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Linux 2.6 - man page for pppd (linux section 8)

PPPD(8) 										  PPPD(8)

NAME
       pppd - Point-to-Point Protocol Daemon

SYNOPSIS
       pppd [ options ]

DESCRIPTION
       PPP  is the protocol used for establishing internet links over dial-up modems, DSL connec-
       tions, and many other types of point-to-point links.  The pppd daemon works together  with
       the kernel PPP driver to establish and maintain a PPP link with another system (called the
       peer) and to negotiate Internet Protocol (IP) addresses for each end of	the  link.   Pppd
       can  also authenticate the peer and/or supply authentication information to the peer.  PPP
       can be used with other network protocols besides IP, but such use is becoming increasingly
       rare.

FREQUENTLY USED OPTIONS
       ttyname
	      Use  the	serial port called ttyname to communicate with the peer.  If ttyname does
	      not begin with a slash (/), the string "/dev/" is prepended to ttyname to form  the
	      name of the device to open.  If no device name is given, or if the name of the ter-
	      minal connected to the standard input is given, pppd will use  that  terminal,  and
	      will  not  fork  to  put	itself in the background.  A value for this option from a
	      privileged source cannot be overridden by a non-privileged user.

       speed  An option that is a decimal number is taken as the desired baud rate for the serial
	      device.	On  systems such as 4.4BSD and NetBSD, any speed can be specified.  Other
	      systems (e.g. Linux, SunOS) only support the commonly-used baud rates.

       asyncmap map
	      This option sets the Async-Control-Character-Map (ACCM) for this end of  the  link.
	      The  ACCM  is  a	set of 32 bits, one for each of the ASCII control characters with
	      values from 0 to 31, where a 1 bit indicates that the corresponding control charac-
	      ter should not be used in PPP packets sent to this system.  The map is encoded as a
	      hexadecimal  number  (without  a	leading  0x)  where  the  least  significant  bit
	      (00000001)  represents  character  0 and the most significant bit (80000000) repre-
	      sents character 31.  Pppd will ask the peer to send these characters  as	a  2-byte
	      escape  sequence.   If  multiple	asyncmap  options  are given, the values are ORed
	      together.  If no asyncmap option is given, the default is zero, so  pppd	will  ask
	      the  peer  not to escape any control characters.	To escape transmitted characters,
	      use the escape option.

       auth   Require the peer to authenticate itself before allowing network packets to be  sent
	      or  received.   This  option  is the default if the system has a default route.  If
	      neither this option nor the noauth option is specified, pppd will  only  allow  the
	      peer to use IP addresses to which the system does not already have a route.

       call name
	      Read  additional	options from the file /etc/ppp/peers/name.  This file may contain
	      privileged options, such as noauth, even if pppd is not being  run  by  root.   The
	      name string may not begin with / or include .. as a pathname component.  The format
	      of the options file is described below.

       connect script
	      Usually there is something which needs to be done to prepare the	link  before  the
	      PPP  protocol  can be started; for instance, with a dial-up modem, commands need to
	      be sent to the modem to dial the appropriate phone number.  This	option	specifies
	      an  command  for	pppd  to  execute (by passing it to a shell) before attempting to
	      start PPP negotiation.  The chat (8) program is often useful here, as it provides a
	      way  to  send  arbitrary	strings to a modem and respond to received characters.	A
	      value for this option from a privileged source cannot be overridden by a non-privi-
	      leged user.

       crtscts
	      Specifies  that  pppd should set the serial port to use hardware flow control using
	      the RTS and CTS signals in the RS-232  interface.   If  neither  the  crtscts,  the
	      nocrtscts, the cdtrcts nor the nocdtrcts option is given, the hardware flow control
	      setting for the serial port is left unchanged.  Some serial ports (such  as  Macin-
	      tosh  serial  ports)  lack  a  true  RTS output. Such serial ports use this mode to
	      implement unidirectional flow control. The serial port  will  suspend  transmission
	      when  requested  by  the modem (via CTS) but will be unable to request the modem to
	      stop sending to the computer. This mode retains the ability to use DTR as  a  modem
	      control line.

       defaultroute
	      Add  a  default  route to the system routing tables, using the peer as the gateway,
	      when IPCP negotiation is successfully completed.	This entry is  removed	when  the
	      PPP  connection  is broken.  This option is privileged if the nodefaultroute option
	      has been specified.

       replacedefaultroute
	      This option is a flag to the defaultroute option. If defaultroute is set	and  this
	      flag  is	also  set,  pppd  replaces an existing default route with the new default
	      route.

       disconnect script
	      Execute the command specified by script, by passing it to a shell, after	pppd  has
	      terminated  the link.  This command could, for example, issue commands to the modem
	      to cause it to hang up if hardware modem control signals were not  available.   The
	      disconnect  script  is  not run if the modem has already hung up.  A value for this
	      option from a privileged source cannot be overridden by a non-privileged user.

       escape xx,yy,...
	      Specifies that certain characters should be escaped on transmission (regardless  of
	      whether the peer requests them to be escaped with its async control character map).
	      The characters to be escaped are specified as a list of hex  numbers  separated  by
	      commas.	Note  that  almost  any character can be specified for the escape option,
	      unlike the asyncmap option which only allows control characters  to  be  specified.
	      The  characters  which  may not be escaped are those with hex values 0x20 - 0x3f or
	      0x5e.

       file name
	      Read options from file name (the format is described  below).   The  file  must  be
	      readable by the user who has invoked pppd.

       init script
	      Execute  the  command  specified by script, by passing it to a shell, to initialize
	      the serial line.	This script would typically use the chat(8) program to	configure
	      the  modem to enable auto answer.  A value for this option from a privileged source
	      cannot be overridden by a non-privileged user.

       lock   Specifies that pppd should create a UUCP-style lock file for the serial  device  to
	      ensure  exclusive  access  to  the device.  By default, pppd will not create a lock
	      file.

       mru n  Set the MRU [Maximum Receive Unit] value to n. Pppd will ask the peer to send pack-
	      ets  of  no  more  than n bytes.	The value of n must be between 128 and 16384; the
	      default is 1500.	A value of 296 works well on very slow links (40 bytes for TCP/IP
	      header  +  256 bytes of data).  Note that for the IPv6 protocol, the MRU must be at
	      least 1280.

       mtu n  Set the MTU [Maximum Transmit Unit] value to n.  Unless the peer requests a smaller
	      value  via  MRU negotiation, pppd will request that the kernel networking code send
	      data packets of no more than n bytes through the PPP network interface.  Note  that
	      for the IPv6 protocol, the MTU must be at least 1280.

       passive
	      Enables  the  "passive"  option in the LCP.  With this option, pppd will attempt to
	      initiate a connection; if no reply is received from the peer, pppd will  then  just
	      wait  passively  for  a  valid  LCP packet from the peer, instead of exiting, as it
	      would without this option.

OPTIONS
       <local_IP_address>:<remote_IP_address>
	      Set the local and/or remote interface IP addresses.  Either  one	may  be  omitted.
	      The IP addresses can be specified with a host name or in decimal dot notation (e.g.
	      150.234.56.78).  The default local address is the (first) IP address of the  system
	      (unless the noipdefault option is given).  The remote address will be obtained from
	      the peer if not specified in any option.	Thus, in simple cases, this option is not
	      required.   If a local and/or remote IP address is specified with this option, pppd
	      will not accept a different value from the peer in the IPCP negotiation, unless the
	      ipcp-accept-local and/or ipcp-accept-remote options are given, respectively.

       +ipv6  Enable the IPv6CP and IPv6 protocols.

       ipv6 <local_interface_identifier>,<remote_interface_identifier>
	      Set the local and/or remote 64-bit interface identifier. Either one may be omitted.
	      The identifier must be specified in standard ascii notation of IPv6 addresses (e.g.
	      ::dead:beef). If the ipv6cp-use-ipaddr option is given, the local identifier is the
	      local IPv4 address (see above).  On systems which supports a unique persistent  id,
	      such  as EUI-48 derived from the Ethernet MAC address, ipv6cp-use-persistent option
	      can be used to replace the ipv6 <local>,<remote> option. Otherwise  the  identifier
	      is randomized.

       active-filter filter-expression
	      Specifies  a packet filter to be applied to data packets to determine which packets
	      are to be regarded as link activity, and therefore reset the idle timer,	or  cause
	      the  link  to be brought up in demand-dialling mode.  This option is useful in con-
	      junction with the idle option if there are packets being sent or received regularly
	      over the link (for example, routing information packets) which would otherwise pre-
	      vent the link from ever appearing to be idle.  The filter-expression syntax  is  as
	      described  for tcpdump(1), except that qualifiers which are inappropriate for a PPP
	      link, such as ether and arp, are not permitted.  Generally  the  filter  expression
	      should  be  enclosed  in single-quotes to prevent whitespace in the expression from
	      being interpreted by the shell. This  option  is	currently  only  available  under
	      Linux, and requires that the kernel was configured to include PPP filtering support
	      (CONFIG_PPP_FILTER).  Note that it is possible to apply  different  constraints  to
	      incoming and outgoing packets using the inbound and outbound qualifiers.

       allow-ip address(es)
	      Allow  peers  to	use  the  given IP address or subnet without authenticating them-
	      selves.  The parameter is parsed as for each element of  the  list  of  allowed  IP
	      addresses in the secrets files (see the AUTHENTICATION section below).

       allow-number number
	      Allow  peers  to connect from the given telephone number.  A trailing `*' character
	      will match all numbers beginning with the leading part.

       bsdcomp nr,nt
	      Request that the peer compress  packets  that  it  sends,  using	the  BSD-Compress
	      scheme,  with a maximum code size of nr bits, and agree to compress packets sent to
	      the peer with a maximum code size of nt bits.  If nt is not specified, it  defaults
	      to  the value given for nr.  Values in the range 9 to 15 may be used for nr and nt;
	      larger values give better compression but consume more kernel memory  for  compres-
	      sion  dictionaries.   Alternatively, a value of 0 for nr or nt disables compression
	      in the corresponding direction.  Use nobsdcomp or bsdcomp 0 to disable BSD-Compress
	      compression entirely.

       cdtrcts
	      Use a non-standard hardware flow control (i.e. DTR/CTS) to control the flow of data
	      on the serial port.  If neither the crtscts, the nocrtscts,  the	cdtrcts  nor  the
	      nocdtrcts option is given, the hardware flow control setting for the serial port is
	      left unchanged.  Some serial ports (such as Macintosh serial ports) lack a true RTS
	      output.  Such serial ports use this mode to implement true bi-directional flow con-
	      trol. The sacrifice is that this flow control mode does not permit using DTR  as	a
	      modem control line.

       chap-interval n
	      If this option is given, pppd will rechallenge the peer every n seconds.

       chap-max-challenge n
	      Set the maximum number of CHAP challenge transmissions to n (default 10).

       chap-restart n
	      Set  the CHAP restart interval (retransmission timeout for challenges) to n seconds
	      (default 3).

       child-timeout n
	      When exiting, wait for up to n seconds for any child processes (such as the command
	      specified with the pty command) to exit before exiting.  At the end of the timeout,
	      pppd will send a SIGTERM signal to any remaining child processes and exit.  A value
	      of  0  means  no	timeout,  that	is, pppd will wait until all child processes have
	      exited.

       connect-delay n
	      Wait for up to n milliseconds after the connect script finishes  for  a  valid  PPP
	      packet  from  the  peer.	 At  the  end of this time, or when a valid PPP packet is
	      received from the peer, pppd will commence negotiation by  sending  its  first  LCP
	      packet.	The  default  value is 1000 (1 second).  This wait period only applies if
	      the connect or pty option is used.

       debug  Enables connection debugging facilities.	If this option is given,  pppd	will  log
	      the contents of all control packets sent or received in a readable form.	The pack-
	      ets are logged through syslog with facility daemon and level debug.  This  informa-
	      tion  can  be  directed to a file by setting up /etc/syslog.conf appropriately (see
	      syslog.conf(5)).

       default-asyncmap
	      Disable asyncmap negotiation, forcing all control characters to be escaped for both
	      the transmit and the receive direction.

       default-mru
	      Disable  MRU  [Maximum  Receive Unit] negotiation.  With this option, pppd will use
	      the default MRU value of 1500 bytes for both the transmit and receive direction.

       deflate nr,nt
	      Request that the peer compress packets that it sends,  using  the  Deflate  scheme,
	      with  a  maximum	window size of 2**nr bytes, and agree to compress packets sent to
	      the peer with a maximum window size of 2**nt bytes.  If nt  is  not  specified,  it
	      defaults to the value given for nr.  Values in the range 9 to 15 may be used for nr
	      and nt; larger values give better compression but consume more  kernel  memory  for
	      compression  dictionaries.   Alternatively, a value of 0 for nr or nt disables com-
	      pression in the corresponding direction.	Use nodeflate or  deflate  0  to  disable
	      Deflate  compression entirely.  (Note: pppd requests Deflate compression in prefer-
	      ence to BSD-Compress if the peer can do either.)

       demand Initiate the link only on demand, i.e. when data traffic	is  present.   With  this
	      option,  the remote IP address must be specified by the user on the command line or
	      in an options file.  Pppd will initially configure the interface and enable it  for
	      IP  traffic  without  connecting to the peer.  When traffic is available, pppd will
	      connect to the peer and perform negotiation, authentication,  etc.   When  this  is
	      completed,  pppd	will  commence passing data packets (i.e., IP packets) across the
	      link.

	      The demand option implies the persist option.  If this behaviour	is  not  desired,
	      use the nopersist option after the demand option.  The idle and holdoff options are
	      also useful in conjunction with the demand option.

       domain d
	      Append the domain name d to the local host name for authentication  purposes.   For
	      example,	if gethostname() returns the name porsche, but the fully qualified domain
	      name is porsche.Quotron.COM, you could specify domain Quotron.COM.  Pppd would then
	      use the name porsche.Quotron.COM for looking up secrets in the secrets file, and as
	      the default name to send to the peer when authenticating itself to the peer.   This
	      option is privileged.

       dryrun With  the  dryrun option, pppd will print out all the option values which have been
	      set and then exit, after parsing the command line and options  files  and  checking
	      the option values, but before initiating the link.  The option values are logged at
	      level info, and also printed to standard output unless the device on standard  out-
	      put is the device that pppd would be using to communicate with the peer.

       dump   With  the  dump  option,	pppd will print out all the option values which have been
	      set.  This option is like the dryrun option except that  pppd  proceeds  as  normal
	      rather than exiting.

       enable-session
	      Enables  session	accounting  via  PAM  or wtwp/wtmpx, as appropriate.  When PAM is
	      enabled, the PAM "account" and "session" module stacks determine behavior, and  are
	      enabled  for  all  PPP  authentication protocols.  When PAM is disabled, wtmp/wtmpx
	      entries are recorded regardless of whether the peer name identifies a valid user on
	      the  local  system, making peers visible in the last(1) log.  This feature is auto-
	      matically enabled when the pppd login option is used.  Session accounting  is  dis-
	      abled by default.

       endpoint <epdisc>
	      Sets the endpoint discriminator sent by the local machine to the peer during multi-
	      link negotiation to <epdisc>.  The default is to use the MAC address of  the  first
	      ethernet	interface on the system, if any, otherwise the IPv4 address corresponding
	      to the hostname, if any, provided it is not in the multicast or locally-assigned IP
	      address  ranges,	or  the localhost address.  The endpoint discriminator can be the
	      string null or of the form type:value, where type is a decimal number or one of the
	      strings local, IP, MAC, magic, or phone.	The value is an IP address in dotted-dec-
	      imal notation for the IP type, or a string of bytes in  hexadecimal,  separated  by
	      periods or colons for the other types.  For the MAC type, the value may also be the
	      name of an ethernet or similar network interface.  This option  is  currently  only
	      available under Linux.

       eap-interval n
	      If  this	option	is  given  and pppd authenticates the peer with EAP (i.e., is the
	      server), pppd will restart EAP authentication every n seconds.  For  EAP	SRP-SHA1,
	      see also the srp-interval option, which enables lightweight rechallenge.

       eap-max-rreq n
	      Set  the	maximum  number  of EAP Requests to which pppd will respond (as a client)
	      without hearing EAP Success or Failure.  (Default is 20.)

       eap-max-sreq n
	      Set the maximum number of EAP Requests that pppd will issue  (as	a  server)  while
	      attempting authentication.  (Default is 10.)

       eap-restart n
	      Set  the	retransmit  timeout for EAP Requests when acting as a server (authentica-
	      tor).  (Default is 3 seconds.)

       eap-timeout n
	      Set the maximum time to wait for the peer to send an EAP Request when acting  as	a
	      client (authenticatee).  (Default is 20 seconds.)

       hide-password
	      When  logging  the  contents of PAP packets, this option causes pppd to exclude the
	      password string from the log.  This is the default.

       holdoff n
	      Specifies how many seconds to wait before re-initiating the link	after  it  termi-
	      nates.   This  option  only has any effect if the persist or demand option is used.
	      The holdoff period is not applied if the link was terminated because it was idle.

       idle n Specifies that pppd should disconnect if the link is idle for n seconds.	The  link
	      is  idle	when no data packets (i.e. IP packets) are being sent or received.  Note:
	      it is not advisable to use this option with the persist option without  the  demand
	      option.	If  the active-filter option is given, data packets which are rejected by
	      the specified activity filter also count as the link being idle.

       ipcp-accept-local
	      With this option, pppd will accept the peer's idea of our local IP address, even if
	      the local IP address was specified in an option.

       ipcp-accept-remote
	      With this option, pppd will accept the peer's idea of its (remote) IP address, even
	      if the remote IP address was specified in an option.

       ipcp-max-configure n
	      Set the maximum number of IPCP configure-request transmissions to n (default 10).

       ipcp-max-failure n
	      Set the maximum number of IPCP configure-NAKs returned before starting to send con-
	      figure-Rejects instead to n (default 10).

       ipcp-max-terminate n
	      Set the maximum number of IPCP terminate-request transmissions to n (default 3).

       ipcp-restart n
	      Set the IPCP restart interval (retransmission timeout) to n seconds (default 3).

       ipparam string
	      Provides	an  extra parameter to the ip-up, ip-pre-up and ip-down scripts.  If this
	      option is given, the string supplied  is	given  as  the	6th  parameter	to  those
	      scripts.

       ipv6cp-accept-local
	      With  this  option,  pppd  will  accept the peer's idea of our local IPv6 interface
	      identifier, even if the local IPv6 interface identifier was specified in an option.

       ipv6cp-max-configure n
	      Set the maximum number of IPv6CP configure-request transmissions to n (default 10).

       ipv6cp-max-failure n
	      Set the maximum number of IPv6CP configure-NAKs returned before  starting  to  send
	      configure-Rejects instead to n (default 10).

       ipv6cp-max-terminate n
	      Set the maximum number of IPv6CP terminate-request transmissions to n (default 3).

       ipv6cp-restart n
	      Set the IPv6CP restart interval (retransmission timeout) to n seconds (default 3).

       ipx    Enable  the IPXCP and IPX protocols.  This option is presently only supported under
	      Linux, and only if your kernel has been configured to include IPX support.

       ipx-network n
	      Set the IPX network number in the IPXCP configure request frame to n, a hexadecimal
	      number  (without	a leading 0x).	There is no valid default.  If this option is not
	      specified, the network number is obtained from the peer.	If the peer does not have
	      the network number, the IPX protocol will not be started.

       ipx-node n:m
	      Set the IPX node numbers. The two node numbers are separated from each other with a
	      colon character. The first number n is the local node number. The second	number	m
	      is  the  peer's  node  number. Each node number is a hexadecimal number, at most 10
	      digits long. The node numbers on the ipx-network must be unique. There is no  valid
	      default.	If  this  option is not specified then the node numbers are obtained from
	      the peer.

       ipx-router-name <string>
	      Set the name of the router. This is a string and is sent to the peer as information
	      data.

       ipx-routing n
	      Set  the	routing protocol to be received by this option. More than one instance of
	      ipx-routing may be specified. The 'none' option (0) may be specified  as	the  only
	      instance	of  ipx-routing.  The  values may be 0 for NONE, 2 for RIP/SAP, and 4 for
	      NLSP.

       ipxcp-accept-local
	      Accept the peer's NAK for the node number specified in the ipx-node  option.  If	a
	      node number was specified, and non-zero, the default is to insist that the value be
	      used. If you include this option then you will permit  the  peer	to  override  the
	      entry of the node number.

       ipxcp-accept-network
	      Accept  the  peer's NAK for the network number specified in the ipx-network option.
	      If a network number was specified, and non-zero, the default is to insist that  the
	      value be used. If you include this option then you will permit the peer to override
	      the entry of the node number.

       ipxcp-accept-remote
	      Use the peer's network number specified in the configure request frame. If  a  node
	      number  was specified for the peer and this option was not specified, the peer will
	      be forced to use the value which you have specified.

       ipxcp-max-configure n
	      Set the maximum number of IPXCP configure request frames which the system will send
	      to n. The default is 10.

       ipxcp-max-failure n
	      Set  the maximum number of IPXCP NAK frames which the local system will send before
	      it rejects the options. The default value is 3.

       ipxcp-max-terminate n
	      Set the maximum nuber of IPXCP terminate request frames  before  the  local  system
	      considers that the peer is not listening to them. The default value is 3.

       kdebug n
	      Enable  debugging  code in the kernel-level PPP driver.  The argument values depend
	      on the specific kernel driver, but in general a value of 1 will enable general ker-
	      nel  debug  messages.  (Note that these messages are usually only useful for debug-
	      ging the kernel driver itself.)  For the Linux 2.2.x kernel driver, the value is	a
	      sum  of bits: 1 to enable general debug messages, 2 to request that the contents of
	      received packets be printed, and 4 to request  that  the	contents  of  transmitted
	      packets  be printed.  On most systems, messages printed by the kernel are logged by
	      syslog(1) to a file as directed in the /etc/syslog.conf configuration file.

       ktune  Enables pppd to alter kernel settings  as  appropriate.	Under  Linux,  pppd  will
	      enable  IP forwarding (i.e. set /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward to 1) if the proxyarp
	      option  is  used,  and  will  enable  the  dynamic  IP  address  option  (i.e.  set
	      /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_dynaddr to 1) in demand mode if the local address changes.

       lcp-echo-adaptive
	      If  this	option	is  used with the lcp-echo-failure option then pppd will send LCP
	      echo-request frames only if no traffic was received from the peer  since	the  last
	      echo-request was sent.

       lcp-echo-failure n
	      If  this	option	is  given,  pppd  will	presume  the  peer  to	be  dead if n LCP
	      echo-requests are sent without receiving a valid LCP echo-reply.	If this  happens,
	      pppd  will  terminate the connection.  Use of this option requires a non-zero value
	      for the lcp-echo-interval parameter.  This option can be used  to  enable  pppd  to
	      terminate  after	the physical connection has been broken (e.g., the modem has hung
	      up) in situations where no hardware modem control lines are available.

       lcp-echo-interval n
	      If this option is given, pppd will send an LCP echo-request frame to the peer every
	      n  seconds.   Normally  the  peer  should respond to the echo-request by sending an
	      echo-reply.  This option can be used with the  lcp-echo-failure  option  to  detect
	      that the peer is no longer connected.

       lcp-max-configure n
	      Set the maximum number of LCP configure-request transmissions to n (default 10).

       lcp-max-failure n
	      Set  the maximum number of LCP configure-NAKs returned before starting to send con-
	      figure-Rejects instead to n (default 10).

       lcp-max-terminate n
	      Set the maximum number of LCP terminate-request transmissions to n (default 3).

       lcp-restart n
	      Set the LCP restart interval (retransmission timeout) to n seconds (default 3).

       linkname name
	      Sets the logical name of	the  link  to  name.   Pppd  will  create  a  file  named
	      ppp-name.pid  in	/var/run (or /etc/ppp on some systems) containing its process ID.
	      This can be useful in determining which instance of pppd	is  responsible  for  the
	      link to a given peer system.  This is a privileged option.

       local  Don't use the modem control lines.  With this option, pppd will ignore the state of
	      the CD (Carrier Detect) signal from the modem and will not change the state of  the
	      DTR (Data Terminal Ready) signal.  This is the opposite of the modem option.

       logfd n
	      Send log messages to file descriptor n.  Pppd will send log messages to at most one
	      file or file descriptor (as well as sending the log messages to  syslog),  so  this
	      option  and  the logfile option are mutually exclusive.  The default is for pppd to
	      send log messages to stdout (file descriptor 1), unless the serial port is  already
	      open on stdout.

       logfile filename
	      Append  log  messages  to the file filename (as well as sending the log messages to
	      syslog).	The file is opened with the privileges of the user who invoked	pppd,  in
	      append mode.

       login  Use  the system password database for authenticating the peer using PAP, and record
	      the user in the system wtmp file.  Note that the peer must have  an  entry  in  the
	      /etc/ppp/pap-secrets  file  as  well  as the system password database to be allowed
	      access.  See also the enable-session option.

       maxconnect n
	      Terminate the connection when it has been available for network traffic for n  sec-
	      onds (i.e. n seconds after the first network control protocol comes up).

       maxfail n
	      Terminate  after	n  consecutive failed connection attempts.  A value of 0 means no
	      limit.  The default value is 10.

       modem  Use the modem control lines.  This option is the default.  With this  option,  pppd
	      will  wait  for  the  CD (Carrier Detect) signal from the modem to be asserted when
	      opening the serial device (unless a connect script is specified), and it will  drop
	      the  DTR (Data Terminal Ready) signal briefly when the connection is terminated and
	      before executing the connect script.  On Ultrix, this option implies hardware  flow
	      control, as for the crtscts option.  This is the opposite of the local option.

       mp     Enables  the  use  of  PPP  multilink; this is an alias for the `multilink' option.
	      This option is currently only available under Linux.

       mppe-stateful
	      Allow MPPE to use stateful mode.	Stateless mode is  still  attempted  first.   The
	      default is to disallow stateful mode.

       mpshortseq
	      Enables the use of short (12-bit) sequence numbers in multilink headers, as opposed
	      to 24-bit sequence numbers.  This option is only available under	Linux,	and  only
	      has any effect if multilink is enabled (see the multilink option).

       mrru n Sets the Maximum Reconstructed Receive Unit to n.  The MRRU is the maximum size for
	      a received packet on a multilink bundle, and is analogous to the MRU for the  indi-
	      vidual  links.   This  option is currently only available under Linux, and only has
	      any effect if multilink is enabled (see the multilink option).

       ms-dns <addr>
	      If pppd is acting as a server for Microsoft Windows  clients,  this  option  allows
	      pppd  to	supply one or two DNS (Domain Name Server) addresses to the clients.  The
	      first instance of this  option  specifies  the  primary  DNS  address;  the  second
	      instance	(if given) specifies the secondary DNS address.  (This option was present
	      in some older versions of pppd under the name dns-addr.)

       ms-wins <addr>
	      If pppd is acting as a server for Microsoft Windows or "Samba" clients, this option
	      allows  pppd  to	supply	one  or  two WINS (Windows Internet Name Services) server
	      addresses to the clients.  The first instance of this option specifies the  primary
	      WINS address; the second instance (if given) specifies the secondary WINS address.

       multilink
	      Enables  the  use  of the PPP multilink protocol.  If the peer also supports multi-
	      link, then this link can become part of a bundle between the local system  and  the
	      peer.  If there is an existing bundle to the peer, pppd will join this link to that
	      bundle, otherwise pppd will create a new bundle.	See the MULTILINK section  below.
	      This option is currently only available under Linux.

       name name
	      Set  the	name  of the local system for authentication purposes to name.	This is a
	      privileged option.  With this option, pppd will use  lines  in  the  secrets  files
	      which  have  name as the second field when looking for a secret to use in authenti-
	      cating the peer.	In addition, unless overridden with the user option, name will be
	      used  as	the  name to send to the peer when authenticating the local system to the
	      peer.  (Note that pppd does not append the domain name to name.)

       noaccomp
	      Disable Address/Control compression in both directions (send and receive).

       noauth Do not require the peer to authenticate itself.  This option is privileged.

       nobsdcomp
	      Disables BSD-Compress compression; pppd will not request or agree to compress pack-
	      ets using the BSD-Compress scheme.

       noccp  Disable CCP (Compression Control Protocol) negotiation.  This option should only be
	      required if the peer is buggy and gets confused by requests from pppd for CCP nego-
	      tiation.

       nocrtscts
	      Disable  hardware  flow  control (i.e. RTS/CTS) on the serial port.  If neither the
	      crtscts nor the nocrtscts nor the cdtrcts nor the nocdtrcts option  is  given,  the
	      hardware flow control setting for the serial port is left unchanged.

       nocdtrcts
	      This  option  is a synonym for nocrtscts. Either of these options will disable both
	      forms of hardware flow control.

       nodefaultroute
	      Disable the defaultroute option.	The system administrator who  wishes  to  prevent
	      users from adding a default route with pppd can do so by placing this option in the
	      /etc/ppp/options file.

       noreplacedefaultroute
	      Disable the replacedefaultroute option. The system administrator who wishes to pre-
	      vent  users  from  replacing  a  default	route with pppd can do so by placing this
	      option in the /etc/ppp/options file.

       nodeflate
	      Disables Deflate compression; pppd will not request or agree  to	compress  packets
	      using the Deflate scheme.

       nodetach
	      Don't  detach  from  the	controlling  terminal.	 Without this option, if a serial
	      device other than the terminal on the standard input is specified, pppd  will  fork
	      to become a background process.

       noendpoint
	      Disables	pppd  from sending an endpoint discriminator to the peer or accepting one
	      from the peer (see the MULTILINK	section  below).   This  option  should  only  be
	      required if the peer is buggy.

       noip   Disable IPCP negotiation and IP communication.  This option should only be required
	      if the peer is buggy and gets confused by requests from pppd for IPCP negotiation.

       noipv6 Disable IPv6CP negotiation and IPv6  communication.  This  option  should  only  be
	      required	if  the  peer is buggy and gets confused by requests from pppd for IPv6CP
	      negotiation.

       noipdefault
	      Disables the default behaviour when no local IP address is specified, which  is  to
	      determine  (if possible) the local IP address from the hostname.	With this option,
	      the peer will have to supply the local IP address during IPCP  negotiation  (unless
	      it specified explicitly on the command line or in an options file).

       noipx  Disable  the  IPXCP  and IPX protocols.  This option should only be required if the
	      peer is buggy and gets confused by requests from pppd for IPXCP negotiation.

       noktune
	      Opposite of the ktune option; disables pppd from changing system settings.

       nolock Opposite of the lock option; specifies that pppd should  not  create  a  UUCP-style
	      lock file for the serial device.	This option is privileged.

       nolog  Do  not  send  log  messages to a file or file descriptor.  This option cancels the
	      logfd and logfile options.

       nomagic
	      Disable magic number negotiation.  With this option, pppd cannot detect  a  looped-
	      back line.  This option should only be needed if the peer is buggy.

       nomp   Disables	the  use of PPP multilink.  This option is currently only available under
	      Linux.

       nomppe Disables MPPE (Microsoft Point to Point Encryption).  This is the default.

       nomppe-40
	      Disable 40-bit encryption with MPPE.

       nomppe-128
	      Disable 128-bit encryption with MPPE.

       nomppe-stateful
	      Disable MPPE stateful mode.  This is the default.

       nompshortseq
	      Disables the use of short (12-bit) sequence numbers in the PPP multilink	protocol,
	      forcing  the  use of 24-bit sequence numbers.  This option is currently only avail-
	      able under Linux, and only has any effect if multilink is enabled.

       nomultilink
	      Disables the use of PPP multilink.  This option is currently only  available  under
	      Linux.

       nopcomp
	      Disable protocol field compression negotiation in both the receive and the transmit
	      direction.

       nopersist
	      Exit once a connection has been made and terminated.  This is  the  default  unless
	      the persist or demand option has been specified.

       nopredictor1
	      Do not accept or agree to Predictor-1 compression.

       noproxyarp
	      Disable  the proxyarp option.  The system administrator who wishes to prevent users
	      from creating proxy ARP entries with pppd can do so by placing this option  in  the
	      /etc/ppp/options file.

       noremoteip
	      Allow  pppd  to  operate without having an IP address for the peer.  This option is
	      only available under Linux.  Normally, pppd will request the peer's IP address, and
	      if  the  peer  does  not supply it, pppd will not bring up the link for IP traffic.
	      With this option, if the peer does not supply its IP address, pppd will not ask the
	      peer  for  it,  and  will not set the destination address of the ppp interface.  In
	      this situation, the ppp interface can  be  used  for  routing  by  creating  device
	      routes, but the peer itself cannot be addressed directly for IP traffic.

       notty  Normally,  pppd  requires  a terminal device.  With this option, pppd will allocate
	      itself a pseudo-tty master/slave pair and use the slave  as  its	terminal  device.
	      Pppd  will create a child process to act as a `character shunt' to transfer charac-
	      ters between the pseudo-tty master and its standard input and  output.   Thus  pppd
	      will transmit characters on its standard output and receive characters on its stan-
	      dard input even if they are  not	terminal  devices.   This  option  increases  the
	      latency  and CPU overhead of transferring data over the ppp interface as all of the
	      characters sent and received must flow through the  character  shunt  process.   An
	      explicit device name may not be given if this option is used.

       novj   Disable  Van  Jacobson style TCP/IP header compression in both the transmit and the
	      receive direction.

       novjccomp
	      Disable the connection-ID compression option in Van Jacobson  style  TCP/IP  header
	      compression.   With this option, pppd will not omit the connection-ID byte from Van
	      Jacobson compressed TCP/IP headers, nor ask the peer to do so.

       papcrypt
	      Indicates that all secrets in the /etc/ppp/pap-secrets  file  which  are	used  for
	      checking	the identity of the peer are encrypted, and thus pppd should not accept a
	      password	which,	before	encryption,  is  identical  to	the   secret   from   the
	      /etc/ppp/pap-secrets file.

       pap-max-authreq n
	      Set the maximum number of PAP authenticate-request transmissions to n (default 10).

       pap-restart n
	      Set the PAP restart interval (retransmission timeout) to n seconds (default 3).

       pap-timeout n
	      Set  the	maximum time that pppd will wait for the peer to authenticate itself with
	      PAP to n seconds (0 means no limit).

       pass-filter filter-expression
	      Specifies a packet filter to applied to data packets  being  sent  or  received  to
	      determine  which	packets should be allowed to pass.  Packets which are rejected by
	      the filter are silently discarded.  This option can be  used  to	prevent  specific
	      network  daemons	(such  as  routed)  using up link bandwidth, or to provide a very
	      basic firewall capability.  The filter-expression syntax is as described	for  tcp-
	      dump(1),	except	that  qualifiers  which are inappropriate for a PPP link, such as
	      ether and arp, are not  permitted.   Generally  the  filter  expression  should  be
	      enclosed in single-quotes to prevent whitespace in the expression from being inter-
	      preted by the shell.  Note that it is possible to apply  different  constraints  to
	      incoming	and  outgoing  packets	using  the  inbound and outbound qualifiers. This
	      option is currently only available under Linux, and requires that  the  kernel  was
	      configured to include PPP filtering support (CONFIG_PPP_FILTER).

       password password-string
	      Specifies  the  password to use for authenticating to the peer.  Use of this option
	      is discouraged, as the password is likely to be visible to other users on the  sys-
	      tem (for example, by using ps(1)).

       persist
	      Do not exit after a connection is terminated; instead try to reopen the connection.
	      The maxfail option still has an effect on persistent connections.

       plugin filename
	      Load the shared library object file filename as a plugin.   This	is  a  privileged
	      option.	If  filename  does  not  contain  a  slash  (/),  pppd	will  look in the
	      /usr/lib/pppd/version directory for the plugin, where version is the version number
	      of pppd (for example, 2.4.2).

       predictor1
	      Request  that the peer compress frames that it sends using Predictor-1 compression,
	      and agree to compress transmitted  frames  with  Predictor-1  if	requested.   This
	      option has no effect unless the kernel driver supports Predictor-1 compression.

       privgroup group-name
	      Allows members of group group-name to use privileged options.  This is a privileged
	      option.  Use of this option requires care as there is no guarantee that members  of
	      group-name  cannot  use  pppd to become root themselves.	Consider it equivalent to
	      putting the members of group-name in the kmem or disk group.

       proxyarp
	      Add an entry to this system's ARP [Address Resolution Protocol] table with  the  IP
	      address  of  the	peer and the Ethernet address of this system.  This will have the
	      effect of making the peer appear to other systems to be on the local ethernet.

       pty script
	      Specifies that the command script is to be used to communicate rather than  a  spe-
	      cific  terminal  device.	 Pppd will allocate itself a pseudo-tty master/slave pair
	      and use the slave as its terminal device.  The  script  will  be	run  in  a  child
	      process  with  the pseudo-tty master as its standard input and output.  An explicit
	      device name may not be given if this option is used.  (Note: if the  record  option
	      is  used	in  conjunction with the pty option, the child process will have pipes on
	      its standard input and output.)

       receive-all
	      With this option, pppd will accept all control characters from the peer,	including
	      those marked in the receive asyncmap.  Without this option, pppd will discard those
	      characters as specified in RFC1662.  This option should only be needed if the  peer
	      is buggy.

       record filename
	      Specifies  that pppd should record all characters sent and received to a file named
	      filename.  This file is opened in append mode, using the user's user-ID and permis-
	      sions.   This  option  is  implemented using a pseudo-tty and a process to transfer
	      characters between the pseudo-tty and the real serial device, so it  will  increase
	      the  latency  and  CPU  overhead	of transferring data over the ppp interface.  The
	      characters are stored in a tagged format with timestamps, which can be displayed in
	      readable form using the pppdump(8) program.

       remotename name
	      Set the assumed name of the remote system for authentication purposes to name.

       remotenumber number
	      Set  the	assumed telephone number of the remote system for authentication purposes
	      to number.

       refuse-chap
	      With this option, pppd will not agree to authenticate  itself  to  the  peer  using
	      CHAP.

       refuse-mschap
	      With  this  option,  pppd  will  not agree to authenticate itself to the peer using
	      MS-CHAP.

       refuse-mschap-v2
	      With this option, pppd will not agree to authenticate  itself  to  the  peer  using
	      MS-CHAPv2.

       refuse-eap
	      With this option, pppd will not agree to authenticate itself to the peer using EAP.

       refuse-pap
	      With this option, pppd will not agree to authenticate itself to the peer using PAP.

       require-chap
	      Require the peer to authenticate itself using CHAP [Challenge Handshake Authentica-
	      tion Protocol] authentication.

       require-mppe
	      Require the use of MPPE (Microsoft Point to Point Encryption).   This  option  dis-
	      ables  all  other  compression  types.  This option enables both 40-bit and 128-bit
	      encryption.  In order for MPPE to successfully come up, you must have authenticated
	      with  either  MS-CHAP  or MS-CHAPv2.  This option is presently only supported under
	      Linux, and only if your kernel has been configured to include MPPE support.

       require-mppe-40
	      Require the use of MPPE, with 40-bit encryption.

       require-mppe-128
	      Require the use of MPPE, with 128-bit encryption.

       require-mschap
	      Require the peer to authenticate itself using MS-CHAP  [Microsoft  Challenge  Hand-
	      shake Authentication Protocol] authentication.

       require-mschap-v2
	      Require  the peer to authenticate itself using MS-CHAPv2 [Microsoft Challenge Hand-
	      shake Authentication Protocol, Version 2] authentication.

       require-eap
	      Require the peer to authenticate itself using EAP [Extensible Authentication Proto-
	      col] authentication.

       require-pap
	      Require  the  peer to authenticate itself using PAP [Password Authentication Proto-
	      col] authentication.

       show-password
	      When logging the contents of PAP packets, this option causes pppd to show the pass-
	      word string in the log message.

       silent With this option, pppd will not transmit LCP packets to initiate a connection until
	      a valid LCP packet is received from the peer (as	for  the  `passive'  option  with
	      ancient versions of pppd).

       srp-interval n
	      If  this	parameter  is  given  and pppd uses EAP SRP-SHA1 to authenticate the peer
	      (i.e., is the server), then pppd will use the optional lightweight SRP  rechallenge
	      mechanism at intervals of n seconds.  This option is faster than eap-interval reau-
	      thentication because it uses a hash-based mechanism and does not derive a new  ses-
	      sion key.

       srp-pn-secret string
	      Set  the	long-term  pseudonym-generating  secret  for  the  server.  This value is
	      optional and if set, needs to be known at the server (authenticator) side only, and
	      should  be  different  for  each server (or poll of identical servers).  It is used
	      along with the current date to generate a key to encrypt and decrypt  the  client's
	      identity contained in the pseudonym.

       srp-use-pseudonym
	      When  operating  as  an EAP SRP-SHA1 client, attempt to use the pseudonym stored in
	      ~/.ppp_pseudonym first as the identity, and save in this file any pseudonym offered
	      by the peer during authentication.

       sync   Use  synchronous	HDLC serial encoding instead of asynchronous.  The device used by
	      pppd with this option must have sync support.  Currently	supports  Microgate  Syn-
	      cLink adapters under Linux and FreeBSD 2.2.8 and later.

       unit num
	      Sets  the ppp unit number (for a ppp0 or ppp1 etc interface name) for outbound con-
	      nections.

       updetach
	      With this option, pppd will detach from its controlling terminal once it	has  suc-
	      cessfully established the ppp connection (to the point where the first network con-
	      trol protocol, usually the IP control protocol, has come up).

       usehostname
	      Enforce the use of the hostname (with domain name appended, if given) as	the  name
	      of  the local system for authentication purposes (overrides the name option).  This
	      option is not normally needed since the name option is privileged.

       usepeerdns
	      Ask the peer for up to 2 DNS server addresses.  The addresses supplied by the  peer
	      (if  any) are passed to the /etc/ppp/ip-up script in the environment variables DNS1
	      and DNS2, and the environment variable USEPEERDNS will be set to 1.   In	addition,
	      pppd  will  create  an  /etc/ppp/resolv.conf  file containing one or two nameserver
	      lines with the address(es) supplied by the peer.

       user name
	      Sets the name used for authenticating the local system to the peer to name.

       vj-max-slots n
	      Sets the number of connection slots to be used by the Van  Jacobson  TCP/IP  header
	      compression  and	decompression  code  to n, which must be between 2 and 16 (inclu-
	      sive).

       welcome script
	      Run the executable or shell command specified by script before initiating PPP nego-
	      tiation,	after the connect script (if any) has completed.  A value for this option
	      from a privileged source cannot be overridden by a non-privileged user.

       xonxoff
	      Use software flow control (i.e. XON/XOFF) to control the flow of data on the serial
	      port.

OPTIONS FILES
       Options	can be taken from files as well as the command line.  Pppd reads options from the
       files /etc/ppp/options, ~/.ppprc and /etc/ppp/options.ttyname (in that order) before  pro-
       cessing	the  options on the command line.  (In fact, the command-line options are scanned
       to find the terminal name before the options.ttyname file is read.)  In forming	the  name
       of  the options.ttyname file, the initial /dev/ is removed from the terminal name, and any
       remaining / characters are replaced with dots.

       An options file is parsed into a series of words, delimited by whitespace.  Whitespace can
       be  included in a word by enclosing the word in double-quotes (").  A backslash (\) quotes
       the following character.  A hash (#) starts a comment, which continues until  the  end  of
       the  line.   There  is  no restriction on using the file or call options within an options
       file.

SECURITY
       pppd provides system administrators with sufficient access control that PPP  access  to	a
       server  machine can be provided to legitimate users without fear of compromising the secu-
       rity of the server or the network it's on.  This control is provided through  restrictions
       on  which IP addresses the peer may use, based on its authenticated identity (if any), and
       through restrictions on which options a non-privileged user may use.   Several  of  pppd's
       options	are  privileged, in particular those which permit potentially insecure configura-
       tions; these options are only accepted in files which are under the control of the  system
       administrator, or if pppd is being run by root.

       The  default  behaviour	of  pppd  is  to  allow an unauthenticated peer to use a given IP
       address only if the system does not already have a route to that IP address.  For example,
       a  system  with	a permanent connection to the wider internet will normally have a default
       route, and thus all peers will have to authenticate themselves in order to set up  a  con-
       nection.   On  such a system, the auth option is the default.  On the other hand, a system
       where the PPP link is the only connection to the internet will not normally have a default
       route,  so  the	peer  will  be	able  to use almost any IP address without authenticating
       itself.

       As indicated above, some security-sensitive options are privileged, which means that  they
       may  not  be used by an ordinary non-privileged user running a setuid-root pppd, either on
       the command line, in the user's ~/.ppprc file, or in an options file read using	the  file
       option.	 Privileged  options  may  be used in /etc/ppp/options file or in an options file
       read using the call option.  If pppd is being run by the root user, privileged options can
       be used without restriction.

       When  opening  the  device,  pppd  uses either the invoking user's user ID or the root UID
       (that is, 0), depending on whether the device name was specified by the user or the system
       administrator.	 If   the   device   name  comes  from	a  privileged  source,	that  is,
       /etc/ppp/options or an options file read using the call option, pppd uses full root privi-
       leges   when   opening	the   device.	Thus,  by  creating  an  appropriate  file  under
       /etc/ppp/peers, the system administrator can allow users to establish a ppp connection via
       a device which they would not normally have permission to access.  Otherwise pppd uses the
       invoking user's real UID when opening the device.

AUTHENTICATION
       Authentication is the process whereby one peer convinces the other of its identity.   This
       involves  the  first peer sending its name to the other, together with some kind of secret
       information which could only come from the genuine authorized user of that name.  In  such
       an  exchange,  we  will	call the first peer the "client" and the other the "server".  The
       client has a name by which it identifies itself to the server, and the server also  has	a
       name  by  which	it  identifies itself to the client.  Generally the genuine client shares
       some secret (or password) with the server, and authenticates itself  by	proving  that  it
       knows that secret.  Very often, the names used for authentication correspond to the inter-
       net hostnames of the peers, but this is not essential.

       At present, pppd supports three authentication protocols: the Password Authentication Pro-
       tocol  (PAP), Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol (CHAP), and Extensible Authenti-
       cation Protocol (EAP).  PAP involves the client sending its name and a cleartext  password
       to  the server to authenticate itself.  In contrast, the server initiates the CHAP authen-
       tication exchange by sending a challenge to the client (the challenge packet includes  the
       server's  name).   The  client must respond with a response which includes its name plus a
       hash value derived from the shared secret and the challenge, in order  to  prove  that  it
       knows  the secret.  EAP supports CHAP-style authentication, and also includes the SRP-SHA1
       mechanism, which is resistant to dictionary-based attacks and does not require a cleartext
       password on the server side.

       The  PPP  protocol, being symmetrical, allows both peers to require the other to authenti-
       cate itself.  In that case, two separate and  independent  authentication  exchanges  will
       occur.	The two exchanges could use different authentication protocols, and in principle,
       different names could be used in the two exchanges.

       The default behaviour of pppd is to agree to authenticate if requested, and to not require
       authentication  from the peer.  However, pppd will not agree to authenticate itself with a
       particular protocol if it has no secrets which could be used to do so.

       Pppd stores secrets for use in authentication in secrets files  (/etc/ppp/pap-secrets  for
       PAP,  /etc/ppp/chap-secrets  for  CHAP,	MS-CHAP,  MS-CHAPv2,  and  EAP MD5-Challenge, and
       /etc/ppp/srp-secrets for EAP SRP-SHA1).	All secrets files  have  the  same  format.   The
       secrets	files  can contain secrets for pppd to use in authenticating itself to other sys-
       tems, as well as secrets for pppd to use when authenticating other systems to itself.

       Each line in a secrets file contains one secret.  A given secret is specific to a particu-
       lar  combination of client and server - it can only be used by that client to authenticate
       itself to that server.  Thus each line in a secrets file has at least 3 fields:	the  name
       of  the client, the name of the server, and the secret.	These fields may be followed by a
       list of the IP addresses that the specified client may use when connecting to  the  speci-
       fied server.

       A secrets file is parsed into words as for a options file, so the client name, server name
       and secrets fields must each be one word, with any embedded spaces or other special  char-
       acters  quoted  or  escaped.  Note that case is significant in the client and server names
       and in the secret.

       If the secret starts with an `@', what follows is assumed to be the name of  a  file  from
       which  to  read	the  secret.   A "*" as the client or server name matches any name.  When
       selecting a secret, pppd takes the best match, i.e.  the match with the fewest wildcards.

       Any following words on the same line are taken to be a list of acceptable IP addresses for
       that client.  If there are only 3 words on the line, or if the first word is "-", then all
       IP addresses are disallowed.  To allow any address, use "*".  A	word  starting	with  "!"
       indicates that the specified address is not acceptable.	An address may be followed by "/"
       and a number n, to indicate a whole subnet, i.e. all addresses which have the  same  value
       in  the most significant n bits.  In this form, the address may be followed by a plus sign
       ("+") to indicate that one address from the subnet is authorized, based on the ppp network
       interface  unit	number in use.	In this case, the host part of the address will be set to
       the unit number plus one.

       Thus a secrets file contains both secrets for use  in  authenticating  other  hosts,  plus
       secrets	which we use for authenticating ourselves to others.  When pppd is authenticating
       the peer (checking the peer's identity), it chooses a secret with the peer's name  in  the
       first  field  and the name of the local system in the second field.  The name of the local
       system defaults to the hostname, with the domain name appended if  the  domain  option  is
       used.   This  default  can be overridden with the name option, except when the usehostname
       option is used.	(For EAP SRP-SHA1, see the srp-entry(8)  utility  for  generating  proper
       validator entries to be used in the "secret" field.)

       When  pppd  is  choosing  a  secret  to use in authenticating itself to the peer, it first
       determines what name it is going to use to identify itself to the peer.	This name can  be
       specified by the user with the user option.  If this option is not used, the name defaults
       to the name of the local system, determined as described in the previous paragraph.   Then
       pppd  looks for a secret with this name in the first field and the peer's name in the sec-
       ond field.  Pppd will know the name of the peer if CHAP or  EAP	authentication	is  being
       used,  because  the  peer  will	have sent it in the challenge packet.  However, if PAP is
       being used, pppd will have to determine the peer's name from the options specified by  the
       user.   The  user can specify the peer's name directly with the remotename option.  Other-
       wise, if the remote IP address was specified by a name (rather than in numeric form), that
       name  will be used as the peer's name.  Failing that, pppd will use the null string as the
       peer's name.

       When authenticating the peer with PAP, the supplied password is first  compared	with  the
       secret  from  the secrets file.	If the password doesn't match the secret, the password is
       encrypted using crypt() and checked against the secret again.  Thus secrets for	authenti-
       cating  the  peer  can  be stored in encrypted form if desired.	If the papcrypt option is
       given, the first (unencrypted) comparison is omitted, for better security.

       Furthermore, if the login option was specified, the username and password are also checked
       against	the  system  password  database.   Thus,  the system administrator can set up the
       pap-secrets file to allow PPP access only to certain users, and to restrict the set of  IP
       addresses  that	each user can use.  Typically, when using the login option, the secret in
       /etc/ppp/pap-secrets would be "", which will match any  password  supplied  by  the  peer.
       This avoids the need to have the same secret in two places.

       Authentication  must be satisfactorily completed before IPCP (or any other Network Control
       Protocol) can be started.  If the peer is required to authenticate itself, and fails to do
       so, pppd will terminated the link (by closing LCP).  If IPCP negotiates an unacceptable IP
       address for the remote host, IPCP will be closed.  IP packets can only be sent or received
       when IPCP is open.

       In  some  cases it is desirable to allow some hosts which can't authenticate themselves to
       connect and use one of a restricted set of IP addresses, even when the local  host  gener-
       ally  requires authentication.  If the peer refuses to authenticate itself when requested,
       pppd takes that as equivalent to authenticating with PAP using the empty  string  for  the
       username and password.  Thus, by adding a line to the pap-secrets file which specifies the
       empty string for the client and password, it is possible to  allow  restricted  access  to
       hosts which refuse to authenticate themselves.

ROUTING
       When  IPCP negotiation is completed successfully, pppd will inform the kernel of the local
       and remote IP addresses for the ppp interface.  This is sufficient to create a host  route
       to the remote end of the link, which will enable the peers to exchange IP packets.  Commu-
       nication with other machines generally requires further	modification  to  routing  tables
       and/or  ARP  (Address  Resolution Protocol) tables.  In most cases the defaultroute and/or
       proxyarp options are sufficient for this,  but  in  some  cases	further  intervention  is
       required.  The /etc/ppp/ip-up script can be used for this.

       Sometimes  it  is desirable to add a default route through the remote host, as in the case
       of a machine whose only connection to the Internet is  through  the  ppp  interface.   The
       defaultroute  option  causes  pppd  to create such a default route when IPCP comes up, and
       delete it when the link is terminated.

       In some cases it is desirable to use proxy ARP, for example on a server machine	connected
       to a LAN, in order to allow other hosts to communicate with the remote host.  The proxyarp
       option causes pppd to look for a network interface on the same subnet as the  remote  host
       (an  interface supporting broadcast and ARP, which is up and not a point-to-point or loop-
       back interface).  If found, pppd creates a permanent, published	ARP  entry  with  the  IP
       address of the remote host and the hardware address of the network interface found.

       When  the  demand  option is used, the interface IP addresses have already been set at the
       point when IPCP comes up.  If pppd has not been able to negotiate the same addresses  that
       it  used to configure the interface (for example when the peer is an ISP that uses dynamic
       IP address assignment), pppd has to change the interface IP addresses  to  the  negotiated
       addresses.   This  may  disrupt	existing connections, and the use of demand dialling with
       peers that do dynamic IP address assignment is not recommended.

MULTILINK
       Multilink PPP provides the capability to combine two or more PPP links between a  pair  of
       machines  into a single `bundle', which appears as a single virtual PPP link which has the
       combined bandwidth of the individual links.  Currently, multilink PPP  is  only	supported
       under Linux.

       Pppd detects that the link it is controlling is connected to the same peer as another link
       using the peer's endpoint discriminator and the authenticated identity of the peer (if  it
       authenticates  itself).	 The endpoint discriminator is a block of data which is hopefully
       unique for each peer.  Several types of	data  can  be  used,  including  locally-assigned
       strings	of  bytes, IP addresses, MAC addresses, randomly strings of bytes, or E-164 phone
       numbers.  The endpoint discriminator sent to the peer by pppd can be set  using	the  end-
       point option.

       In  some  circumstances the peer may send no endpoint discriminator or a non-unique value.
       The bundle option adds an extra string which is added to the peer's endpoint discriminator
       and  authenticated identity when matching up links to be joined together in a bundle.  The
       bundle option can also be used to allow the establishment of multiple bundles between  the
       local  system  and  the	peer.  Pppd uses a TDB database in /var/run/pppd2.tdb to match up
       links.

       Assuming that multilink is enabled and the peer is willing to  negotiate  multilink,  then
       when  pppd is invoked to bring up the first link to the peer, it will detect that no other
       link is connected to the peer and create a new bundle, that is, another ppp network inter-
       face  unit.   When  another  pppd is invoked to bring up another link to the peer, it will
       detect the existing bundle and join its link to it.

       If the first link terminates (for example, because of a hangup or a  received  LCP  termi-
       nate-request) the bundle is not destroyed unless there are no other links remaining in the
       bundle.	Rather than exiting, the first pppd keeps  running  after  its	link  terminates,
       until  all  the links in the bundle have terminated.  If the first pppd receives a SIGTERM
       or SIGINT signal, it will destroy the bundle and send a SIGHUP to the pppd  processes  for
       each of the links in the bundle.  If the first pppd receives a SIGHUP signal, it will ter-
       minate its link but not the bundle.

       Note: demand mode is not currently supported with multilink.

EXAMPLES
       The following examples assume that the /etc/ppp/options file contains the auth option  (as
       in the default /etc/ppp/options file in the ppp distribution).

       Probably  the  most  common use of pppd is to dial out to an ISP.  This can be done with a
       command such as

	      pppd call isp

       where the /etc/ppp/peers/isp file is set up by the system administrator to  contain  some-
       thing like this:

	      ttyS0 19200 crtscts
	      connect '/usr/sbin/chat -v -f /etc/ppp/chat-isp'
	      noauth

       In  this  example,  we  are  using  chat  to dial the ISP's modem and go through any logon
       sequence required.  The /etc/ppp/chat-isp file contains the script used by chat; it  could
       for example contain something like this:

	      ABORT "NO CARRIER"
	      ABORT "NO DIALTONE"
	      ABORT "ERROR"
	      ABORT "NO ANSWER"
	      ABORT "BUSY"
	      ABORT "Username/Password Incorrect"
	      "" "at"
	      OK "at&d0&c1"
	      OK "atdt2468135"
	      "name:" "^Umyuserid"
	      "word:" "\qmypassword"
	      "ispts" "\q^Uppp"
	      "~-^Uppp-~"

       See the chat(8) man page for details of chat scripts.

       Pppd  can  also	be used to provide a dial-in ppp service for users.  If the users already
       have login accounts, the simplest way to set up the ppp service is to let the users log in
       to their accounts and run pppd (installed setuid-root) with a command such as

	      pppd proxyarp

       To  allow  a  user  to use the PPP facilities, you need to allocate an IP address for that
       user's machine and create an  entry  in	/etc/ppp/pap-secrets,  /etc/ppp/chap-secrets,  or
       /etc/ppp/srp-secrets  (depending  on which authentication method the PPP implementation on
       the user's machine supports), so that the user's machine  can  authenticate  itself.   For
       example,  if  Joe  has  a  machine called "joespc" that is to be allowed to dial in to the
       machine called "server" and use the IP address joespc.my.net, you would add an entry  like
       this to /etc/ppp/pap-secrets or /etc/ppp/chap-secrets:

	      joespc	server	  "joe's secret" joespc.my.net

       (See  srp-entry(8)  for	a  means to generate the server's entry when SRP-SHA1 is in use.)
       Alternatively, you can create a username called (for example) "ppp", whose login shell  is
       pppd  and  whose home directory is /etc/ppp.  Options to be used when pppd is run this way
       can be put in /etc/ppp/.ppprc.

       If your serial connection is any more complicated than a piece of wire, you  may  need  to
       arrange	for  some control characters to be escaped.  In particular, it is often useful to
       escape XON (^Q) and XOFF (^S), using asyncmap a0000.  If the path includes a  telnet,  you
       probably  should  escape  ^] as well (asyncmap 200a0000).  If the path includes an rlogin,
       you will need to use the escape ff option on the end which is running the  rlogin  client,
       since  many  rlogin  implementations  are  not  transparent; they will remove the sequence
       [0xff, 0xff, 0x73, 0x73, followed by any 8 bytes] from the stream.

DIAGNOSTICS
       Messages are sent to the syslog daemon using facility LOG_DAEMON.  (This can be overridden
       by recompiling pppd with the macro LOG_PPP defined as the desired facility.)  See the sys-
       log(8) documentation for details of where the syslog daemon will write the  messages.   On
       most  systems,  the  syslog  daemon uses the /etc/syslog.conf file to specify the destina-
       tion(s) for syslog messages.  You may need to edit that file to suit.

       The debug option causes the contents of all control packets sent or received to be logged,
       that is, all LCP, PAP, CHAP, EAP, or IPCP packets.  This can be useful if the PPP negotia-
       tion does not succeed or if authentication fails.  If  debugging  is  enabled  at  compile
       time, the debug option also causes other debugging messages to be logged.

       Debugging can also be enabled or disabled by sending a SIGUSR1 signal to the pppd process.
       This signal acts as a toggle.

EXIT STATUS
       The exit status of pppd is set to indicate whether any error was detected, or  the  reason
       for the link being terminated.  The values used are:

       0      Pppd  has  detached,  or	otherwise the connection was successfully established and
	      terminated at the peer's request.

       1      An immediately fatal error of some kind occurred, such as an essential system  call
	      failing, or running out of virtual memory.

       2      An  error was detected in processing the options given, such as two mutually exclu-
	      sive options being used.

       3      Pppd is not setuid-root and the invoking user is not root.

       4      The kernel does not support PPP, for example, the PPP kernel driver is not included
	      or cannot be loaded.

       5      Pppd terminated because it was sent a SIGINT, SIGTERM or SIGHUP signal.

       6      The serial port could not be locked.

       7      The serial port could not be opened.

       8      The connect script failed (returned a non-zero exit status).

       9      The command specified as the argument to the pty option could not be run.

       10     The  PPP	negotiation failed, that is, it didn't reach the point where at least one
	      network protocol (e.g. IP) was running.

       11     The peer system failed (or refused) to authenticate itself.

       12     The link was established successfully and terminated because it was idle.

       13     The link was established successfully and terminated because the connect time limit
	      was reached.

       14     Callback was negotiated and an incoming call should arrive shortly.

       15     The link was terminated because the peer is not responding to echo requests.

       16     The link was terminated by the modem hanging up.

       17     The PPP negotiation failed because serial loopback was detected.

       18     The init script failed (returned a non-zero exit status).

       19     We failed to authenticate ourselves to the peer.

SCRIPTS
       Pppd  invokes  scripts  at  various  stages in its processing which can be used to perform
       site-specific ancillary processing.  These scripts are usually shell scripts, but could be
       executable  code  files instead.  Pppd does not wait for the scripts to finish (except for
       the ip-pre-up script).  The scripts are executed as root  (with	the  real  and	effective
       user-id	set to 0), so that they can do things such as update routing tables or run privi-
       leged daemons.  Be careful that the contents of these scripts do not compromise your  sys-
       tem's security.	Pppd runs the scripts with standard input, output and error redirected to
       /dev/null, and with an environment that is empty except	for  some  environment	variables
       that give information about the link.  The environment variables that pppd sets are:

       DEVICE The name of the serial tty device being used.

       IFNAME The name of the network interface being used.

       IPLOCAL
	      The  IP address for the local end of the link.  This is only set when IPCP has come
	      up.

       IPREMOTE
	      The IP address for the remote end of the link.  This is only set when IPCP has come
	      up.

       PEERNAME
	      The  authenticated  name	of  the peer.  This is only set if the peer authenticates
	      itself.

       SPEED  The baud rate of the tty device.

       ORIG_UID
	      The real user-id of the user who invoked pppd.

       PPPLOGNAME
	      The username of the real user-id that invoked pppd. This is always set.

       For the ip-down and auth-down scripts, pppd also sets the following variables giving  sta-
       tistics for the connection:

       CONNECT_TIME
	      The  number  of  seconds from when the PPP negotiation started until the connection
	      was terminated.

       BYTES_SENT
	      The number of bytes sent (at the level of the serial port) during the connection.

       BYTES_RCVD
	      The number of bytes received (at the level of the serial port) during  the  connec-
	      tion.

       LINKNAME
	      The logical name of the link, set with the linkname option.

       CALL_FILE
	      The value of the call option.

       DNS1   If  the  peer  supplies DNS server addresses, this variable is set to the first DNS
	      server address supplied.

       DNS2   If the peer supplies DNS server addresses, this variable is set to the  second  DNS
	      server address supplied.

       Pppd  invokes  the  following  scripts,	if  they exist.  It is not an error if they don't
       exist.

       /etc/ppp/auth-up
	      A program or script which is executed after the remote system successfully  authen-
	      ticates itself.  It is executed with the parameters

	      interface-name peer-name user-name tty-device speed

	      Note  that this script is not executed if the peer doesn't authenticate itself, for
	      example when the noauth option is used.

       /etc/ppp/auth-down
	      A program or script which is executed when the link goes down, if  /etc/ppp/auth-up
	      was  previously  executed.  It is executed in the same manner with the same parame-
	      ters as /etc/ppp/auth-up.

       /etc/ppp/ip-pre-up
	      A program or script which is executed just before  the  ppp  network  interface  is
	      brought  up.   It is executed with the same parameters as the ip-up script (below).
	      At this point the interface exists and has IP addresses assigned but is still down.
	      This  can  be used to add firewall rules before any IP traffic can pass through the
	      interface.  Pppd will wait for this script to finish before bringing the	interface
	      up, so this script should run quickly.

       /etc/ppp/ip-up
	      A  program  or  script which is executed when the link is available for sending and
	      receiving IP packets (that is, IPCP has come up).  It is executed with the  parame-
	      ters

	      interface-name tty-device speed local-IP-address remote-IP-address ipparam

       /etc/ppp/ip-down
	      A  program  or  script  which  is executed when the link is no longer available for
	      sending and receiving IP packets.  This script can be used for undoing the  effects
	      of  the  /etc/ppp/ip-up  and /etc/ppp/ip-pre-up scripts.	It is invoked in the same
	      manner and with the same parameters as the ip-up script.

       /etc/ppp/ipv6-up
	      Like /etc/ppp/ip-up, except that it is executed when  the  link  is  available  for
	      sending and receiving IPv6 packets. It is executed with the parameters

	      interface-name  tty-device speed local-link-local-address remote-link-local-address
	      ipparam

       /etc/ppp/ipv6-down
	      Similar to /etc/ppp/ip-down, but it is executed when IPv6 packets can no longer  be
	      transmitted  on  the  link.  It is executed with the same parameters as the ipv6-up
	      script.

       /etc/ppp/ipx-up
	      A program or script which is executed when the link is available	for  sending  and
	      receiving IPX packets (that is, IPXCP has come up).  It is executed with the param-
	      eters

	      interface-name	tty-device    speed	network-number	   local-IPX-node-address
	      remote-IPX-node-address	 local-IPX-routing-protocol   remote-IPX-routing-protocol
	      local-IPX-router-name remote-IPX-router-name ipparam pppd-pid

	      The local-IPX-routing-protocol and remote-IPX-routing-protocol field may be one  of
	      the following:

	      NONE	to indicate that there is no routing protocol
	      RIP	to indicate that RIP/SAP should be used
	      NLSP	to indicate that Novell NLSP should be used
	      RIP NLSP	to indicate that both RIP/SAP and NLSP should be used

       /etc/ppp/ipx-down
	      A  program  or  script  which  is executed when the link is no longer available for
	      sending and receiving IPX packets.  This script can be used for undoing the effects
	      of  the /etc/ppp/ipx-up script.  It is invoked in the same manner and with the same
	      parameters as the ipx-up script.

FILES
       /var/run/pppn.pid (BSD or Linux), /etc/ppp/pppn.pid (others)
	      Process-ID for pppd process on ppp interface unit n.

       /var/run/ppp-name.pid (BSD or Linux),
	      /etc/ppp/ppp-name.pid (others) Process-ID for pppd process for  logical  link  name
	      (see the linkname option).

       /var/run/pppd2.tdb
	      Database	containing  information  about pppd processes, interfaces and links, used
	      for matching links to bundles in multilink operation.  May be examined by  external
	      programs	to  obtain  information  about running pppd instances, the interfaces and
	      devices they are using, IP address assignments,  etc.   /etc/ppp/pap-secrets  User-
	      names,  passwords  and  IP  addresses  for PAP authentication.  This file should be
	      owned by root and not readable or writable by any other  user.   Pppd  will  log	a
	      warning if this is not the case.

       /etc/ppp/chap-secrets
	      Names,  secrets and IP addresses for CHAP/MS-CHAP/MS-CHAPv2 authentication.  As for
	      /etc/ppp/pap-secrets, this file should  be  owned  by  root  and	not  readable  or
	      writable by any other user.  Pppd will log a warning if this is not the case.

       /etc/ppp/srp-secrets
	      Names,	secrets,   and	 IP   addresses   for	EAP   authentication.	 As   for
	      /etc/ppp/pap-secrets, this file should  be  owned  by  root  and	not  readable  or
	      writable by any other user.  Pppd will log a warning if this is not the case.

       ~/.ppp_pseudonym
	      Saved  client-side  SRP-SHA1  pseudonym.	 See  the  srp-use-pseudonym  option  for
	      details.

       /etc/ppp/options
	      System default options for pppd, read before user default options  or  command-line
	      options.

       ~/.ppprc
	      User default options, read before /etc/ppp/options.ttyname.

       /etc/ppp/options.ttyname
	      System  default  options	for  the serial port being used, read after ~/.ppprc.  In
	      forming the ttyname part of this filename, an initial /dev/ is  stripped	from  the
	      port  name  (if  present),  and  any slashes in the remaining part are converted to
	      dots.

       /etc/ppp/peers
	      A directory containing options files which may contain privileged options, even  if
	      pppd  was  invoked  by a user other than root.  The system administrator can create
	      options files in this directory to permit non-privileged users to dial out  without
	      requiring the peer to authenticate, but only to certain trusted peers.

SEE ALSO
       chat(8), pppstats(8)

       RFC1144
	      Jacobson,  V.   Compressing  TCP/IP  headers  for low-speed serial links.  February
	      1990.

       RFC1321
	      Rivest, R.  The MD5 Message-Digest Algorithm.  April 1992.

       RFC1332
	      McGregor, G.  PPP Internet Protocol Control Protocol (IPCP).  May 1992.

       RFC1334
	      Lloyd, B.; Simpson, W.A.	PPP authentication protocols.  October 1992.

       RFC1661
	      Simpson, W.A.  The Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP).  July 1994.

       RFC1662
	      Simpson, W.A.  PPP in HDLC-like Framing.	July 1994.

       RFC2284
	      Blunk, L.; Vollbrecht, J., PPP Extensible  Authentication  Protocol  (EAP).   March
	      1998.

       RFC2472
	      Haskin, D.  IP Version 6 over PPP December 1998.

       RFC2945
	      Wu, T., The SRP Authentication and Key Exchange System September 2000.

       draft-ietf-pppext-eap-srp-03.txt
	      Carlson, J.; et al., EAP SRP-SHA1 Authentication Protocol.  July 2001.

NOTES
       Some  limited degree of control can be exercised over a running pppd process by sending it
       a signal from the list below.

       SIGINT, SIGTERM
	      These signals cause pppd to terminate the link (by closing LCP), restore the serial
	      device  settings,  and  exit.   If a connector or disconnector process is currently
	      running, pppd will send the same signal to its process group, so	as  to	terminate
	      the connector or disconnector process.

       SIGHUP This  signal causes pppd to terminate the link, restore the serial device settings,
	      and close the serial device.  If the persist or demand option has  been  specified,
	      pppd  will  try to reopen the serial device and start another connection (after the
	      holdoff period).	Otherwise pppd will exit.  If this signal is received during  the
	      holdoff period, it causes pppd to end the holdoff period immediately.  If a connec-
	      tor or disconnector process is running, pppd will  send  the  same  signal  to  its
	      process group.

       SIGUSR1
	      This signal toggles the state of the debug option.

       SIGUSR2
	      This  signal  causes  pppd  to  renegotiate compression.	This can be useful to re-
	      enable compression after it has been disabled as a result of a fatal  decompression
	      error.  (Fatal decompression errors generally indicate a bug in one or other imple-
	      mentation.)

AUTHORS
       Paul Mackerras (paulus@samba.org), based on earlier work by Drew Perkins,  Brad	Clements,
       Karl Fox, Greg Christy, and Brad Parker.

COPYRIGHT
       Pppd  is  copyrighted  and  made  available  under conditions which provide that it may be
       copied and used in source or binary forms provided that the conditions  listed  below  are
       met.  Portions of pppd are covered by the following copyright notices:

       Copyright (c) 1984-2000 Carnegie Mellon University. All rights reserved.
       Copyright (c) 1993-2004 Paul Mackerras. All rights reserved.
       Copyright (c) 1995 Pedro Roque Marques.	All rights reserved.
       Copyright (c) 1995 Eric Rosenquist.  All rights reserved.
       Copyright (c) 1999 Tommi Komulainen.  All rights reserved.
       Copyright (C) Andrew Tridgell 1999
       Copyright (c) 2000 by Sun Microsystems, Inc.  All rights reserved.
       Copyright (c) 2001 by Sun Microsystems, Inc.  All rights reserved.
       Copyright (c) 2002 Google, Inc.	All rights reserved.

       The copyright notices contain the following statements.

       Redistribution  and use in source and binary forms, with or without modification, are per-
       mitted provided that the following conditions are met:

       1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
	  notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.

       2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
	  notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in
	  the documentation and/or other materials provided with the
	  distribution.

       3. The name "Carnegie Mellon University" must not be used to
	  endorse or promote products derived from this software without
	  prior written permission. For permission or any legal
	  details, please contact
	    Office of Technology Transfer
	    Carnegie Mellon University
	    5000 Forbes Avenue
	    Pittsburgh, PA  15213-3890
	    (412) 268-4387, fax: (412) 268-7395
	    tech-transfer@andrew.cmu.edu

       3b. The name(s) of the authors of this software must not be used to
	  endorse or promote products derived from this software without
	  prior written permission.

       4. Redistributions of any form whatsoever must retain the following
	  acknowledgments:
	  "This product includes software developed by Computing Services
	   at Carnegie Mellon University (http://www.cmu.edu/computing/)."
	  "This product includes software developed by Paul Mackerras
	   <paulus@samba.org>".
	  "This product includes software developed by Pedro Roque Marques
	   <pedro_m@yahoo.com>".
	  "This product includes software developed by Tommi Komulainen
	   <Tommi.Komulainen@iki.fi>".

       CARNEGIE MELLON UNIVERSITY DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES WITH REGARD TO THIS SOFTWARE,  INCLUD-
       ING ALL IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS, IN NO EVENT SHALL CARNEGIE MEL-
       LON UNIVERSITY BE LIABLE FOR ANY SPECIAL, INDIRECT OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES OR ANY DAMAGES
       WHATSOEVER  RESULTING FROM LOSS OF USE, DATA OR PROFITS, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT,
       NEGLIGENCE OR OTHER TORTIOUS ACTION, ARISING OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE USE OR  PER-
       FORMANCE OF THIS SOFTWARE.

       THE AUTHORS OF THIS SOFTWARE DISCLAIM ALL WARRANTIES WITH REGARD TO THIS SOFTWARE, INCLUD-
       ING ALL IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS, IN NO EVENT SHALL  THE  AUTHORS
       BE  LIABLE  FOR	ANY  SPECIAL, INDIRECT OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES OR ANY DAMAGES WHATSOEVER
       RESULTING FROM LOSS OF USE, DATA OR PROFITS, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT,  NEGLIGENCE
       OR  OTHER  TORTIOUS ACTION, ARISING OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE USE OR PERFORMANCE OF
       THIS SOFTWARE.

											  PPPD(8)


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