       Dl h v<line_break>
	      Draw  line from current position to offset (h, v) (integers in basic units u); then
	      set current position to the end of the drawn line.

       Dp h1 v1 h2 v2 ... hn vn<line_break>
	      Draw a polygon line from current position to offset (h1, v1), from there to  offset
	      (h2, v2), etc. up to offset (hn, vn), and from there back to the starting position.
	      For historical reasons, the position is changed by adding the sum of all	arguments
	      with  odd index to the actual horizontal position and the even ones to the vertical
	      position.  Although this doesn't make sense it is  kept  for  compatibility.   This
	      command is a groff extension.

       DP h1 v1 h2 v2 ... hn vn<line_break>
	      The same macro as the corresponding Dp command with the same arguments, but draws a
	      solid polygon in the current fill color rather than an outlined polygon.	The posi-
	      tion is changed in the same way as with Dp.  This command is a groff extension.

       Dt n<line_break>
	      Set  the	current  line thickness to n (an integer in basic units u) if n>0; if n=0
	      select the smallest available line thickness; if n<0 set the line thickness propor-
	      tional to the point size (this is the default before the first Dt command was spec-
	      ified).  For historical reasons, the horizontal position is changed by  adding  the
	      argument	to  the  actual  horizontal  position, while the vertical position is not
	      changed.	Although this doesn't make sense it is kept for compatibility.	This com-
	      mand is a groff extension.

   Device Control Commands
       Each  device  control  command  starts  with  the  letter  x followed by a space character
       (optional or arbitrary space/tab in groff) and a subcommand letter or word; each  argument
       (if any) must be preceded by a syntactical space.  All x commands are terminated by a syn-
       tactical line break; no device control command can be followed by another command  on  the
       same line (except a comment).

       The  subcommand is basically a single letter, but to increase readability, it can be writ-
       ten as a word, i.e., an arbitrary sequence of  characters  terminated  by  the  next  tab,
       space, or newline character.  All characters of the subcommand word but the first are sim-
       ply ignored.  For example, troff outputs the initialization command x i as x init and  the
       resolution  command  x r  as  x res.  But writings like x i_like_groff and x roff_is_groff
       resp. are accepted as well to mean the same commands.

       In the following, the syntax element  <line_break>  means  a  syntactical  line	break  as
       defined in section Separation.

       xF name<line_break>
	      (Filename control command)
	      Use  name as the intended name for the current file in error reports.  This is use-
	      ful for remembering the original file name when groff uses an internal piping mech-
	      anism.   The  input  file  is not changed by this command.  This command is a groff
	      extension.

       xf n s<line_break>
	      (font control command)
	      Mount font position n (a non-negative integer) with font named s (a text word), cf.
	      groff_font(5).

       xH n<line_break>
	      (Height control command)
	      Set character height to n (a positive integer in scaled points z).  Classical troff
	      used the unit points (p) instead; see section COMPATIBILITY.

       xi<line_break>
	      (init control command)
	      Initialize device.  This is the third command of the prologue.

       xp<line_break>
	      (pause control command)
	      Parsed but ignored.   The  classical  documentation  reads  pause  device,  can  be
	      restarted.

       xr n h v<line_break>
	      (resolution control command)
	      Resolution is n, while h is the minimal horizontal motion, and v the minimal verti-
	      cal motion possible with this device; all arguments are positive integers in  basic
	      units u per inch.  This is the second command of the prologue.

       xS n<line_break>
	      (Slant control command)
	      Set slant to n degrees (an integer in basic units u).

       xs<line_break>
	      (stop control command)
	      Terminates  the  processing  of the current file; issued as the last command of any
	      intermediate troff output.

       xt<line_break>
	      (trailer control command)
	      Generate trailer information, if any.  In groff, this is actually just ignored.

       xT xxx<line_break>
	      (Typesetter control command)
	      Set name of device to word xxx, a sequence of characters ended by the  next  white-
	      space  character.   The possible device names coincide with those from the groff -T
	      option.  This is the first command of the prologue.

       xu n<line_break>
	      (underline control command)
	      Configure underlining of spaces.	If n is 1, start  underlining  of  spaces;  if	n
	      is  0, stop underlining of spaces.  This is needed for the cu request in nroff mode
	      and is ignored otherwise.  This command is a groff extension.

       xX anything<line_break>
	      (X-escape control command)
	      Send string anything uninterpreted to the device.  If the line following this  com-
	      mand  starts  with a + character this line is interpreted as a continuation line in
	      the following sense.  The + is ignored, but a newline character is sent instead  to
	      the  device,  the  rest of the line is sent uninterpreted.  The same applies to all
	      following lines until the first character of a line is not  a  +	character.   This
	      command  is generated by the groff escape sequence \X.  The line-continuing feature
	      is a groff extension.

   Obsolete Command
       In classical troff output, the writing of a single character was mostly	done  by  a  very
       strange	command  that  combined  a  horizontal	move and the printing of a character.  It
       didn't have a command code, but is represented by a  3-character  argument  consisting  of
       exactly 2 digits and a character.

       ddc    Move right dd (exactly two decimal digits) basic units u, then print character c.

	      In  groff, arbitrary syntactical space around and within this command is allowed to
	      be added.  Only when a preceding command on the same line ends with an argument  of
	      variable	length a separating space is obligatory.  In classical troff, large clus-
	      ters of these and other commands were used, mostly without spaces; this  made  such
	      output almost unreadable.

       For  modern high-resolution devices, this command does not make sense because the width of
       the characters can become much larger than two decimal digits.  In  groff,  this  is  only
       used  for  the  devices X75, X75-12, X100, and X100-12.	For other devices, the commands t
       and u provide a better functionality.

POSTPROCESSING
       The roff postprocessors are programs that have the task to translate the intermediate out-
       put  into  actions that are sent to a device.  A device can be some piece of hardware such
       as a printer, or a software file format suitable for graphical or  text	processing.   The
       groff  system  provides powerful means that make the programming of such postprocessors an
       easy task.

       There is a library function that parses the intermediate output and sends the  information
       obtained to the device via methods of a class with a common interface for each device.  So
       a groff postprocessor must only redefine the methods of this class.  For details, see  the
       reference in section FILES.

EXAMPLES
       This section presents the intermediate output generated from the same input for three dif-
       ferent devices.	The input is the sentence hell world fed into groff on the command line.

       o High-resolution device ps

	 shell> echo hell world | groff -Z -T ps

	 x T ps
	 x res 72000 1 1
	 x init
	 p1
	 x font 5 TR
	 f5
	 s10000
	 V12000
	 H72000
	 thell
	 wh2500
	 tw
	 H96620
	 torld
	 n12000 0
	 x trailer
	 V792000
	 x stop

       This output can be fed into the postprocessor grops(1) to  get  its  representation  as	a
       PostScript file.

       o Low-resolution device latin1

	 This  is  similar to the high-resolution device except that the positioning is done at a
	 minor scale.  Some comments (lines starting with #) were added for  clarification;  they
	 were not generated by the formatter.

	 shell> echo hell world | groff -Z -T latin1

	 # prologue
	 x T latin1
	 x res 240 24 40
	 x init
	 # begin a new page
	 p1
	 # font setup
	 x font 1 R
	 f1
	 s10
	 # initial positioning on the page
	 V40
	 H0
	 # write text `hell'
	 thell
	 # inform about a space, and do it by a horizontal jump
	 wh24
	 # write text `world'
	 tworld
	 # announce line break, but do nothing because ...
	 n40 0
	 # ... the end of the document has been reached
	 x trailer
	 V2640
	 x stop

       This output can be fed into the postprocessor grotty(1) to get a formatted text document.

       o Classical style output

	 As a computer monitor has a very low resolution compared to modern printers the interme-
	 diate output for the X devices can use the jump-and-write command with its 2-digit  dis-
	 placements.

	 shell> echo hell world | groff -Z -T X100

	 x T X100
	 x res 100 1 1
	 x init
	 p1
	 x font 5 TR
	 f5
	 s10
	 V16
	 H100
	 # write text with old-style jump-and-write command
	 ch07e07l03lw06w11o07r05l03dh7
	 n16 0
	 x trailer
	 V1100
	 x stop

       This  output can be fed into the postprocessor xditview(1x) or gxditview(1) for displaying
       in X.

       Due to the obsolete jump-and-write command, the text clusters in the classical output  are
       almost unreadable.

COMPATIBILITY
       The  intermediate  output  language  of	the  classical	troff  was  first  documented  in
       [CSTR #97].  The groff intermediate output format is compatible	with  this  specification
       except for the following features.

       o The classical quasi device independence is not yet implemented.

       o The  old  hardware  was very different from what we use today.  So the groff devices are
	 also fundamentally different from the ones in classical troff.  For example, the classi-
	 cal  PostScript device was called post and had a resolution of 720 units per inch, while
	 groff's ps device has a resolution of 72000 units per inch.  Maybe, by implementing some
	 rescaling  mechanism  similar to the classical quasi device independence, these could be
	 integrated into modern groff.

       o The B-spline command D~ is correctly handled by the intermediate output parser, but  the
	 drawing routines aren't implemented in some of the postprocessor programs.

       o The  argument	of  the commands s and x H has the implicit unit scaled point z in groff,
	 while classical troff had point (p).  This isn't an incompatibility,  but  a  compatible
	 extension,  for  both	units  coincide  for  all  devices without a sizescale parameter,
	 including all classical and the groff text  devices.	The  few  groff  devices  with	a
	 sizescale  parameter  either  did not exist, had a different name, or seem to have had a
	 different resolution.	So conflicts with classical devices are very unlikely.

       o The position changing after the commands Dp, DP, and Dt is illogical, but  as	old  ver-
	 sions of groff used this feature it is kept for compatibility reasons.

       The differences between groff and classical troff are documented in groff_diff(7).

FILES
       /usr/share/groff_font/devname/DESC
	      Device description file for device name.

       <groff_source_dir>/src/libs/libdriver/input.cpp
	      Defines  the  parser  and postprocessor for the intermediate output.  It is located
	      relative to the top directory of the groff source tree, e.g.  @GROFFSRCDIR@.   This
	      parser is the definitive specification of the groff intermediate output format.

SEE ALSO
       A reference like groff(7) refers to a manual page; here groff in section 7 of the man-page
       documentation system.  To read the example, look up section 7 in your desktop help  system
       or call from the shell prompt

	      shell> man 7 groff

       For more details, see man(1).

       groff(1)
	      option -Z and further readings on groff.

       groff(7)
	      for details of the groff language such as numerical units and escape sequences.

       groff_font(5)
	      for details on the device scaling parameters of the DESC file.

       troff(1)
	      generates the device-independent intermediate output.

       roff(7)
	      for historical aspects and the general structure of roff systems.

       groff_diff(7)
	      The differences between the intermediate output in groff and classical troff.

       gxditview(1)
	      Viewer for the intermediate output.

       grodvi(1), grohtml(1), grolbp(1), grolj4(1), grops(1), grotty(1)
	      the groff postprocessor programs.

       For a treatment of all aspects of the groff system within a single document, see the groff
       info file.  It can be read within the integrated help systems, within emacs(1) or from the
       shell prompt by
	      shell> info groff

       The  classical  troff  output  language	is described in two AT&T Bell Labs CSTR documents
       available on-line at Bell Labs CSTR site <http://cm.bell-labs.com/cm/cs/cstr.html>.

       [CSTR #97]
	      A Typesetter-independent TROFF by Brian Kernighan is the original and most  concise
	      documentation on the output language; see CSTR #97 <http://cm.bell-labs.com/cm/cs/
	      cstr/97.ps.gz>.

       [CSTR #54]
	      The 1992 revision of the Nroff/Troff User's  Manual  by  J.  F.  Osanna  and  Brian
	      Kernighan isn't as concise as [CSTR #97] regarding the output language; see
	      CSTR #54 <http://cm.bell-labs.com/cm/cs/cstr/54.ps.gz>.

AUTHORS
       Copyright (C) 1989, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

       This document is distributed under the terms of the FDL (GNU Free  Documentation  License)
       version 1.1 or later.  You should have received a copy of the FDL with this package; it is
       also available on-line at the GNU copyleft site <http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html>.

       This document is part of groff, the GNU roff distribution.  It is based on a  former  ver-
       sion  - published under the GPL - that described only parts of the groff extensions of the
       output language.  It has been rewritten 2002 by Bernd Warken and is maintained  by  Werner
       Lemberg <wl@gnu.org>.

Groff Version 1.19.2			 February 6, 2006			     GROFF_OUT(5)


All times are GMT -4. The time now is 03:30 PM.

Unix & Linux Forums Content Copyrightę1993-2018. All Rights Reserved.
×
UNIX.COM Login
Username:
Password:  
Show Password