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Linux 2.6 - man page for link (linux section 2)

LINK(2) 			    Linux Programmer's Manual				  LINK(2)

NAME
       link - make a new name for a file

SYNOPSIS
       #include <unistd.h>

       int link(const char *oldpath, const char *newpath);

DESCRIPTION
       link() creates a new link (also known as a hard link) to an existing file.

       If newpath exists it will not be overwritten.

       This  new  name	may be used exactly as the old one for any operation; both names refer to
       the same file (and so have the same permissions and ownership) and  it  is  impossible  to
       tell which name was the "original".

RETURN VALUE
       On success, zero is returned.  On error, -1 is returned, and errno is set appropriately.

ERRORS
       EACCES Write access to the directory containing newpath is denied, or search permission is
	      denied for one of the directories in the path prefix of oldpath or  newpath.   (See
	      also path_resolution(7).)

       EDQUOT The user's quota of disk blocks on the filesystem has been exhausted.

       EEXIST newpath already exists.

       EFAULT oldpath or newpath points outside your accessible address space.

       EIO    An I/O error occurred.

       ELOOP  Too many symbolic links were encountered in resolving oldpath or newpath.

       EMLINK The file referred to by oldpath already has the maximum number of links to it.

       ENAMETOOLONG
	      oldpath or newpath was too long.

       ENOENT A  directory  component  in oldpath or newpath does not exist or is a dangling sym-
	      bolic link.

       ENOMEM Insufficient kernel memory was available.

       ENOSPC The device containing the file has no room for the new directory entry.

       ENOTDIR
	      A component used as a directory in oldpath or newpath is not, in fact, a directory.

       EPERM  oldpath is a directory.

       EPERM  The filesystem containing oldpath and newpath does not support the creation of hard
	      links.

       EPERM (since Linux 3.6)
	      The  caller  does  not  have permission to create a hard link to this file (see the
	      description of /proc/sys/fs/protected_hardlink in proc(5)).

       EROFS  The file is on a read-only filesystem.

       EXDEV  oldpath and newpath are not on the  same	mounted  filesystem.   (Linux  permits	a
	      filesystem  to  be mounted at multiple points, but link() does not work across dif-
	      ferent mount points, even if the same filesystem is mounted on both.)

CONFORMING TO
       SVr4, 4.3BSD, POSIX.1-2001 (but see NOTES).

NOTES
       Hard links, as created by link(), cannot span filesystems.   Use  symlink(2)  if  this  is
       required.

       POSIX.1-2001  says  that link() should dereference oldpath if it is a symbolic link.  How-
       ever, since kernel 2.0, Linux does not do so: if oldpath is a symbolic link, then  newpath
       is  created  as a (hard) link to the same symbolic link file (i.e., newpath becomes a sym-
       bolic link to the same file that oldpath refers to).  Some other implementations behave in
       the  same  manner  as  Linux.  POSIX.1-2008 changes the specification of link(), making it
       implementation-dependent whether or not oldpath is dereferenced if it is a symbolic  link.
       For  precise  control  over  the  treatment  of	symbolic  links when creating a link, see
       linkat(2).

BUGS
       On NFS filesystems, the return code may be wrong in case the NFS server performs the  link
       creation and dies before it can say so.	Use stat(2) to find out if the link got created.

SEE ALSO
       ln(1),  linkat(2), open(2), rename(2), stat(2), symlink(2), unlink(2), path_resolution(7),
       symlink(7)

COLOPHON
       This page is part of release 3.55 of the Linux man-pages project.  A  description  of  the
       project,     and    information	  about    reporting	bugs,	 can	be    found    at
       http://www.kernel.org/doc/man-pages/.

Linux					    2013-01-27					  LINK(2)


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