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Linux 2.6 - man page for rsync (linux section 1)

rsync(1)										 rsync(1)

       rsync -- a fast, versatile, remote (and local) file-copying tool

       Local:  rsync [OPTION...] SRC... [DEST]

       Access via remote shell:
	 Pull: rsync [OPTION...] [USER@]HOST:SRC... [DEST]
	 Push: rsync [OPTION...] SRC... [USER@]HOST:DEST

       Access via rsync daemon:
	 Pull: rsync [OPTION...] [USER@]HOST::SRC... [DEST]
	       rsync [OPTION...] rsync://[USER@]HOST[:PORT]/SRC... [DEST]
	 Push: rsync [OPTION...] SRC... [USER@]HOST::DEST
	       rsync [OPTION...] SRC... rsync://[USER@]HOST[:PORT]/DEST

       Usages  with  just one SRC arg and no DEST arg will list the source files instead of copy-

       Rsync is a fast and extraordinarily versatile file copying tool.   It  can  copy  locally,
       to/from another host over any remote shell, or to/from a remote rsync daemon.  It offers a
       large number of options that control every aspect of its behavior and permit very flexible
       specification of the set of files to be copied.	It is famous for its delta-transfer algo-
       rithm, which reduces the amount of data sent over the network by sending only the  differ-
       ences between the source files and the existing files in the destination.  Rsync is widely
       used for backups and mirroring and as an improved copy command for everyday use.

       Rsync finds files that need to be transferred using a "quick check" algorithm (by default)
       that  looks  for files that have changed in size or in last-modified time.  Any changes in
       the other preserved attributes (as requested by options) are made on the destination  file
       directly when the quick check indicates that the file's data does not need to be updated.

       Some of the additional features of rsync are:

       o      support for copying links, devices, owners, groups, and permissions

       o      exclude and exclude-from options similar to GNU tar

       o      a CVS exclude mode for ignoring the same files that CVS would ignore

       o      can use any transparent remote shell, including ssh or rsh

       o      does not require super-user privileges

       o      pipelining of file transfers to minimize latency costs

       o      support for anonymous or authenticated rsync daemons (ideal for mirroring)

       Rsync  copies  files  either  to or from a remote host, or locally on the current host (it
       does not support copying files between two remote hosts).

       There are two different ways for rsync to contact a remote system:  using  a  remote-shell
       program	as  the transport (such as ssh or rsh) or contacting an rsync daemon directly via
       TCP.  The remote-shell transport is used whenever the source or destination path  contains
       a  single  colon  (:)  separator  after	a host specification.  Contacting an rsync daemon
       directly happens when the source or destination path contains a double colon (::)  separa-
       tor  after a host specification, OR when an rsync:// URL is specified (see also the "USING
       RSYNC-DAEMON FEATURES VIA A REMOTE-SHELL CONNECTION" section for an exception to this lat-
       ter rule).

       As  a  special  case, if a single source arg is specified without a destination, the files
       are listed in an output format similar to "ls -l".

       As expected, if neither the source or destination path specify a  remote  host,	the  copy
       occurs locally (see also the --list-only option).

       Rsync refers to the local side as the "client" and the remote side as the "server".  Don't
       confuse "server" with an rsync daemon -- a daemon is always a server, but a server can  be
       either a daemon or a remote-shell spawned process.

       See the file README for installation instructions.

       Once  installed,  you  can use rsync to any machine that you can access via a remote shell
       (as well as some that you can access using the rsync daemon-mode  protocol).   For  remote
       transfers, a modern rsync uses ssh for its communications, but it may have been configured
       to use a different remote shell by default, such as rsh or remsh.

       You can also specify any remote shell you like,	either	by  using  the	-e  command  line
       option, or by setting the RSYNC_RSH environment variable.

       Note that rsync must be installed on both the source and destination machines.

       You  use  rsync	in the same way you use rcp. You must specify a source and a destination,
       one of which may be remote.

       Perhaps the best way to explain the syntax is with some examples:

	      rsync -t *.c foo:src/

       This would transfer all files matching the pattern *.c from the current directory  to  the
       directory  src  on the machine foo. If any of the files already exist on the remote system
       then the rsync remote-update protocol is used to update the file by sending only the  dif-
       ferences. See the tech report for details.

	      rsync -avz foo:src/bar /data/tmp

       This  would  recursively  transfer all files from the directory src/bar on the machine foo
       into the /data/tmp/bar directory on the local machine. The files are transferred  in  "ar-
       chive"  mode,  which ensures that symbolic links, devices, attributes, permissions, owner-
       ships, etc. are preserved in the transfer.  Additionally,  compression  will  be  used  to
       reduce the size of data portions of the transfer.

	      rsync -avz foo:src/bar/ /data/tmp

       A  trailing  slash  on  the  source  changes this behavior to avoid creating an additional
       directory level at the destination.  You can think of a trailing / on a source as  meaning
       "copy  the  contents of this directory" as opposed to "copy the directory by name", but in
       both cases the attributes of the containing directory are transferred  to  the  containing
       directory  on  the destination.	In other words, each of the following commands copies the
       files in the same way, including their setting of the attributes of /dest/foo:

	      rsync -av /src/foo /dest
	      rsync -av /src/foo/ /dest/foo

       Note also that host and module references don't require a trailing slash to copy the  con-
       tents  of  the  default directory.  For example, both of these copy the remote directory's
       contents into "/dest":

	      rsync -av host: /dest
	      rsync -av host::module /dest

       You can also use rsync in local-only mode, where both the  source  and  destination  don't
       have a ':' in the name. In this case it behaves like an improved copy command.

       Finally,  you can list all the (listable) modules available from a particular rsync daemon
       by leaving off the module name:

	      rsync somehost.mydomain.com::

       See the following section for more details.

       The syntax for requesting multiple files from a remote host is done  by	specifying  addi-
       tional remote-host args in the same style as the first, or with the hostname omitted.  For
       instance, all these work:

	      rsync -av host:file1 :file2 host:file{3,4} /dest/
	      rsync -av host::modname/file{1,2} host::modname/file3 /dest/
	      rsync -av host::modname/file1 ::modname/file{3,4}

       Older versions of rsync required using quoted spaces in the SRC, like these examples:

	      rsync -av host:'dir1/file1 dir2/file2' /dest
	      rsync host::'modname/dir1/file1 modname/dir2/file2' /dest

       This word-splitting still works (by default) in the latest rsync, but is not  as  easy  to
       use as the first method.

       If  you	need  to transfer a filename that contains whitespace, you can either specify the
       --protect-args (-s) option, or you'll need to escape the whitespace  in	a  way	that  the
       remote shell will understand.  For instance:

	      rsync -av host:'file\ name\ with\ spaces' /dest

       It  is  also  possible to use rsync without a remote shell as the transport.  In this case
       you will directly connect to a remote rsync daemon, typically using TCP port  873.   (This
       obviously requires the daemon to be running on the remote system, so refer to the STARTING
       AN RSYNC DAEMON TO ACCEPT CONNECTIONS section below for information on that.)

       Using rsync in this way is the same as using it with a remote shell except that:

       o      you either use a double colon :: instead of a single colon to separate the hostname
	      from the path, or you use an rsync:// URL.

       o      the first word of the "path" is actually a module name.

       o      the remote daemon may print a message of the day when you connect.

       o      if  you specify no path name on the remote daemon then the list of accessible paths
	      on the daemon will be shown.

       o      if you specify no local destination then a listing of the specified  files  on  the
	      remote daemon is provided.

       o      you must not specify the --rsh (-e) option.

       An example that copies all the files in a remote module named "src":

	   rsync -av host::src /dest

       Some  modules  on  the remote daemon may require authentication. If so, you will receive a
       password prompt when you connect. You can avoid the password prompt by setting  the  envi-
       ronment	variable  RSYNC_PASSWORD  to  the  password  you want to use or using the --pass-
       word-file option. This may be useful when scripting rsync.

       WARNING: On some systems environment variables are visible to all users. On those  systems
       using --password-file is recommended.

       You  may  establish  the  connection  via  a web proxy by setting the environment variable
       RSYNC_PROXY to a hostname:port pair pointing to	your  web  proxy.   Note  that	your  web
       proxy's configuration must support proxy connections to port 873.

       You may also establish a daemon connection using a program as a proxy by setting the envi-
       ronment variable RSYNC_CONNECT_PROG to the commands you wish to run in place of	making	a
       direct  socket  connection.  The string may contain the escape "%H" to represent the host-
       name specified in the rsync command (so use "%%" if you need a single "%" in your string).
       For example:

	 export RSYNC_CONNECT_PROG='ssh proxyhost nc %H 873'
	 rsync -av targethost1::module/src/ /dest/
	 rsync -av rsync:://targethost2/module/src/ /dest/

       The command specified above uses ssh to run nc (netcat) on a proxyhost, which forwards all
       data to port 873 (the rsync daemon) on the targethost (%H).

       It is sometimes useful to use various features of an rsync daemon (such as named  modules)
       without	actually  allowing  any  new socket connections into a system (other than what is
       already required to allow remote-shell access).	Rsync supports connecting to a host using
       a  remote  shell  and  then spawning a single-use "daemon" server that expects to read its
       config file in the home dir of the remote user.	This can be useful if you want to encrypt
       a  daemon-style	transfer's  data,  but since the daemon is started up fresh by the remote
       user, you may not be able to use features such as chroot or change the  uid  used  by  the
       daemon.	 (For  another	way  to encrypt a daemon transfer, consider using ssh to tunnel a
       local port to a remote machine and configure a normal rsync daemon on that remote host  to
       only allow connections from "localhost".)

       From  the  user's perspective, a daemon transfer via a remote-shell connection uses nearly
       the same command-line syntax as a normal rsync-daemon transfer, with  the  only	exception
       being  that  you must explicitly set the remote shell program on the command-line with the
       --rsh=COMMAND option.  (Setting the RSYNC_RSH in the environment will  not  turn  on  this
       functionality.)	For example:

	   rsync -av --rsh=ssh host::module /dest

       If  you	need to specify a different remote-shell user, keep in mind that the user@ prefix
       in front of the host is specifying the  rsync-user  value  (for	a  module  that  requires
       user-based  authentication).   This  means  that you must give the '-l user' option to ssh
       when specifying the remote-shell, as in this example that uses the short  version  of  the
       --rsh option:

	   rsync -av -e "ssh -l ssh-user" rsync-user@host::module /dest

       The  "ssh-user"	will be used at the ssh level; the "rsync-user" will be used to log-in to
       the "module".

       In order to connect to an rsync daemon, the remote system needs to have a  daemon  already
       running	(or it needs to have configured something like inetd to spawn an rsync daemon for
       incoming connections on a particular port).  For full information on how to start a daemon
       that will handling incoming socket connections, see the rsyncd.conf(5) man page -- that is
       the config file for the daemon, and it contains the full details for how to run the daemon
       (including stand-alone and inetd configurations).

       If  you're  using one of the remote-shell transports for the transfer, there is no need to
       manually start an rsync daemon.

       Here are some examples of how I use rsync.

       To backup my wife's home directory, which consists of large MS Word files and  mail  fold-
       ers, I use a cron job that runs

	      rsync -Cavz . arvidsjaur:backup

       each night over a PPP connection to a duplicate directory on my machine "arvidsjaur".

       To synchronize my samba source trees I use the following Makefile targets:

		   rsync -avuzb --exclude '*~' samba:samba/ .
		   rsync -Cavuzb . samba:samba/
	   sync: get put

       this  allows me to sync with a CVS directory at the other end of the connection. I then do
       CVS operations on the remote machine, which saves a lot of time as the remote CVS protocol
       isn't very efficient.

       I mirror a directory between my "old" and "new" ftp sites with the command:

       rsync -az -e ssh --delete ~ftp/pub/samba nimbus:"~ftp/pub/tridge"

       This is launched from cron every few hours.

       Here  is  a  short summary of the options available in rsync. Please refer to the detailed
       description below for a complete description.

	-v, --verbose		    increase verbosity
	-q, --quiet		    suppress non-error messages
	    --no-motd		    suppress daemon-mode MOTD (see caveat)
	-c, --checksum		    skip based on checksum, not mod-time & size
	-a, --archive		    archive mode; equals -rlptgoD (no -H,-A,-X)
	    --no-OPTION 	    turn off an implied OPTION (e.g. --no-D)
	-r, --recursive 	    recurse into directories
	-R, --relative		    use relative path names
	    --no-implied-dirs	    don't send implied dirs with --relative
	-b, --backup		    make backups (see --suffix & --backup-dir)
	    --backup-dir=DIR	    make backups into hierarchy based in DIR
	    --suffix=SUFFIX	    backup suffix (default ~ w/o --backup-dir)
	-u, --update		    skip files that are newer on the receiver
	    --inplace		    update destination files in-place
	    --append		    append data onto shorter files
	    --append-verify	    --append w/old data in file checksum
	-d, --dirs		    transfer directories without recursing
	-l, --links		    copy symlinks as symlinks
	-L, --copy-links	    transform symlink into referent file/dir
	    --copy-unsafe-links     only "unsafe" symlinks are transformed
	    --safe-links	    ignore symlinks that point outside the tree
	-k, --copy-dirlinks	    transform symlink to dir into referent dir
	-K, --keep-dirlinks	    treat symlinked dir on receiver as dir
	-H, --hard-links	    preserve hard links
	-p, --perms		    preserve permissions
	-E, --executability	    preserve executability
	    --chmod=CHMOD	    affect file and/or directory permissions
	-A, --acls		    preserve ACLs (implies -p)
	-X, --xattrs		    preserve extended attributes
	-o, --owner		    preserve owner (super-user only)
	-g, --group		    preserve group
	    --devices		    preserve device files (super-user only)
	    --specials		    preserve special files
	-D			    same as --devices --specials
	-t, --times		    preserve modification times
	-O, --omit-dir-times	    omit directories from --times
	    --super		    receiver attempts super-user activities
	    --fake-super	    store/recover privileged attrs using xattrs
	-S, --sparse		    handle sparse files efficiently
	-n, --dry-run		    perform a trial run with no changes made
	-W, --whole-file	    copy files whole (w/o delta-xfer algorithm)
	-x, --one-file-system	    don't cross filesystem boundaries
	-B, --block-size=SIZE	    force a fixed checksum block-size
	-e, --rsh=COMMAND	    specify the remote shell to use
	    --rsync-path=PROGRAM    specify the rsync to run on remote machine
	    --existing		    skip creating new files on receiver
	    --ignore-existing	    skip updating files that exist on receiver
	    --remove-source-files   sender removes synchronized files (non-dir)
	    --del		    an alias for --delete-during
	    --delete		    delete extraneous files from dest dirs
	    --delete-before	    receiver deletes before transfer (default)
	    --delete-during	    receiver deletes during xfer, not before
	    --delete-delay	    find deletions during, delete after
	    --delete-after	    receiver deletes after transfer, not before
	    --delete-excluded	    also delete excluded files from dest dirs
	    --ignore-errors	    delete even if there are I/O errors
	    --force		    force deletion of dirs even if not empty
	    --max-delete=NUM	    don't delete more than NUM files
	    --max-size=SIZE	    don't transfer any file larger than SIZE
	    --min-size=SIZE	    don't transfer any file smaller than SIZE
	    --partial		    keep partially transferred files
	    --partial-dir=DIR	    put a partially transferred file into DIR
	    --delay-updates	    put all updated files into place at end
	-m, --prune-empty-dirs	    prune empty directory chains from file-list
	    --numeric-ids	    don't map uid/gid values by user/group name
	    --timeout=SECONDS	    set I/O timeout in seconds
	    --contimeout=SECONDS    set daemon connection timeout in seconds
	-I, --ignore-times	    don't skip files that match size and time
	    --size-only 	    skip files that match in size
	    --modify-window=NUM     compare mod-times with reduced accuracy
	-T, --temp-dir=DIR	    create temporary files in directory DIR
	-y, --fuzzy		    find similar file for basis if no dest file
	    --compare-dest=DIR	    also compare received files relative to DIR
	    --copy-dest=DIR	    ... and include copies of unchanged files
	    --link-dest=DIR	    hardlink to files in DIR when unchanged
	-z, --compress		    compress file data during the transfer
	    --compress-level=NUM    explicitly set compression level
	    --skip-compress=LIST    skip compressing files with suffix in LIST
	-C, --cvs-exclude	    auto-ignore files in the same way CVS does
	-f, --filter=RULE	    add a file-filtering RULE
	-F			    same as --filter='dir-merge /.rsync-filter'
				    repeated: --filter='- .rsync-filter'
	    --exclude=PATTERN	    exclude files matching PATTERN
	    --exclude-from=FILE     read exclude patterns from FILE
	    --include=PATTERN	    don't exclude files matching PATTERN
	    --include-from=FILE     read include patterns from FILE
	    --files-from=FILE	    read list of source-file names from FILE
	-0, --from0		    all *from/filter files are delimited by 0s
	-s, --protect-args	    no space-splitting; wildcard chars only
	    --address=ADDRESS	    bind address for outgoing socket to daemon
	    --port=PORT 	    specify double-colon alternate port number
	    --sockopts=OPTIONS	    specify custom TCP options
	    --blocking-io	    use blocking I/O for the remote shell
	    --stats		    give some file-transfer stats
	-8, --8-bit-output	    leave high-bit chars unescaped in output
	-h, --human-readable	    output numbers in a human-readable format
	    --progress		    show progress during transfer
	-P			    same as --partial --progress
	-i, --itemize-changes	    output a change-summary for all updates
	    --out-format=FORMAT     output updates using the specified FORMAT
	    --log-file=FILE	    log what we're doing to the specified FILE
	    --log-file-format=FMT   log updates using the specified FMT
	    --password-file=FILE    read daemon-access password from FILE
	    --list-only 	    list the files instead of copying them
	    --bwlimit=KBPS	    limit I/O bandwidth; KBytes per second
	    --write-batch=FILE	    write a batched update to FILE
	    --only-write-batch=FILE like --write-batch but w/o updating dest
	    --read-batch=FILE	    read a batched update from FILE
	    --protocol=NUM	    force an older protocol version to be used
	    --iconv=CONVERT_SPEC    request charset conversion of filenames
	    --checksum-seed=NUM     set block/file checksum seed (advanced)
	-4, --ipv4		    prefer IPv4
	-6, --ipv6		    prefer IPv6
	    --version		    print version number
       (-h) --help		    show this help (see below for -h comment)

       Rsync can also be run as a daemon, in which case the following options are accepted:

	    --daemon		    run as an rsync daemon
	    --address=ADDRESS	    bind to the specified address
	    --bwlimit=KBPS	    limit I/O bandwidth; KBytes per second
	    --config=FILE	    specify alternate rsyncd.conf file
	    --no-detach 	    do not detach from the parent
	    --port=PORT 	    listen on alternate port number
	    --log-file=FILE	    override the "log file" setting
	    --log-file-format=FMT   override the "log format" setting
	    --sockopts=OPTIONS	    specify custom TCP options
	-v, --verbose		    increase verbosity
	-4, --ipv4		    prefer IPv4
	-6, --ipv6		    prefer IPv6
	-h, --help		    show this help (if used after --daemon)

       rsync uses the GNU long options package. Many of the command line options have  two  vari-
       ants,  one  short  and one long.  These are shown below, separated by commas. Some options
       only have a long variant.  The '=' for options that take a parameter is	optional;  white-
       space can be used instead.

       --help Print  a	short  help page describing the options available in rsync and exit.  For
	      backward-compatibility with older versions of rsync, the help will also  be  output
	      if you use the -h option without any other args.

	      print the rsync version number and exit.

       -v, --verbose
	      This  option increases the amount of information you are given during the transfer.
	      By default, rsync works silently. A single -v will give you information about  what
	      files  are  being  transferred  and a brief summary at the end. Two -v options will
	      give you information on what files are being skipped and slightly more  information
	      at  the  end.  More  than  two  -v options should only be used if you are debugging

	      Note that the names of the transferred files that  are  output  are  done  using	a
	      default  --out-format  of "%n%L", which tells you just the name of the file and, if
	      the item is a link, where it points.  At the single -v  level  of  verbosity,  this
	      does  not mention when a file gets its attributes changed.  If you ask for an item-
	      ized list of changed attributes (either --itemize-changes or  adding  "%i"  to  the
	      --out-format  setting),  the  output (on the client) increases to mention all items
	      that are changed in any way.  See the --out-format option for more details.

       -q, --quiet
	      This option decreases the amount of information you are given during the	transfer,
	      notably  suppressing  information  messages  from the remote server. This option is
	      useful when invoking rsync from cron.

	      This option affects the information that is output by the client at the start of	a
	      daemon  transfer.   This suppresses the message-of-the-day (MOTD) text, but it also
	      affects the list of modules that the daemon sends in response to the "rsync host::"
	      request  (due  to  a  limitation in the rsync protocol), so omit this option if you
	      want to request the list of modules from the daemon.

       -I, --ignore-times
	      Normally rsync will skip any files that are already the same size and have the same
	      modification timestamp.  This option turns off this "quick check" behavior, causing
	      all files to be updated.

	      This modifies rsync's "quick check" algorithm for finding files  that  need  to  be
	      transferred,  changing  it  from	the  default  of transferring files with either a
	      changed size or a changed last-modified time to just looking for	files  that  have
	      changed  in  size.   This  is useful when starting to use rsync after using another
	      mirroring system which may not preserve timestamps exactly.

	      When comparing two timestamps, rsync treats the timestamps as being equal  if  they
	      differ  by  no more than the modify-window value.  This is normally 0 (for an exact
	      match), but you may find it useful to set this to a larger  value  in  some  situa-
	      tions.   In  particular,	when transferring to or from an MS Windows FAT filesystem
	      (which represents times with a 2-second resolution),  --modify-window=1  is  useful
	      (allowing times to differ by up to 1 second).

       -c, --checksum
	      This changes the way rsync checks if the files have been changed and are in need of
	      a transfer.  Without this option, rsync uses a  "quick  check"  that  (by  default)
	      checks  if  each file's size and time of last modification match between the sender
	      and receiver.  This option changes this to compare a 128-bit checksum for each file
	      that  has  a  matching  size.   Generating the checksums means that both sides will
	      expend a lot of disk I/O reading all the data in the files  in  the  transfer  (and
	      this  is prior to any reading that will be done to transfer changed files), so this
	      can slow things down significantly.

	      The sending side generates its checksums while it is  doing  the	file-system  scan
	      that  builds the list of the available files.  The receiver generates its checksums
	      when it is scanning for changed files, and will checksum any file that has the same
	      size  as	the  corresponding  sender's file:  files with either a changed size or a
	      changed checksum are selected for transfer.

	      Note that rsync always verifies that each transferred  file  was	correctly  recon-
	      structed	on the receiving side by checking a whole-file checksum that is generated
	      as the file is transferred, but that automatic after-the-transfer verification  has
	      nothing  to  do  with  this option's before-the-transfer "Does this file need to be
	      updated?" check.

	      For protocol 30 and beyond (first supported in 3.0.0), the checksum  used  is  MD5.
	      For older protocols, the checksum used is MD4.

       -a, --archive
	      This  is equivalent to -rlptgoD. It is a quick way of saying you want recursion and
	      want to preserve almost everything (with -H being a notable  omission).	The  only
	      exception to the above equivalence is when --files-from is specified, in which case
	      -r is not implied.

	      Note that -a does not preserve hardlinks, because finding multiply-linked files  is
	      expensive.  You must separately specify -H.

	      You  may	turn  off  one	or more implied options by prefixing the option name with
	      "no-".  Not all options may be prefixed with a "no-": only options that are implied
	      by  other  options  (e.g. --no-D, --no-perms) or have different defaults in various
	      circumstances (e.g. --no-whole-file, --no-blocking-io, --no-dirs).  You may specify
	      either the short or the long option name after the "no-" prefix (e.g. --no-R is the
	      same as --no-relative).

	      For example: if you want to use -a (--archive) but don't want -o (--owner), instead
	      of converting -a into -rlptgD, you could specify -a --no-o (or -a --no-owner).

	      The  order  of  the  options is important:  if you specify --no-r -a, the -r option
	      would end up being turned on, the opposite  of  -a  --no-r.   Note  also	that  the
	      side-effects  of	the  --files-from  option  are	NOT positional, as it affects the
	      default state of several options and slightly changes the meaning of  -a	(see  the
	      --files-from option for more details).

       -r, --recursive
	      This tells rsync to copy directories recursively.  See also --dirs (-d).

	      Beginning with rsync 3.0.0, the recursive algorithm used is now an incremental scan
	      that uses much less memory than before and begins the transfer after  the  scanning
	      of  the  first  few  directories	have  been completed.  This incremental scan only
	      affects our recursion algorithm, and does not change a non-recursive transfer.   It
	      is also only possible when both ends of the transfer are at least version 3.0.0.

	      Some options require rsync to know the full file list, so these options disable the
	      incremental  recursion  mode.   These  include:  --delete-before,   --delete-after,
	      --prune-empty-dirs,  and --delay-updates.  Because of this, the default delete mode
	      when you specify --delete is now --delete-during when both ends of  the  connection
	      are  at least 3.0.0 (use --del or --delete-during to request this improved deletion
	      mode explicitly).  See also the --delete-delay option that is a better choice  than
	      using --delete-after.

	      Incremental  recursion  can  be disabled using the --no-inc-recursive option or its
	      shorter --no-i-r alias.

       -R, --relative
	      Use relative paths. This means that the full path names specified  on  the  command
	      line  are sent to the server rather than just the last parts of the filenames. This
	      is particularly useful when you want to send several different directories  at  the
	      same time. For example, if you used this command:

		 rsync -av /foo/bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

	      ... this would create a file named baz.c in /tmp/ on the remote machine. If instead
	      you used

		 rsync -avR /foo/bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

	      then a file named /tmp/foo/bar/baz.c would be created on the remote  machine,  pre-
	      serving  its full path.  These extra path elements are called "implied directories"
	      (i.e. the "foo" and the "foo/bar" directories in the above example).

	      Beginning with rsync 3.0.0, rsync always sends these implied  directories  as  real
	      directories  in  the  file  list, even if a path element is really a symlink on the
	      sending side.  This prevents some really unexpected behaviors when copying the full
	      path  of	a file that you didn't realize had a symlink in its path.  If you want to
	      duplicate a server-side symlink, include both the symlink via its path, and  refer-
	      ent  directory  via  its	real  path.  If you're dealing with an older rsync on the
	      sending side, you may need to use the --no-implied-dirs option.

	      It is also possible to limit the amount of path information that is sent as implied
	      directories  for	each  path  you specify.  With a modern rsync on the sending side
	      (beginning with 2.6.7), you can insert a dot and a slash into the source path, like

		 rsync -avR /foo/./bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

	      That would create /tmp/bar/baz.c on the remote machine.  (Note that the dot must be
	      followed by a slash, so "/foo/." would not be abbreviated.)  For older  rsync  ver-
	      sions,  you  would need to use a chdir to limit the source path.	For example, when
	      pushing files:

		 (cd /foo; rsync -avR bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/)

	      (Note that the parens put the two commands into a sub-shell, so that the "cd"  com-
	      mand  doesn't  remain in effect for future commands.)  If you're pulling files from
	      an older rsync, use this idiom (but only for a non-daemon transfer):

		 rsync -avR --rsync-path="cd /foo; rsync" \
		     remote:bar/baz.c /tmp/

	      This option affects the default behavior of the  --relative  option.   When  it  is
	      specified,  the attributes of the implied directories from the source names are not
	      included in the transfer.  This means that the corresponding path elements  on  the
	      destination system are left unchanged if they exist, and any missing implied direc-
	      tories are created with default attributes.  This even allows  these  implied  path
	      elements	to  have  big  differences, such as being a symlink to a directory on the
	      receiving side.

	      For instance, if a command-line arg or a files-from entry told  rsync  to  transfer
	      the  file  "path/foo/file",  the directories "path" and "path/foo" are implied when
	      --relative is used.  If "path/foo" is a symlink to "bar" on the destination system,
	      the receiving rsync would ordinarily delete "path/foo", recreate it as a directory,
	      and receive the file into the new directory.  With --no-implied-dirs, the receiving
	      rsync  updates  "path/foo/file"  using the existing path elements, which means that
	      the file ends up being created in "path/bar".  Another way to accomplish this  link
	      preservation  is to use the --keep-dirlinks option (which will also affect symlinks
	      to directories in the rest of the transfer).

	      When pulling files from an rsync older than 3.0.0, you may need to use this  option
	      if  the sending side has a symlink in the path you request and you wish the implied
	      directories to be transferred as normal directories.

       -b, --backup
	      With this option, preexisting destination files are renamed as each file is  trans-
	      ferred  or  deleted.   You can control where the backup file goes and what (if any)
	      suffix gets appended using the --backup-dir and --suffix options.

	      Note that if you don't specify --backup-dir, (1) the --omit-dir-times  option  will
	      be  implied,  and  (2)  if  --delete is also in effect (without --delete-excluded),
	      rsync will add a "protect" filter-rule for the backup suffix to the end of all your
	      existing	excludes  (e.g. -f "P *~").  This will prevent previously backed-up files
	      from being deleted.  Note that if you are supplying your own filter rules, you  may
	      need  to	manually  insert your own exclude/protect rule somewhere higher up in the
	      list so that it has a high enough priority to be effective  (e.g.,  if  your  rules
	      specify  a  trailing inclusion/exclusion of '*', the auto-added rule would never be

	      In combination with the --backup option, this tells rsync to store all  backups  in
	      the  specified  directory  on the receiving side.  This can be used for incremental
	      backups.	You can additionally specify a backup suffix using  the  --suffix  option
	      (otherwise  the files backed up in the specified directory will keep their original

	      Note that if you specify a relative path, the backup directory will be relative  to
	      the  destination directory, so you probably want to specify either an absolute path
	      or a path that starts with "../".  If an rsync daemon is the receiver,  the  backup
	      dir cannot go outside the module's path hierarchy, so take extra care not to delete
	      it or copy into it.

	      This option allows you to override the default backup suffix used with the --backup
	      (-b)  option. The default suffix is a ~ if no --backup-dir was specified, otherwise
	      it is an empty string.

       -u, --update
	      This forces rsync to skip any files which exist on the destination and have a modi-
	      fied time that is newer than the source file.  (If an existing destination file has
	      a modification time equal to the source file's, it will be updated if the sizes are

	      Note  that  this	does  not  affect the copying of symlinks or other special files.
	      Also, a difference of file format between the sender and receiver is always consid-
	      ered  to	be important enough for an update, no matter what date is on the objects.
	      In other words, if the source has a directory where the destination has a file, the
	      transfer would occur regardless of the timestamps.

	      This  option is a transfer rule, not an exclude, so it doesn't affect the data that
	      goes into the file-lists, and thus it doesn't affect deletions.  It just limits the
	      files that the receiver requests to be transferred.

	      This  option  changes how rsync transfers a file when its data needs to be updated:
	      instead of the default method of creating a new copy of the file and moving it into
	      place  when  it  is complete, rsync instead writes the updated data directly to the
	      destination file.

	      This has several effects:

	      o      Hard links are not broken.  This means the new data will be visible  through
		     other  hard  links to the destination file.  Moreover, attempts to copy dif-
		     fering source files onto a multiply-linked destination file will result in a
		     "tug of war" with the destination data changing back and forth.

	      o      In-use binaries cannot be updated (either the OS will prevent this from hap-
		     pening, or binaries that attempt to swap-in their	data  will  misbehave  or

	      o      The  file's  data	will  be in an inconsistent state during the transfer and
		     will be left that way if the transfer is interrupted or if an update fails.

	      o      A file that rsync cannot write to cannot be updated. While a super user  can
		     update  any file, a normal user needs to be granted write permission for the
		     open of the file for writing to be successful.

	      o      The efficiency of rsync's delta-transfer algorithm may be	reduced  if  some
		     data  in  the  destination  file is overwritten before it can be copied to a
		     position later in the file.  This does not apply if you use --backup,  since
		     rsync  is	smart  enough  to  use	the backup file as the basis file for the

	      WARNING: you should not use this option to update files that are being accessed  by
	      others, so be careful when choosing to use this for a copy.

	      This  option  is	useful	for  transferring large files with block-based changes or
	      appended data, and also on systems that are disk bound, not network bound.  It  can
	      also  help  keep a copy-on-write filesystem snapshot from diverging the entire con-
	      tents of a file that only has minor changes.

	      The option implies --partial (since an interrupted transfer  does  not  delete  the
	      file),  but conflicts with --partial-dir and --delay-updates.  Prior to rsync 2.6.4
	      --inplace was also incompatible with --compare-dest and --link-dest.

	      This causes rsync to update a file by appending data onto  the  end  of  the  file,
	      which presumes that the data that already exists on the receiving side is identical
	      with the start of the file on the sending side.  If a file needs to be  transferred
	      and its size on the receiver is the same or longer than the size on the sender, the
	      file is skipped.	This does not interfere with the updating of a file's non-content
	      attributes  (e.g.  permissions,  ownership, etc.) when the file does not need to be
	      transferred, nor does it affect the updating of  any  non-regular  files.   Implies
	      --inplace,  but  does  not  conflict  with --sparse (since it is always extending a
	      file's length).

	      This works just like the --append option, but the existing data  on  the	receiving
	      side  is	included  in the full-file checksum verification step, which will cause a
	      file to be resent if the final  verification  step  fails  (rsync  uses  a  normal,
	      non-appending --inplace transfer for the resend).

	      Note:  prior to rsync 3.0.0, the --append option worked like --append-verify, so if
	      you are interacting with an older rsync (or the transfer is using a protocol  prior
	      to 30), specifying either append option will initiate an --append-verify transfer.

       -d, --dirs
	      Tell  the  sending  side	to  include any directories that are encountered.  Unlike
	      --recursive, a directory's contents are not copied unless the directory name speci-
	      fied is "." or ends with a trailing slash (e.g. ".", "dir/.", "dir/", etc.).  With-
	      out this option or the --recursive option,  rsync  will  skip  all  directories  it
	      encounters (and output a message to that effect for each one).  If you specify both
	      --dirs and --recursive, --recursive takes precedence.

	      The --dirs option is implied by the --files-from option or the  --list-only  option
	      (including  an  implied --list-only usage) if --recursive wasn't specified (so that
	      directories are seen in the listing).  Specify --no-dirs (or --no-d) if you want to
	      turn this off.

	      There  is also a backward-compatibility helper option, --old-dirs (or --old-d) that
	      tells rsync to use a hack of "-r --exclude='/*/*'" to get an older rsync to list	a
	      single directory without recursing.

       -l, --links
	      When symlinks are encountered, recreate the symlink on the destination.

       -L, --copy-links
	      When  symlinks  are  encountered,  the  item  that  they point to (the referent) is
	      copied, rather than the symlink.	In older versions of rsync, this option also  had
	      the  side-effect of telling the receiving side to follow symlinks, such as symlinks
	      to directories.  In a modern rsync  such	as  this  one,	you'll	need  to  specify
	      --keep-dirlinks  (-K) to get this extra behavior.  The only exception is when send-
	      ing files to an rsync that is too old to understand -K --  in  that  case,  the  -L
	      option will still have the side-effect of -K on that older receiving rsync.

	      This  tells  rsync  to  copy  the referent of symbolic links that point outside the
	      copied tree.  Absolute symlinks are also treated like ordinary files,  and  so  are
	      any symlinks in the source path itself when --relative is used.  This option has no
	      additional effect if --copy-links was also specified.

	      This tells rsync to ignore any symbolic links which point outside the copied  tree.
	      All  absolute  symlinks  are  also  ignored.  Using this option in conjunction with
	      --relative may give unexpected results.

       -k, --copy-dirlinks
	      This option causes the sending side to treat a symlink to a directory as though  it
	      were  a  real directory.	This is useful if you don't want symlinks to non-directo-
	      ries to be affected, as they would be using --copy-links.

	      Without this option, if the sending side has replaced a directory with a symlink to
	      a  directory, the receiving side will delete anything that is in the way of the new
	      symlink, including a directory hierarchy (as long as  --force  or  --delete  is  in

	      See also --keep-dirlinks for an analogous option for the receiving side.

	      --copy-dirlinks  applies to all symlinks to directories in the source.  If you want
	      to follow only a few specified symlinks, a trick you can use is  to  pass  them  as
	      additional  source  args	with a trailing slash, using --relative to make the paths
	      match up right.  For example:

	      rsync -r --relative src/./ src/./follow-me/ dest/

	      This works because rsync calls lstat(2) on the source arg as given, and the  trail-
	      ing  slash  makes  lstat(2)  follow  the symlink, giving rise to a directory in the
	      file-list which overrides the symlink found during the scan of "src/./".

       -K, --keep-dirlinks
	      This option causes the receiving side to treat a symlink to a directory  as  though
	      it  were a real directory, but only if it matches a real directory from the sender.
	      Without this option, the receiver's symlink would be deleted and	replaced  with	a
	      real directory.

	      For  example,  suppose  you transfer a directory "foo" that contains a file "file",
	      but  "foo"  is  a  symlink  to  directory   "bar"   on   the   receiver.	  Without
	      --keep-dirlinks,	the  receiver deletes symlink "foo", recreates it as a directory,
	      and receives the file into the new directory.  With --keep-dirlinks,  the  receiver
	      keeps the symlink and "file" ends up in "bar".

	      One  note  of caution:  if you use --keep-dirlinks, you must trust all the symlinks
	      in the copy!  If it is possible for an untrusted user to create their  own  symlink
	      to  any  directory,  the user could then (on a subsequent copy) replace the symlink
	      with a real directory and affect the content of whatever directory the symlink ref-
	      erences.	 For  backup copies, you are better off using something like a bind mount
	      instead of a symlink to modify your receiving hierarchy.

	      See also --copy-dirlinks for an analogous option for the sending side.

       -H, --hard-links
	      This tells rsync to look for hard-linked files in the source and link together  the
	      corresponding  files on the destination.	Without this option, hard-linked files in
	      the source are treated as though they were separate files.

	      This option does NOT necessarily ensure that the pattern of hard links on the  des-
	      tination	exactly  matches  that on the source.  Cases in which the destination may
	      end up with extra hard links include the following:

	      o      If the destination contains extraneous hard-links (more linking than what is
		     present  in the source file list), the copying algorithm will not break them
		     explicitly.  However, if one or more of the paths have content  differences,
		     the  normal file-update process will break those extra links (unless you are
		     using the --inplace option).

	      o      If you specify a --link-dest directory that contains hard links, the linking
		     of  the destination files against the --link-dest files can cause some paths
		     in the destination to become linked together due to the --link-dest associa-

	      Note that rsync can only detect hard links between files that are inside the trans-
	      fer set.	If rsync updates a file that has extra	hard-link  connections	to  files
	      outside  the  transfer, that linkage will be broken.  If you are tempted to use the
	      --inplace option to avoid this breakage, be very careful that  you  know	how  your
	      files  are  being updated so that you are certain that no unintended changes happen
	      due to lingering hard links (and see the --inplace option for more caveats).

	      If incremental recursion is active (see --recursive), rsync may transfer a  missing
	      hard-linked  file  before it finds that another link for that contents exists else-
	      where in the hierarchy.  This does not affect the accuracy of  the  transfer  (i.e.
	      which  files  are hard-linked together), just its efficiency (i.e. copying the data
	      for a new, early copy of a hard-linked file that could have been found later in the
	      transfer in another member of the hard-linked set of files).  One way to avoid this
	      inefficiency is to  disable  incremental	recursion  using  the  --no-inc-recursive

       -p, --perms
	      This option causes the receiving rsync to set the destination permissions to be the
	      same as the source permissions.  (See also the --chmod option for a way  to  modify
	      what rsync considers to be the source permissions.)

	      When this option is off, permissions are set as follows:

	      o      Existing  files (including updated files) retain their existing permissions,
		     though the --executability option might change just the  execute  permission
		     for the file.

	      o      New  files  get their "normal" permission bits set to the source file's per-
		     missions masked with the receiving directory's default  permissions  (either
		     the receiving process's umask, or the permissions specified via the destina-
		     tion directory's default ACL), and their special  permission  bits  disabled
		     except in the case where a new directory inherits a setgid bit from its par-
		     ent directory.

	      Thus, when --perms and --executability are both disabled, rsync's behavior  is  the
	      same as that of other file-copy utilities, such as cp(1) and tar(1).

	      In  summary:  to	give destination files (both old and new) the source permissions,
	      use --perms.  To give new files the destination-default permissions (while  leaving
	      existing	files  unchanged),  make  sure	that  the  --perms  option is off and use
	      --chmod=ugo=rwX (which ensures that all non-masked bits  get  enabled).	If  you'd
	      care to make this latter behavior easier to type, you could define a popt alias for
	      it, such as putting this line in the file ~/.popt (the  following  defines  the  -Z
	      option, and includes --no-g to use the default group of the destination dir):

		 rsync alias -Z --no-p --no-g --chmod=ugo=rwX

	      You could then use this new option in a command such as this one:

		 rsync -avZ src/ dest/

	      (Caveat:	make  sure  that  -a  does  not  follow  -Z, or it will re-enable the two
	      "--no-*" options mentioned above.)

	      The preservation of the destination's setgid bit on newly-created directories  when
	      --perms  is  off	was  added in rsync 2.6.7.  Older rsync versions erroneously pre-
	      served the three special permission bits for newly-created files when  --perms  was
	      off,  while  overriding  the  destination's  setgid  bit setting on a newly-created
	      directory.  Default ACL observance was added to the ACL patch for rsync  2.6.7,  so
	      older  (or  non-ACL-enabled) rsyncs use the umask even if default ACLs are present.
	      (Keep in mind that it is the version of the  receiving  rsync  that  affects  these

       -E, --executability
	      This  option  causes  rsync to preserve the executability (or non-executability) of
	      regular files when --perms is not enabled.  A regular file is considered to be exe-
	      cutable if at least one 'x' is turned on in its permissions.  When an existing des-
	      tination file's executability differs from that of the corresponding  source  file,
	      rsync modifies the destination file's permissions as follows:

	      o      To make a file non-executable, rsync turns off all its 'x' permissions.

	      o      To  make  a  file	executable, rsync turns on each 'x' permission that has a
		     corresponding 'r' permission enabled.

	      If --perms is enabled, this option is ignored.

       -A, --acls
	      This option causes rsync to update the destination ACLs  to  be  the  same  as  the
	      source ACLs.  The option also implies --perms.

	      The source and destination systems must have compatible ACL entries for this option
	      to work properly.  See the --fake-super option for a way to backup and restore ACLs
	      that are not compatible.

       -X, --xattrs
	      This  option  causes  rsync to update the destination extended attributes to be the
	      same as the source ones.

	      For systems that support extended-attribute namespaces, a  copy  being  done  by	a
	      super-user  copies  all  namespaces except system.*.  A normal user only copies the
	      user.* namespace.  To be able to backup and restore non-user namespaces as a normal
	      user, see the --fake-super option.

	      Note that this option does not copy rsyncs special xattr values (e.g. those used by
	      --fake-super) unless you repeat the option (e.g. -XX).  This "copy all xattrs" mode
	      cannot be used with --fake-super.

	      This option tells rsync to apply one or more comma-separated "chmod" strings to the
	      permission of the files in the transfer.	The resulting value is treated as  though
	      it  were	the  permissions that the sending side supplied for the file, which means
	      that this option can seem to have no effect on existing files  if  --perms  is  not

	      In  addition to the normal parsing rules specified in the chmod(1) manpage, you can
	      specify an item that should only apply to a directory by prefixing it with  a  'D',
	      or  specify  an  item  that should only apply to a file by prefixing it with a 'F'.
	      For example, the following will ensure that all  directories  get  marked  set-gid,
	      that  no	files are other-writable, that both are user-writable and group-writable,
	      and that both have consistent executability across all bits:


	      It is also legal to specify multiple --chmod options, as each additional option  is
	      just appended to the list of changes to make.

	      See  the --perms and --executability options for how the resulting permission value
	      can be applied to the files in the transfer.

       -o, --owner
	      This option causes rsync to set the owner of the destination file to be the same as
	      the  source  file,  but  only if the receiving rsync is being run as the super-user
	      (see also the --super and --fake-super options).	Without this option, the owner of
	      new and/or transferred files are set to the invoking user on the receiving side.

	      The  preservation  of  ownership	will associate matching names by default, but may
	      fall back to using the ID number in some circumstances (see also the  --numeric-ids
	      option for a full discussion).

       -g, --group
	      This option causes rsync to set the group of the destination file to be the same as
	      the source file.	If the receiving program is not running as the super-user (or  if
	      --no-super was specified), only groups that the invoking user on the receiving side
	      is a member of will be preserved.  Without this option, the group  is  set  to  the
	      default group of the invoking user on the receiving side.

	      The preservation of group information will associate matching names by default, but
	      may fall back  to  using	the  ID  number  in  some  circumstances  (see	also  the
	      --numeric-ids option for a full discussion).

	      This option causes rsync to transfer character and block device files to the remote
	      system to recreate these devices.  This option has no effect if the receiving rsync
	      is not run as the super-user (see also the --super and --fake-super options).

	      This option causes rsync to transfer special files such as named sockets and fifos.

       -D     The -D option is equivalent to --devices --specials.

       -t, --times
	      This  tells  rsync  to  transfer modification times along with the files and update
	      them on the remote system.  Note that if this option is not used, the  optimization
	      that  excludes  files  that  have  not  been modified cannot be effective; in other
	      words, a missing -t or -a will cause the next transfer to behave as if it used  -I,
	      causing  all files to be updated (though rsync's delta-transfer algorithm will make
	      the update fairly efficient if the files haven't actually changed, you're much bet-
	      ter off using -t).

       -O, --omit-dir-times
	      This  tells rsync to omit directories when it is preserving modification times (see
	      --times).  If NFS is sharing the directories on the receiving side, it  is  a  good
	      idea to use -O.  This option is inferred if you use --backup without --backup-dir.

	      This  tells the receiving side to attempt super-user activities even if the receiv-
	      ing rsync wasn't run by the super-user.  These activities include: preserving users
	      via  the --owner option, preserving all groups (not just the current user's groups)
	      via the --groups option, and copying devices via the  --devices  option.	 This  is
	      useful  for  systems  that  allow such activities without being the super-user, and
	      also for ensuring that you will get errors if the receiving side isn't being run as
	      the  super-user.	 To  turn  off	super-user  activities,  the  super-user  can use

	      When this  option  is  enabled,  rsync  simulates  super-user  activities  by  sav-
	      ing/restoring  the  privileged  attributes via special extended attributes that are
	      attached to each file (as needed).  This includes the file's owner and group (if it
	      is  not the default), the file's device info (device & special files are created as
	      empty text files), and any permission bits that we won't allow to  be  set  on  the
	      real file (e.g.  the real file gets u-s,g-s,o-t for safety) or that would limit the
	      owner's access (since the real super-user can  always  access/change  a  file,  the
	      files  we create can always be accessed/changed by the creating user).  This option
	      also handles ACLs (if --acls was specified) and non-user	extended  attributes  (if
	      --xattrs was specified).

	      This  is	a  good  way to backup data without using a super-user, and to store ACLs
	      from incompatible systems.

	      The --fake-super option only affects the side where the option is used.  To  affect
	      the remote side of a remote-shell connection, specify an rsync path:

		rsync -av --rsync-path="rsync --fake-super" /src/ host:/dest/

	      Since  there is only one "side" in a local copy, this option affects both the send-
	      ing and receiving of files.  You'll need to specify a copy using "localhost" if you
	      need  to avoid this, possibly using the "lsh" shell script (from the support direc-
	      tory) as a substitute for an actual remote shell (see --rsh).

	      This option is overridden by both --super and --no-super.

	      See also the "fake super" setting in the daemon's rsyncd.conf file.

       -S, --sparse
	      Try to handle sparse files efficiently so they take up less space on  the  destina-
	      tion.   Conflicts  with  --inplace because it's not possible to overwrite data in a
	      sparse fashion.

       -n, --dry-run
	      This makes rsync perform a trial run that doesn't make any  changes  (and  produces
	      mostly  the  same  output  as a real run).  It is most commonly used in combination
	      with the -v, --verbose and/or -i, --itemize-changes options to see  what	an  rsync
	      command is going to do before one actually runs it.

	      The output of --itemize-changes is supposed to be exactly the same on a dry run and
	      a subsequent real run (barring intentional trickery and system call  failures);  if
	      it isn't, that's a bug.  Other output should be mostly unchanged, but may differ in
	      some areas.  Notably, a dry run does not send the actual data for  file  transfers,
	      so  --progress  has  no effect, the "bytes sent", "bytes received", "literal data",
	      and "matched data" statistics are too small, and the "speedup" value is  equivalent
	      to a run where no file transfers were needed.

       -W, --whole-file
	      With this option rsync's delta-transfer algorithm is not used and the whole file is
	      sent as-is instead.  The transfer may be faster if this option  is  used	when  the
	      bandwidth  between the source and destination machines is higher than the bandwidth
	      to disk (especially when the "disk" is actually a networked filesystem).	 This  is
	      the  default when both the source and destination are specified as local paths, but
	      only if no batch-writing option is in effect.

       -x, --one-file-system
	      This tells rsync to avoid crossing a filesystem boundary when recursing.	This does
	      not  limit  the  user's ability to specify items to copy from multiple filesystems,
	      just rsync's recursion through the hierarchy of each directory that the user speci-
	      fied, and also the analogous recursion on the receiving side during deletion.  Also
	      keep in mind that rsync treats a "bind" mount to the same device as  being  on  the
	      same filesystem.

	      If  this option is repeated, rsync omits all mount-point directories from the copy.
	      Otherwise, it includes an empty directory at each mount-point it encounters  (using
	      the attributes of the mounted directory because those of the underlying mount-point
	      directory are inaccessible).

	      If  rsync   has	been   told   to   collapse   symlinks	 (via	--copy-links   or
	      --copy-unsafe-links),  a symlink to a directory on another device is treated like a
	      mount-point.  Symlinks to non-directories are unaffected by this option.

       --existing, --ignore-non-existing
	      This tells rsync to skip creating files (including directories) that do  not  exist
	      yet  on  the  destination.   If  this option is combined with the --ignore-existing
	      option, no files will be updated (which can be useful if all  you  want  to  do  is
	      delete extraneous files).

	      This  option is a transfer rule, not an exclude, so it doesn't affect the data that
	      goes into the file-lists, and thus it doesn't affect deletions.  It just limits the
	      files that the receiver requests to be transferred.

	      This tells rsync to skip updating files that already exist on the destination (this
	      does not ignore existing	directories,  or  nothing  would  get  done).	See  also

	      This  option is a transfer rule, not an exclude, so it doesn't affect the data that
	      goes into the file-lists, and thus it doesn't affect deletions.  It just limits the
	      files that the receiver requests to be transferred.

	      This option can be useful for those doing backups using the --link-dest option when
	      they need to continue a backup run that got interrupted.	Since a  --link-dest  run
	      is copied into a new directory hierarchy (when it is used properly), using --ignore
	      existing will ensure that the already-handled files don't get tweaked (which avoids
	      a change in permissions on the hard-linked files).  This does mean that this option
	      is only looking at the existing files in the destination hierarchy itself.

	      This tells rsync to remove from the sending side the  files  (meaning  non-directo-
	      ries)  that are a part of the transfer and have been successfully duplicated on the
	      receiving side.

	      This tells rsync to delete extraneous files from	the  receiving	side  (ones  that
	      aren't  on  the sending side), but only for the directories that are being synchro-
	      nized.  You must have asked rsync to  send  the  whole  directory  (e.g.	"dir"  or
	      "dir/")  without using a wildcard for the directory's contents (e.g. "dir/*") since
	      the wildcard is expanded by the shell and rsync thus gets  a  request  to  transfer
	      individual  files,  not  the files' parent directory.  Files that are excluded from
	      the  transfer  are  also	excluded  from	being  deleted	 unless   you	use   the
	      --delete-excluded  option  or  mark  the rules as only matching on the sending side
	      (see the include/exclude modifiers in the FILTER RULES section).

	      Prior to rsync 2.6.7, this option would  have  no  effect  unless  --recursive  was
	      enabled.	 Beginning  with  2.6.7,  deletions  will  also occur when --dirs (-d) is
	      enabled, but only for directories whose contents are being copied.

	      This option can be dangerous if used incorrectly!  It is a very good idea to  first
	      try  a  run  using  the  --dry-run  option  (-n)	to see what files are going to be

	      If the sending side detects any I/O errors, then the deletion of any files  at  the
	      destination will be automatically disabled. This is to prevent temporary filesystem
	      failures (such as NFS errors) on the sending side from causing a	massive  deletion
	      of  files  on  the  destination.	 You  can  override this with the --ignore-errors

	      The --delete option may be combined with one of the --delete-WHEN  options  without
	      conflict,  as  well  as  --delete-excluded.   However, if none of the --delete-WHEN
	      options are specified, rsync will choose the --delete-during algorithm when talking
	      to rsync 3.0.0 or newer, and the --delete-before algorithm when talking to an older
	      rsync.  See also --delete-delay and --delete-after.

	      Request that the file-deletions on the receiving side be done before  the  transfer
	      starts.  See --delete (which is implied) for more details on file-deletion.

	      Deleting	before	the  transfer is helpful if the filesystem is tight for space and
	      removing extraneous files would help to make the transfer  possible.   However,  it
	      does introduce a delay before the start of the transfer, and this delay might cause
	      the transfer to timeout (if --timeout was specified).  It also forces rsync to  use
	      the  old,  non-incremental  recursion algorithm that requires rsync to scan all the
	      files in the transfer into memory at once (see --recursive).

       --delete-during, --del
	      Request that the file-deletions on the receiving side be done incrementally as  the
	      transfer	happens.   The per-directory delete scan is done right before each direc-
	      tory is checked for updates, so it behaves like a more  efficient  --delete-before,
	      including  doing	the  deletions	prior  to  any	per-directory  filter files being
	      updated.	This option was first added in rsync version 2.6.4.  See --delete  (which
	      is implied) for more details on file-deletion.

	      Request that the file-deletions on the receiving side be computed during the trans-
	      fer (like --delete-during), and then removed after the transfer completes.  This is
	      useful  when  combined  with  --delay-updates and/or --fuzzy, and is more efficient
	      than using --delete-after (but can behave differently,  since  --delete-after  com-
	      putes  the deletions in a separate pass after all updates are done).  If the number
	      of removed files overflows an internal buffer, a temporary file will be created  on
	      the  receiving  side  to hold the names (it is removed while open, so you shouldn't
	      see it during the transfer).  If the creation of the temporary  file  fails,  rsync
	      will try to fall back to using --delete-after (which it cannot do if --recursive is
	      doing an incremental scan).  See --delete (which is implied) for	more  details  on

	      Request  that  the  file-deletions on the receiving side be done after the transfer
	      has completed.  This is useful if you are sending new per-directory merge files  as
	      a  part of the transfer and you want their exclusions to take effect for the delete
	      phase of the current transfer.  It also forces rsync to use the old,  non-incremen-
	      tal  recursion  algorithm that requires rsync to scan all the files in the transfer
	      into memory at once (see --recursive).  See --delete (which is  implied)	for  more
	      details on file-deletion.

	      In addition to deleting the files on the receiving side that are not on the sending
	      side, this tells rsync to also delete any files on  the  receiving  side	that  are
	      excluded	(see --exclude).  See the FILTER RULES section for a way to make individ-
	      ual exclusions behave this way on the receiver, and for a way to protect files from
	      --delete-excluded.   See --delete (which is implied) for more details on file-dele-

	      Tells --delete to go ahead and delete files even when there are I/O errors.

	      This option tells rsync to delete a non-empty directory when it is to  be  replaced
	      by  a  non-directory.   This  is	only  relevant	if  deletions are not active (see
	      --delete for details).

	      Note for older rsync versions:  --force  used  to  still	be  required  when  using
	      --delete-after,  and it used to be non-functional unless the --recursive option was
	      also enabled.

	      This tells rsync not to delete more than NUM files or directories.  If  that  limit
	      is  exceeded, a warning is output and rsync exits with an error code of 25 (new for

	      Also new for version 3.0.0, you may specify --max-delete=0 to be warned  about  any
	      extraneous  files  in  the destination without removing any of them.  Older clients
	      interpreted this as "unlimited", so if you don't know what version the  client  is,
	      you  can use the less obvious --max-delete=-1 as a backward-compatible way to spec-
	      ify that no deletions be allowed (though older versions didn't warn when the  limit
	      was exceeded).

	      This  tells  rsync to avoid transferring any file that is larger than the specified
	      SIZE. The SIZE value can be suffixed with a string to indicate a	size  multiplier,
	      and may be a fractional value (e.g. "--max-size=1.5m").

	      This  option is a transfer rule, not an exclude, so it doesn't affect the data that
	      goes into the file-lists, and thus it doesn't affect deletions.  It just limits the
	      files that the receiver requests to be transferred.

	      The suffixes are as follows: "K" (or "KiB") is a kibibyte (1024), "M" (or "MiB") is
	      a mebibyte (1024*1024), and "G" (or "GiB") is a gibibyte (1024*1024*1024).  If  you
	      want  the  multiplier  to be 1000 instead of 1024, use "KB", "MB", or "GB".  (Note:
	      lower-case is also accepted for all values.)  Finally, if the suffix ends in either
	      "+1" or "-1", the value will be offset by one byte in the indicated direction.

	      Examples:  --max-size=1.5mb-1  is  1499999 bytes, and --max-size=2g+1 is 2147483649

	      This tells rsync to avoid transferring any file that is smaller than the	specified
	      SIZE,  which  can  help  in not transferring small, junk files.  See the --max-size
	      option for a description of SIZE and other information.

       -B, --block-size=BLOCKSIZE
	      This forces the block size used in rsync's  delta-transfer  algorithm  to  a  fixed
	      value.   It is normally selected based on the size of each file being updated.  See
	      the technical report for details.

       -e, --rsh=COMMAND
	      This option allows you to choose an alternative remote shell  program  to  use  for
	      communication  between  the  local  and remote copies of rsync. Typically, rsync is
	      configured to use ssh by default, but you may prefer to use rsh on a local network.

	      If this option is used with [user@]host::module/path, then the remote shell COMMAND
	      will be used to run an rsync daemon on the remote host, and all data will be trans-
	      mitted through that remote shell connection, rather than through	a  direct  socket
	      connection  to  a  running rsync daemon on the remote host.  See the section "USING

	      Command-line arguments are permitted in COMMAND provided that COMMAND is	presented
	      to  rsync as a single argument.  You must use spaces (not tabs or other whitespace)
	      to separate the command and args from each other, and you can  use  single-  and/or
	      double-quotes  to  preserve spaces in an argument (but not backslashes).	Note that
	      doubling a single-quote inside a single-quoted string  gives  you  a  single-quote;
	      likewise	for  double-quotes (though you need to pay attention to which quotes your
	      shell is parsing and which quotes rsync is parsing).  Some examples:

		  -e 'ssh -p 2234'
		  -e 'ssh -o "ProxyCommand nohup ssh firewall nc -w1 %h %p"'

	      (Note that ssh users can alternately customize  site-specific  connect  options  in
	      their .ssh/config file.)

	      You  can also choose the remote shell program using the RSYNC_RSH environment vari-
	      able, which accepts the same range of values as -e.

	      See also the --blocking-io option which is affected by this option.

	      Use this to specify what program is to be run on the  remote  machine  to  start-up
	      rsync.   Often  used  when  rsync  is  not in the default remote-shell's path (e.g.
	      --rsync-path=/usr/local/bin/rsync).  Note that PROGRAM is run with the  help  of	a
	      shell,  so it can be any program, script, or command sequence you'd care to run, so
	      long as it does not corrupt the standard-in & standard-out that rsync is	using  to

	      One  tricky  example  is to set a different default directory on the remote machine
	      for use with the --relative option.  For instance:

		  rsync -avR --rsync-path="cd /a/b && rsync" host:c/d /e/

       -C, --cvs-exclude
	      This is a useful shorthand for excluding a broad range  of  files  that  you  often
	      don't  want  to  transfer  between  systems.  It uses a similar algorithm to CVS to
	      determine if a file should be ignored.

	      The exclude list is initialized to exclude the following items (these initial items
	      are marked as perishable -- see the FILTER RULES section):

		     RCS  SCCS	CVS CVS.adm RCSLOG cvslog.* tags TAGS .make.state .nse_depinfo *~
		     #* .#* ,* _$* *$ *.old *.bak *.BAK *.orig *.rej .del-* *.a *.olb  *.o  *.obj
		     *.so *.exe *.Z *.elc *.ln core .svn/ .git/ .hg/ .bzr/

	      then, files listed in a $HOME/.cvsignore are added to the list and any files listed
	      in the CVSIGNORE environment variable (all cvsignore names are delimited by  white-

	      Finally,	any  file  is ignored if it is in the same directory as a .cvsignore file
	      and matches one of the patterns  listed  therein.   Unlike  rsync's  filter/exclude
	      files,  these  patterns  are  split  on whitespace.  See the cvs(1) manual for more

	      If you're combining -C with your own --filter rules, you should note that these CVS
	      excludes	are appended at the end of your own rules, regardless of where the -C was
	      placed on the command-line.  This makes them a lower priority than  any  rules  you
	      specified explicitly.  If you want to control where these CVS excludes get inserted
	      into your filter rules, you should omit the -C as a command-line option and  use	a
	      combination  of  --filter=:C  and  --filter=-C  (either  on your command-line or by
	      putting the ":C" and "-C" rules into a filter file with  your  other  rules).   The
	      first option turns on the per-directory scanning for the .cvsignore file.  The sec-
	      ond option does a one-time import of the CVS excludes mentioned above.

       -f, --filter=RULE
	      This option allows you to add rules to selectively exclude certain files	from  the
	      list  of	files to be transferred. This is most useful in combination with a recur-
	      sive transfer.

	      You may use as many --filter options on the command line as you like  to	build  up
	      the  list of files to exclude.  If the filter contains whitespace, be sure to quote
	      it so that the shell gives the rule to rsync as a single argument.  The text  below
	      also  mentions that you can use an underscore to replace the space that separates a
	      rule from its arg.

	      See the FILTER RULES section for detailed information on this option.

       -F     The -F option is a shorthand for adding two --filter rules to  your  command.   The
	      first time it is used is a shorthand for this rule:

		 --filter='dir-merge /.rsync-filter'

	      This  tells  rsync  to  look  for  per-directory .rsync-filter files that have been
	      sprinkled through the hierarchy and use their rules to  filter  the  files  in  the
	      transfer.  If -F is repeated, it is a shorthand for this rule:

		 --filter='exclude .rsync-filter'

	      This filters out the .rsync-filter files themselves from the transfer.

	      See the FILTER RULES section for detailed information on how these options work.

	      This option is a simplified form of the --filter option that defaults to an exclude
	      rule and does not allow the full rule-parsing syntax of normal filter rules.

	      See the FILTER RULES section for detailed information on this option.

	      This option is related to the --exclude option, but it specifies a FILE  that  con-
	      tains  exclude patterns (one per line).  Blank lines in the file and lines starting
	      with ';' or '#' are ignored.  If FILE is -, the list will  be  read  from  standard

	      This option is a simplified form of the --filter option that defaults to an include
	      rule and does not allow the full rule-parsing syntax of normal filter rules.

	      See the FILTER RULES section for detailed information on this option.

	      This option is related to the --include option, but it specifies a FILE  that  con-
	      tains  include patterns (one per line).  Blank lines in the file and lines starting
	      with ';' or '#' are ignored.  If FILE is -, the list will  be  read  from  standard

	      Using  this  option  allows  you to specify the exact list of files to transfer (as
	      read from the specified FILE or - for standard input).  It also tweaks the  default
	      behavior	of  rsync  to  make transferring just the specified files and directories

	      o      The --relative (-R) option is implied, which preserves the path  information
		     that  is specified for each item in the file (use --no-relative or --no-R if
		     you want to turn that off).

	      o      The --dirs (-d) option is implied, which will create  directories	specified
		     in  the  list  on	the  destination  rather  than noisily skipping them (use
		     --no-dirs or --no-d if you want to turn that off).

	      o      The --archive (-a) option's behavior does not  imply  --recursive	(-r),  so
		     specify it explicitly, if you want it.

	      o      These side-effects change the default state of rsync, so the position of the
		     --files-from option on the command-line has no bearing on how other  options
		     are  parsed  (e.g.  -a  works the same before or after --files-from, as does
		     --no-R and all other options).

	      The filenames that are read from the FILE are all relative to the source dir -- any
	      leading  slashes	are  removed and no ".." references are allowed to go higher than
	      the source dir.  For example, take this command:

		 rsync -a --files-from=/tmp/foo /usr remote:/backup

	      If /tmp/foo contains the string "bin" (or even "/bin"), the /usr/bin directory will
	      be  created  as  /backup/bin  on	the remote host.  If it contains "bin/" (note the
	      trailing slash), the immediate contents of the directory would also be sent  (with-
	      out needing to be explicitly mentioned in the file -- this began in version 2.6.4).
	      In both cases, if the -r option was enabled, that dir's entire hierarchy would also
	      be  transferred  (keep  in  mind	that  -r  needs  to  be specified explicitly with
	      --files-from, since it is not implied by -a).  Also note that  the  effect  of  the
	      (enabled	by  default) --relative option is to duplicate only the path info that is
	      read from the file -- it does not force the duplication  of  the	source-spec  path
	      (/usr in this case).

	      In  addition, the --files-from file can be read from the remote host instead of the
	      local host if you specify a "host:" in front of the file (the host must  match  one
	      end of the transfer).  As a short-cut, you can specify just a prefix of ":" to mean
	      "use the remote end of the transfer".  For example:

		 rsync -a --files-from=:/path/file-list src:/ /tmp/copy

	      This would copy all the files  specified	in  the  /path/file-list  file	that  was
	      located on the remote "src" host.

	      If  the --iconv and --protect-args options are specified and the --files-from file-
	      names are being sent from one host to another, the  filenames  will  be  translated
	      from the sending host's charset to the receiving host's charset.

	      NOTE:  sorting  the  list of files in the --files-from input helps rsync to be more
	      efficient, as it will avoid re-visiting the path elements that are  shared  between
	      adjacent entries.  If the input is not sorted, some path elements (implied directo-
	      ries) may end up being scanned multiple times, and rsync will  eventually  undupli-
	      cate them after they get turned into file-list elements.

       -0, --from0
	      This  tells rsync that the rules/filenames it reads from a file are terminated by a
	      null ('\0') character, not a  NL,  CR,  or  CR+LF.   This  affects  --exclude-from,
	      --include-from,  --files-from,  and  any merged files specified in a --filter rule.
	      It does not affect --cvs-exclude (since all names read from a .cvsignore	file  are
	      split on whitespace).

       -s, --protect-args
	      This option sends all filenames and most options to the remote rsync without allow-
	      ing the remote shell to interpret them.  This means that spaces are  not	split  in
	      names, and any non-wildcard special characters are not translated (such as ~, $, ;,
	      &, etc.).  Wildcards are expanded on the remote host by rsync (instead of the shell
	      doing it).

	      If  you use this option with --iconv, the args related to the remote side will also
	      be translated from the local to the remote character-set.  The translation  happens
	      before wild-cards are expanded.  See also the --files-from option.

       -T, --temp-dir=DIR
	      This  option instructs rsync to use DIR as a scratch directory when creating tempo-
	      rary copies of the files transferred on the receiving side.  The	default  behavior
	      is  to  create each temporary file in the same directory as the associated destina-
	      tion file.

	      This option is most often used when the receiving  disk  partition  does	not  have
	      enough free space to hold a copy of the largest file in the transfer.  In this case
	      (i.e. when the scratch directory is on a different disk partition), rsync will  not
	      be  able to rename each received temporary file over the top of the associated des-
	      tination file, but instead must copy it into place.  Rsync does this by copying the
	      file  over  the  top of the destination file, which means that the destination file
	      will contain truncated data during this copy.  If this were not done this way (even
	      if  the destination file were first removed, the data locally copied to a temporary
	      file in the destination directory, and then renamed into place) it would be  possi-
	      ble for the old file to continue taking up disk space (if someone had it open), and
	      thus there might not be enough room to fit the new version on the disk at the  same

	      If  you  are using this option for reasons other than a shortage of disk space, you
	      may wish to combine it with the --delay-updates option, which will ensure that  all
	      copied files get put into subdirectories in the destination hierarchy, awaiting the
	      end of the transfer.  If you don't have enough room to duplicate all  the  arriving
	      files  on  the  destination  partition,  another	way to tell rsync that you aren't
	      overly concerned about disk space is to use the --partial-dir option with  a  rela-
	      tive  path;  because this tells rsync that it is OK to stash off a copy of a single
	      file in a subdir in the destination hierarchy, rsync will use the partial-dir as	a
	      staging  area  to  bring	over  the copied file, and then rename it into place from
	      there. (Specifying a --partial-dir  with	an  absolute  path  does  not  have  this

       -y, --fuzzy
	      This  option  tells  rsync that it should look for a basis file for any destination
	      file that is missing.  The current algorithm looks in the  same  directory  as  the
	      destination file for either a file that has an identical size and modified-time, or
	      a similarly-named file.  If found, rsync uses the fuzzy basis file to try to  speed
	      up the transfer.

	      Note that the use of the --delete option might get rid of any potential fuzzy-match
	      files, so either use --delete-after or specify some filename exclusions if you need
	      to prevent this.

	      This  option instructs rsync to use DIR on the destination machine as an additional
	      hierarchy to compare destination files against doing transfers (if  the  files  are
	      missing in the destination directory).  If a file is found in DIR that is identical
	      to the sender's file, the file will NOT be transferred to  the  destination  direc-
	      tory.   This is useful for creating a sparse backup of just files that have changed
	      from an earlier backup.

	      Beginning in version 2.6.4, multiple --compare-dest directories  may  be	provided,
	      which  will  cause  rsync  to  search  the list in the order specified for an exact
	      match.  If a match is found that differs only in attributes, a local copy  is  made
	      and  the attributes updated.  If a match is not found, a basis file from one of the
	      DIRs will be selected to try to speed up the transfer.

	      If DIR is a relative path, it is relative to the destination directory.	See  also
	      --copy-dest and --link-dest.

	      This  option  behaves like --compare-dest, but rsync will also copy unchanged files
	      found in DIR to the destination directory using a local copy.  This is  useful  for
	      doing  transfers to a new destination while leaving existing files intact, and then
	      doing a flash-cutover when all files have been successfully transferred.

	      Multiple --copy-dest directories may be provided, which will cause rsync to  search
	      the  list in the order specified for an unchanged file.  If a match is not found, a
	      basis file from one of the DIRs will be selected to try to speed up the transfer.

	      If DIR is a relative path, it is relative to the destination directory.	See  also
	      --compare-dest and --link-dest.

	      This  option behaves like --copy-dest, but unchanged files are hard linked from DIR
	      to the destination directory.   The  files  must	be  identical  in  all	preserved
	      attributes  (e.g.  permissions,  possibly  ownership)  in order for the files to be
	      linked together.	An example:

		rsync -av --link-dest=$PWD/prior_dir host:src_dir/ new_dir/

	      If file's aren't linking,  double-check  their  attributes.   Also  check  if  some
	      attributes  are getting forced outside of rsync's control, such a mount option that
	      squishes root to a single user, or mounts a removable drive with generic	ownership
	      (such as OS X's "Ignore ownership on this volume" option).

	      Beginning in version 2.6.4, multiple --link-dest directories may be provided, which
	      will cause rsync to search the list in the order specified for an exact match.   If
	      a  match	is  found  that  differs only in attributes, a local copy is made and the
	      attributes updated.  If a match is not found, a basis file from  one  of	the  DIRs
	      will be selected to try to speed up the transfer.

	      This  option  works best when copying into an empty destination hierarchy, as rsync
	      treats existing files as definitive (so it never looks in the link-dest dirs when a
	      destination  file  already  exists),  and  as  malleable	(so  it  might change the
	      attributes of a destination file, which affects all the hard-linked versions).

	      Note that if you combine this option with --ignore-times, rsync will not	link  any
	      files  together  because it only links identical files together as a substitute for
	      transferring the file, never as an additional check after the file is updated.

	      If DIR is a relative path, it is relative to the destination directory.	See  also
	      --compare-dest and --copy-dest.

	      Note  that  rsync  versions prior to 2.6.1 had a bug that could prevent --link-dest
	      from working properly for a non-super-user when -o was  specified  (or  implied  by
	      -a).  You can work-around this bug by avoiding the -o option when sending to an old

       -z, --compress
	      With this option, rsync compresses the file data as it is sent to  the  destination
	      machine,	which  reduces	the amount of data being transmitted -- something that is
	      useful over a slow connection.

	      Note that this option typically achieves better  compression  ratios  than  can  be
	      achieved	by using a compressing remote shell or a compressing transport because it
	      takes advantage of the implicit information in the matching data	blocks	that  are
	      not explicitly sent over the connection.

	      See  the --skip-compress option for the default list of file suffixes that will not
	      be compressed.

	      Explicitly set the compression level to use (see --compress) instead of letting  it
	      default.	If NUM is non-zero, the --compress option is implied.

	      Override the list of file suffixes that will not be compressed.  The LIST should be
	      one or more file suffixes (without the dot) separated by slashes (/).

	      You may specify an empty string to indicate that no file should be skipped.

	      Simple character-class matching is supported: each must consist of a list  of  let-
	      ters  inside the square brackets (e.g. no special classes, such as "[:alpha:]", are
	      supported, and '-' has no special meaning).

	      The characters asterisk (*) and question-mark (?) have no special meaning.

	      Here's an example that specifies 6 suffixes to skip (since 1 of the 5 rules matches
	      2 suffixes):


	      The  default  list of suffixes that will not be compressed is this (in this version
	      of rsync):

	      7z avi bz2 deb gz iso jpeg jpg mov mp3 mp4 ogg rpm tbz tgz z zip

	      This list will be replaced by your --skip-compress list in all but one situation: a
	      copy  from  a  daemon  rsync will add your skipped suffixes to its list of non-com-
	      pressing files (and its list may be configured to a different default).

	      With this option rsync will transfer numeric group and user IDs rather  than  using
	      user and group names and mapping them at both ends.

	      By default rsync will use the username and groupname to determine what ownership to
	      give files. The special uid 0  and  the  special	group  0  are  never  mapped  via
	      user/group names even if the --numeric-ids option is not specified.

	      If  a user or group has no name on the source system or it has no match on the des-
	      tination system, then the numeric ID from the source system is used  instead.   See
	      also the comments on the "use chroot" setting in the rsyncd.conf manpage for infor-
	      mation on how the chroot setting affects rsync's ability to look up  the	names  of
	      the users and groups and what you can do about it.

	      This  option  allows  you  to  set  a maximum I/O timeout in seconds. If no data is
	      transferred for the specified time then rsync will exit. The default  is	0,  which
	      means no timeout.

	      This  option allows you to set the amount of time that rsync will wait for its con-
	      nection to an rsync daemon to succeed.  If the timeout is reached, rsync exits with
	      an error.

	      By default rsync will bind to the wildcard address when connecting to an rsync dae-
	      mon.  The --address option allows you to specify a specific IP  address  (or  host-
	      name) to bind to.  See also this option in the --daemon mode section.

	      This  specifies an alternate TCP port number to use rather than the default of 873.
	      This is only needed if you are using the double-colon (::) syntax to  connect  with
	      an  rsync  daemon  (since the URL syntax has a way to specify the port as a part of
	      the URL).  See also this option in the --daemon mode section.

	      This option can provide endless fun for people who like to tune  their  systems  to
	      the utmost degree. You can set all sorts of socket options which may make transfers
	      faster (or slower!). Read the man page for the setsockopt() system call for details
	      on some of the options you may be able to set. By default no special socket options
	      are set. This only affects direct socket connections  to	a  remote  rsync  daemon.
	      This option also exists in the --daemon mode section.

	      This  tells  rsync to use blocking I/O when launching a remote shell transport.  If
	      the remote shell is either rsh or remsh, rsync defaults to using blocking I/O, oth-
	      erwise  it defaults to using non-blocking I/O.  (Note that ssh prefers non-blocking

       -i, --itemize-changes
	      Requests a simple itemized list of the changes that are being made  to  each  file,
	      including  attribute  changes.   This  is exactly the same as specifying --out-for-
	      mat='%i %n%L'.  If you repeat the option, unchanged files will also be output,  but
	      only  if	the receiving rsync is at least version 2.6.7 (you can use -vv with older
	      versions of rsync, but that also turns on the output of other verbose messages).

	      The "%i" escape has a cryptic output that is 11 letters long.  The  general  format
	      is  like	the  string  YXcstpoguax, where Y is replaced by the type of update being
	      done, X is replaced by the file-type, and the other  letters  represent  attributes
	      that may be output if they are being modified.

	      The update types that replace the Y are as follows:

	      o      A < means that a file is being transferred to the remote host (sent).

	      o      A > means that a file is being transferred to the local host (received).

	      o      A	c  means  that a local change/creation is occurring for the item (such as
		     the creation of a directory or the changing of a symlink, etc.).

	      o      A h  means  that  the  item  is  a  hard  link  to  another  item	(requires

	      o      A	.  means  that	the  item  is  not  being  updated  (though it might have
		     attributes that are being modified).

	      o      A * means that the rest of the itemized-output area contains a message (e.g.

	      The  file-types that replace the X are: f for a file, a d for a directory, an L for
	      a symlink, a D for a device, and a S for a special file  (e.g.  named  sockets  and

	      The other letters in the string above are the actual letters that will be output if
	      the associated attribute for the item is being updated or  a  "."  for  no  change.
	      Three  exceptions to this are: (1) a newly created item replaces each letter with a
	      "+", (2) an identical item replaces the  dots  with  spaces,  and  (3)  an  unknown
	      attribute replaces each letter with a "?" (this can happen when talking to an older

	      The attribute that is associated with each letter is as follows:

	      o      A c means either that a regular file  has	a  different  checksum	(requires
		     --checksum)  or that a symlink, device, or special file has a changed value.
		     Note that if you are sending files to an rsync prior to 3.0.1,  this  change
		     flag will be present only for checksum-differing regular files.

	      o      A s means the size of a regular file is different and will be updated by the
		     file transfer.

	      o      A t means the modification time is different and is  being  updated  to  the
		     sender's  value  (requires --times).  An alternate value of T means that the
		     modification time will be set to the transfer time,  which  happens  when	a
		     file/symlink/device is updated without --times and when a symlink is changed
		     and the receiver can't set its time.   (Note:  when  using  an  rsync  3.0.0
		     client,  you  might  see  the s flag combined with t instead of the proper T
		     flag for this time-setting failure.)

	      o      A p means the permissions	are  different	and  are  being  updated  to  the
		     sender's value (requires --perms).

	      o      An o means the owner is different and is being updated to the sender's value
		     (requires --owner and super-user privileges).

	      o      A g means the group is different and is being updated to the sender's  value
		     (requires --group and the authority to set the group).

	      o      The u slot is reserved for future use.

	      o      The a means that the ACL information changed.

	      o      The x means that the extended attribute information changed.

	      One other output is possible:  when deleting files, the "%i" will output the string
	      "*deleting" for each item that is being removed (assuming that you are talking to a
	      recent  enough rsync that it logs deletions instead of outputting them as a verbose

	      This allows you to specify exactly what the rsync client outputs to the user  on	a
	      per-update basis.  The format is a text string containing embedded single-character
	      escape sequences prefixed with a percent	(%)  character.    A  default  format  of
	      "%n%L"  is  assumed  if -v is specified (which reports the name of the file and, if
	      the item is a link, where it points).  For a full list of the possible escape char-
	      acters, see the "log format" setting in the rsyncd.conf manpage.

	      Specifying  the  --out-format  option  will  mention each file, dir, etc. that gets
	      updated in a significant way (a transferred file, a recreated symlink/device, or	a
	      touched directory).  In addition, if the itemize-changes escape (%i) is included in
	      the string (e.g. if the --itemize-changes option was used), the  logging	of  names
	      increases  to mention any item that is changed in any way (as long as the receiving
	      side is at least 2.6.4).	See the --itemize-changes option for a description of the
	      output of "%i".

	      Rsync  will  output  the out-format string prior to a file's transfer unless one of
	      the transfer-statistic escapes is requested, in which case the logging is  done  at
	      the end of the file's transfer.  When this late logging is in effect and --progress
	      is also specified, rsync will also output the name of the  file  being  transferred
	      prior to its progress information (followed, of course, by the out-format output).

	      This option causes rsync to log what it is doing to a file.  This is similar to the
	      logging that a daemon does, but can be requested for the	client	side  and/or  the
	      server  side  of	a non-daemon transfer.	If specified as a client option, transfer
	      logging  will  be  enabled  with	a  default  format  of	"%i   %n%L".	See   the
	      --log-file-format option if you wish to override this.

	      Here's a example command that requests the remote side to log what is happening:

		rsync -av --rsync-path="rsync --log-file=/tmp/rlog" src/ dest/

	      This is very useful if you need to debug why a connection is closing unexpectedly.

	      This  allows  you  to  specify exactly what per-update logging is put into the file
	      specified by the --log-file option (which must also be specified for this option to
	      have  any  effect).  If you specify an empty string, updated files will not be men-
	      tioned in the log file.  For a list of the possible escape characters, see the "log
	      format" setting in the rsyncd.conf manpage.

	      The  default  FORMAT  used if --log-file is specified and this option is not is '%i

	      This tells rsync to print a verbose set of statistics on the file transfer,  allow-
	      ing you to tell how effective rsync's delta-transfer algorithm is for your data.

	      The current statistics are as follows:

	      o      Number  of  files	is the count of all "files" (in the generic sense), which
		     includes directories, symlinks, etc.

	      o      Number of files transferred is the count of normal files that  were  updated
		     via  rsync's  delta-transfer algorithm, which does not include created dirs,
		     symlinks, etc.

	      o      Total file size is the total sum of all file sizes in  the  transfer.   This
		     does  not	count any size for directories or special files, but does include
		     the size of symlinks.

	      o      Total transferred file size is the total sum of all files sizes for just the
		     transferred files.

	      o      Literal  data  is	how much unmatched file-update data we had to send to the
		     receiver for it to recreate the updated files.

	      o      Matched data is how much data the receiver got locally when  recreating  the
		     updated files.

	      o      File  list size is how big the file-list data was when the sender sent it to
		     the receiver.  This is smaller than the in-memory size for the file list due
		     to some compressing of duplicated data when rsync sends the list.

	      o      File  list  generation  time  is the number of seconds that the sender spent
		     creating the file list.  This requires a modern rsync on  the  sending  side
		     for this to be present.

	      o      File list transfer time is the number of seconds that the sender spent send-
		     ing the file list to the receiver.

	      o      Total bytes sent is the count of all the bytes  that  rsync  sent	from  the
		     client side to the server side.

	      o      Total  bytes  received  is  the  count  of  all non-message bytes that rsync
		     received by the client side from the server side.	"Non-message" bytes means
		     that  we don't count the bytes for a verbose message that the server sent to
		     us, which makes the stats more consistent.

       -8, --8-bit-output
	      This tells rsync to leave all high-bit characters unescaped in the  output  instead
	      of  trying  to test them to see if they're valid in the current locale and escaping
	      the invalid ones.  All control characters (but  never  tabs)  are  always  escaped,
	      regardless of this option's setting.

	      The  escape  idiom that started in 2.6.7 is to output a literal backslash (\) and a
	      hash (#), followed by exactly 3 octal digits.  For example, a newline would  output
	      as  "\#012".  A literal backslash that is in a filename is not escaped unless it is
	      followed by a hash and 3 digits (0-9).

       -h, --human-readable
	      Output numbers in a more human-readable format.	This  makes  big  numbers  output
	      using  larger  units, with a K, M, or G suffix.  If this option was specified once,
	      these units are K (1000), M (1000*1000), and G (1000*1000*1000); if the  option  is
	      repeated, the units are powers of 1024 instead of 1000.

	      By  default,  rsync  will  delete any partially transferred file if the transfer is
	      interrupted. In some circumstances it is more desirable to  keep	partially  trans-
	      ferred files. Using the --partial option tells rsync to keep the partial file which
	      should make a subsequent transfer of the rest of the file much faster.

	      A better way to keep partial files than the --partial option is to  specify  a  DIR
	      that will be used to hold the partial data (instead of writing it out to the desti-
	      nation file).  On the next transfer, rsync will use a file found	in  this  dir  as
	      data  to	speed  up  the resumption of the transfer and then delete it after it has
	      served its purpose.

	      Note that if --whole-file is specified (or implied), any partial-dir file  that  is
	      found for a file that is being updated will simply be removed (since rsync is send-
	      ing files without using rsync's delta-transfer algorithm).

	      Rsync will create the DIR if it is missing (just the last  dir  --  not  the  whole
	      path).	This   makes   it   easy   to  use  a  relative  path  (such  as  "--par-
	      tial-dir=.rsync-partial") to have rsync create the partial-directory in the  desti-
	      nation file's directory when needed, and then remove it again when the partial file
	      is deleted.

	      If the partial-dir value is not an absolute path, rsync will add an exclude rule at
	      the  end	of all your existing excludes.	This will prevent the sending of any par-
	      tial-dir files that may exist on the  sending  side,  and  will  also  prevent  the
	      untimely	deletion  of  partial-dir  items  on the receiving side.  An example: the
	      above --partial-dir option would add the equivalent of "-f '-p .rsync-partial/'" at
	      the end of any other filter rules.

	      If  you  are  supplying  your  own  exclude  rules,  you	may  need to add your own
	      exclude/hide/protect rule for the partial-dir because (1) the auto-added	rule  may
	      be  ineffective  at  the	end  of your other rules, or (2) you may wish to override
	      rsync's exclude choice.  For instance, if you  want  to  make  rsync  clean-up  any
	      left-over  partial-dirs that may be lying around, you should specify --delete-after
	      and add  a  "risk"  filter  rule,  e.g.	-f  'R	.rsync-partial/'.   (Avoid  using
	      --delete-before  or  --delete-during  unless you don't need rsync to use any of the
	      left-over partial-dir data during the current run.)

	      IMPORTANT: the --partial-dir should not be writable by other users or it is a secu-
	      rity risk.  E.g. AVOID "/tmp".

	      You  can also set the partial-dir value the RSYNC_PARTIAL_DIR environment variable.
	      Setting this in the environment does not force --partial to be enabled, but  rather
	      it  affects  where  partial  files  go  when --partial is specified.  For instance,
	      instead of using --partial-dir=.rsync-tmp along  with  --progress,  you  could  set
	      RSYNC_PARTIAL_DIR=.rsync-tmp in your environment and then just use the -P option to
	      turn on the use of the .rsync-tmp dir for partial transfers.  The only  times  that
	      the  --partial  option  does  not  look  for  this  environment  value are (1) when
	      --inplace was specified (since --inplace conflicts  with	--partial-dir),  and  (2)
	      when --delay-updates was specified (see below).

	      For  the	purposes  of  the daemon-config's "refuse options" setting, --partial-dir
	      does not imply --partial.  This is so that a refusal of the --partial option can be
	      used  to	disallow  the  overwriting  of destination files with a partial transfer,
	      while still allowing the safer idiom provided by --partial-dir.

	      This option puts the temporary file from each updated file into a holding directory
	      until  the  end of the transfer, at which time all the files are renamed into place
	      in rapid succession.  This attempts to make the updating of the files a little more
	      atomic.	By  default  the files are placed into a directory named ".~tmp~" in each
	      file's destination directory, but if you've  specified  the  --partial-dir  option,
	      that directory will be used instead.  See the comments in the --partial-dir section
	      for a discussion of how this ".~tmp~" dir will be excluded from the  transfer,  and
	      what  you can do if you want rsync to cleanup old ".~tmp~" dirs that might be lying
	      around.  Conflicts with --inplace and --append.

	      This option uses more memory on the receiving side (one bit per  file  transferred)
	      and  also  requires  enough  free disk space on the receiving side to hold an addi-
	      tional copy of all the updated files.  Note also that you should not use	an  abso-
	      lute path to --partial-dir unless (1) there is no chance of any of the files in the
	      transfer having the same name (since all the updated files will be put into a  sin-
	      gle  directory  if  the  path is absolute) and (2) there are no mount points in the
	      hierarchy (since the delayed updates will  fail  if  they  can't	be  renamed  into

	      See also the "atomic-rsync" perl script in the "support" subdir for an update algo-
	      rithm that is even more atomic (it uses --link-dest and  a  parallel  hierarchy  of

       -m, --prune-empty-dirs
	      This  option  tells  the	receiving  rsync to get rid of empty directories from the
	      file-list, including nested directories that have no non-directory children.   This
	      is  useful  for  avoiding  the  creation of a bunch of useless directories when the
	      sending	rsync	is   recursively   scanning   a   hierarchy   of   files    using
	      include/exclude/filter rules.

	      Note that the use of transfer rules, such as the --min-size option, does not affect
	      what goes into the file list, and thus does not leave directories  empty,  even  if
	      none of the files in a directory match the transfer rule.

	      Because  the  file-list  is  actually  being  pruned, this option also affects what
	      directories get deleted when a delete  is  active.   However,  keep  in  mind  that
	      excluded files and directories can prevent existing items from being deleted due to
	      an exclude both hiding source files and protecting destination files.  See the per-
	      ishable filter-rule option for how to avoid this.

	      You  can	prevent  the  pruning  of certain empty directories from the file-list by
	      using a global "protect" filter.	For instance, this option would ensure	that  the
	      directory "emptydir" was kept in the file-list:

	      --filter 'protect emptydir/'

	      Here's an example that copies all .pdf files in a hierarchy, only creating the nec-
	      essary destination directories to hold the .pdf files, and ensures that any  super-
	      fluous  files  and directories in the destination are removed (note the hide filter
	      of non-directories being used instead of an exclude):

	      rsync -avm --del --include='*.pdf' -f 'hide,! */' src/ dest

	      If you didn't want to remove superfluous destination files, the  more  time-honored
	      options of "--include='*/' --exclude='*'" would work fine in place of the hide-fil-
	      ter (if that is more natural to you).

	      This option tells rsync to print information showing the progress of the	transfer.
	      This gives a bored user something to watch.  Implies --verbose if it wasn't already

	      While rsync is transferring a regular file, it updates a progress line  that  looks
	      like this:

		    782448  63%  110.64kB/s    0:00:04

	      In this example, the receiver has reconstructed 782448 bytes or 63% of the sender's
	      file, which is being reconstructed at a rate of 110.64 kilobytes	per  second,  and
	      the  transfer  will finish in 4 seconds if the current rate is maintained until the

	      These statistics can be misleading if rsync's delta-transfer algorithm is  in  use.
	      For example, if the sender's file consists of the basis file followed by additional
	      data, the reported rate will probably drop dramatically when the receiver  gets  to
	      the  literal  data,  and the transfer will probably take much longer to finish than
	      the receiver estimated as it was finishing the matched part of the file.

	      When the file transfer finishes, rsync replaces the progress line  with  a  summary
	      line that looks like this:

		   1238099 100%  146.38kB/s    0:00:08	(xfer#5, to-check=169/396)

	      In  this	example,  the  file  was 1238099 bytes long in total, the average rate of
	      transfer for the whole file was 146.38 kilobytes per second over the 8 seconds that
	      it  took	to complete, it was the 5th transfer of a regular file during the current
	      rsync session, and there are 169 more files for the receiver to check  (to  see  if
	      they are up-to-date or not) remaining out of the 396 total files in the file-list.

       -P     The  -P  option  is  equivalent to --partial --progress.	Its purpose is to make it
	      much easier to specify these two options for a long transfer  that  may  be  inter-

	      This  option allows you to provide a password in a file for accessing an rsync dae-
	      mon.  The file must not be world readable.  It should contain just the password  as
	      the first line of the file (all other lines are ignored).

	      This  option does not supply a password to a remote shell transport such as ssh; to
	      learn how to do that, consult the remote shell's documentation.  When accessing  an
	      rsync  daemon  using  a  remote shell as the transport, this option only comes into
	      effect after the remote shell finishes its authentication (i.e. if  you  have  also
	      specified a password in the daemon's config file).

	      This  option will cause the source files to be listed instead of transferred.  This
	      option is inferred if there is a single source arg and no destination specified, so
	      its  main uses are: (1) to turn a copy command that includes a destination arg into
	      a file-listing command, or (2) to be able to  specify  more  than  one  source  arg
	      (note:  be  sure	to include the destination).  Caution: keep in mind that a source
	      arg with a wild-card is expanded by the shell into multiple args, so  it	is  never
	      safe to try to list such an arg without using this option.  For example:

		  rsync -av --list-only foo* dest/

	      Compatibility  note:   when requesting a remote listing of files from an rsync that
	      is version 2.6.3 or older, you may encounter an error if you ask for  a  non-recur-
	      sive  listing.   This  is  because  a  file  listing  implies the --dirs option w/o
	      --recursive, and older rsyncs don't have	that  option.	To  avoid  this  problem,
	      either specify the --no-dirs option (if you don't need to expand a directory's con-
	      tent), or  turn  on  recursion  and  exclude  the  content  of  subdirectories:  -r

	      This  option allows you to specify a maximum transfer rate in kilobytes per second.
	      This option is most effective when using rsync with large files (several	megabytes
	      and  up).  Due  to  the nature of rsync transfers, blocks of data are sent, then if
	      rsync determines the transfer was too fast, it will wait before  sending	the  next
	      data  block. The result is an average transfer rate equaling the specified limit. A
	      value of zero specifies no limit.

	      Record a file that can later be  applied	to  another  identical	destination  with
	      --read-batch.   See   the   "BATCH   MODE"   section  for  details,  and	also  the
	      --only-write-batch option.

	      Works like --write-batch, except that no updates are made on the destination system
	      when  creating  the  batch.  This lets you transport the changes to the destination
	      system via some other means and then apply the changes via --read-batch.

	      Note that you can feel free to write the batch directly to some portable media:  if
	      this  media  fills  to  capacity before the end of the transfer, you can just apply
	      that partial transfer to the destination and repeat the whole process  to  get  the
	      rest of the changes (as long as you don't mind a partially updated destination sys-
	      tem while the multi-update cycle is happening).

	      Also note that you only save bandwidth when pushing  changes  to	a  remote  system
	      because  this allows the batched data to be diverted from the sender into the batch
	      file without having to flow over the wire to the receiver (when pulling, the sender
	      is remote, and thus can't write the batch).

	      Apply  all  of  the  changes  stored  in	FILE,  a  file	previously  generated  by
	      --write-batch.  If FILE is -, the batch data will be read from standard input.  See
	      the "BATCH MODE" section for details.

	      Force  an  older	protocol version to be used.  This is useful for creating a batch
	      file that is compatible with an older version of rsync.	For  instance,	if  rsync
	      2.6.4  is being used with the --write-batch option, but rsync 2.6.3 is what will be
	      used to run the --read-batch option, you should use "--protocol=28"  when  creating
	      the  batch  file	to  force the older protocol version to be used in the batch file
	      (assuming you can't upgrade the rsync on the reading system).

	      Rsync can convert filenames between character sets using this option.  Using a CON-
	      VERT_SPEC  of  "."  tells rsync to look up the default character-set via the locale
	      setting.	Alternately, you can fully specify what conversion  to	do  by	giving	a
	      local  and a remote charset separated by a comma in the order --iconv=LOCAL,REMOTE,
	      e.g.  --iconv=utf8,iso88591.  This order ensures that the option will stay the same
	      whether  you're  pushing	or  pulling  files.   Finally,	you  can  specify  either
	      --no-iconv or a CONVERT_SPEC of "-" to turn off any conversion.  The  default  set-
	      ting  of this option is site-specific, and can also be affected via the RSYNC_ICONV
	      environment variable.

	      For a list of what charset names your local iconv library  supports,  you  can  run
	      "iconv --list".

	      If  you  specify the --protect-args option (-s), rsync will translate the filenames
	      you specify on the command-line that are being sent to the remote host.	See  also
	      the --files-from option.

	      Note  that  rsync  does  not  do any conversion of names in filter files (including
	      include/exclude files).  It is up to you to ensure that you're specifying  matching
	      rules  that can match on both sides of the transfer.  For instance, you can specify
	      extra include/exclude rules if there are filename differences on the two sides that
	      need to be accounted for.

	      When  you pass an --iconv option to an rsync daemon that allows it, the daemon uses
	      the charset specified in its "charset" configuration parameter  regardless  of  the
	      remote  charset  you  actually  pass.   Thus, you may feel free to specify just the
	      local charset for a daemon transfer (e.g. --iconv=utf8).

       -4, --ipv4 or -6, --ipv6
	      Tells rsync to prefer IPv4/IPv6 when creating sockets.  This only  affects  sockets
	      that  rsync has direct control over, such as the outgoing socket when directly con-
	      tacting an rsync daemon.	See also these options in the --daemon mode section.

	      If rsync was complied without support for IPv6, the  --ipv6  option  will  have  no
	      effect.  The --version output will tell you if this is the case.

	      Set the checksum seed to the integer NUM.  This 4 byte checksum seed is included in
	      each block and file checksum calculation.  By default the checksum seed  is  gener-
	      ated by the server and defaults to the current time() .  This option is used to set
	      a specific checksum seed, which is useful for  applications  that  want  repeatable
	      block  and file checksums, or in the case where the user wants a more random check-
	      sum seed.  Setting NUM to 0 causes rsync to use the default of time() for  checksum

       The options allowed when starting an rsync daemon are as follows:

	      This  tells  rsync that it is to run as a daemon.  The daemon you start running may
	      be accessed using an rsync client using the  host::module  or  rsync://host/module/

	      If  standard  input  is  a  socket  then rsync will assume that it is being run via
	      inetd, otherwise it will detach from the current terminal and become  a  background
	      daemon.  The daemon will read the config file (rsyncd.conf) on each connect made by
	      a client and respond to requests accordingly.  See the rsyncd.conf(5) man page  for
	      more details.

	      By  default  rsync  will bind to the wildcard address when run as a daemon with the
	      --daemon option.	The --address option allows you to specify a specific IP  address
	      (or  hostname) to bind to.  This makes virtual hosting possible in conjunction with
	      the --config option.  See also the "address" global option in the rsyncd.conf  man-

	      This  option  allows you to specify a maximum transfer rate in kilobytes per second
	      for the data the daemon sends.  The client can still specify  a  smaller	--bwlimit
	      value,  but  their  requested  value will be rounded down if they try to exceed it.
	      See the client version of this option (above) for some extra details.

	      This specifies an alternate config file than the default.  This  is  only  relevant
	      when  --daemon  is specified.  The default is /etc/rsyncd.conf unless the daemon is
	      running over a remote shell program and the remote user is not the  super-user;  in
	      that case the default is rsyncd.conf in the current directory (typically $HOME).

	      When  running  as  a  daemon,  this option instructs rsync to not detach itself and
	      become a background process.  This option is required when running as a service  on
	      Cygwin,  and  may also be useful when rsync is supervised by a program such as dae-
	      montools or AIX's System Resource Controller.  --no-detach is also recommended when
	      rsync  is  run  under  a	debugger.  This option has no effect if rsync is run from
	      inetd or sshd.

	      This specifies an alternate TCP port number for the daemon to listen on rather than
	      the default of 873.  See also the "port" global option in the rsyncd.conf manpage.

	      This  option tells the rsync daemon to use the given log-file name instead of using
	      the "log file" setting in the config file.

	      This option tells the rsync daemon to use the given FORMAT string instead of  using
	      the  "log  format"  setting in the config file.  It also enables "transfer logging"
	      unless the string is empty, in which case transfer logging is turned off.

	      This overrides the socket options setting in the rsyncd.conf file and has the  same

       -v, --verbose
	      This  option increases the amount of information the daemon logs during its startup
	      phase.  After the client connects, the daemon's verbosity level will be  controlled
	      by the options that the client used and the "max verbosity" setting in the module's
	      config section.

       -4, --ipv4 or -6, --ipv6
	      Tells rsync to prefer IPv4/IPv6 when creating the incoming sockets that  the  rsync
	      daemon will use to listen for connections.  One of these options may be required in
	      older versions of Linux to work around an IPv6 bug in the kernel	(if  you  see  an
	      "address	already in use" error when nothing else is using the port, try specifying
	      --ipv6 or --ipv4 when starting the daemon).

	      If rsync was complied without support for IPv6, the  --ipv6  option  will  have  no
	      effect.  The --version output will tell you if this is the case.

       -h, --help
	      When  specified  after  --daemon,  print	a  short help page describing the options
	      available for starting an rsync daemon.

       The filter rules allow for flexible selection of which files  to  transfer  (include)  and
       which files to skip (exclude).  The rules either directly specify include/exclude patterns
       or they specify a way to acquire more include/exclude patterns (e.g. to read them  from	a

       As the list of files/directories to transfer is built, rsync checks each name to be trans-
       ferred against the list of include/exclude patterns in turn, and the first  matching  pat-
       tern  is  acted	on:   if it is an exclude pattern, then that file is skipped; if it is an
       include pattern then that filename is not skipped; if no matching pattern is  found,  then
       the filename is not skipped.

       Rsync  builds  an  ordered  list of filter rules as specified on the command-line.  Filter
       rules have the following syntax:


       You have your choice of using either short or long RULE names, as described below.  If you
       use  a  short-named rule, the ',' separating the RULE from the MODIFIERS is optional.  The
       PATTERN or FILENAME that follows (when present) must come after either a single	space  or
       an underscore (_).  Here are the available rule prefixes:

	      exclude, - specifies an exclude pattern.
	      include, + specifies an include pattern.
	      merge, . specifies a merge-file to read for more rules.
	      dir-merge, : specifies a per-directory merge-file.
	      hide, H specifies a pattern for hiding files from the transfer.
	      show, S files that match the pattern are not hidden.
	      protect, P specifies a pattern for protecting files from deletion.
	      risk, R files that match the pattern are not protected.
	      clear, ! clears the current include/exclude list (takes no arg)

       When  rules are being read from a file, empty lines are ignored, as are comment lines that
       start with a "#".

       Note that the --include/--exclude command-line options do not allow the full range of rule
       parsing	as  described  above -- they only allow the specification of include/exclude pat-
       terns plus a "!" token to clear the list (and the normal comment parsing  when  rules  are
       read  from  a  file).   If a pattern does not begin with "- " (dash, space) or "+ " (plus,
       space), then the rule will be interpreted as if "+ " (for an include option) or "- "  (for
       an  exclude  option)  were  prefixed to the string.  A --filter option, on the other hand,
       must always contain either a short or long rule name at the start of the rule.

       Note also that the --filter, --include, and --exclude options take one rule/pattern  each.
       To  add	multiple ones, you can repeat the options on the command-line, use the merge-file
       syntax of the --filter option, or the --include-from/--exclude-from options.

       You can include and exclude files by specifying patterns using the "+", "-",  etc.  filter
       rules  (as  introduced in the FILTER RULES section above).  The include/exclude rules each
       specify a pattern that is matched against the names of the files  that  are  going  to  be
       transferred.  These patterns can take several forms:

       o      if  the  pattern	starts	with  a / then it is anchored to a particular spot in the
	      hierarchy of files, otherwise it is matched against the end of the pathname.   This
	      is  similar  to a leading ^ in regular expressions.  Thus "/foo" would match a name
	      of "foo" at either the "root of the  transfer"  (for  a  global  rule)  or  in  the
	      merge-file's  directory  (for  a	per-directory  rule).  An unqualified "foo" would
	      match a name of "foo" anywhere in the tree because the algorithm is applied  recur-
	      sively from the top down; it behaves as if each path component gets a turn at being
	      the end of the filename.	Even the unanchored "sub/foo" would match at any point in
	      the hierarchy where a "foo" was found within a directory named "sub".  See the sec-
	      tion on ANCHORING INCLUDE/EXCLUDE PATTERNS for a full discussion of how to  specify
	      a pattern that matches at the root of the transfer.

       o      if  the  pattern	ends  with a / then it will only match a directory, not a regular
	      file, symlink, or device.

       o      rsync chooses between doing a simple string match and wildcard matching by checking
	      if the pattern contains one of these three wildcard characters: '*', '?', and '[' .

       o      a '*' matches any path component, but it stops at slashes.

       o      use '**' to match anything, including slashes.

       o      a '?' matches any character except a slash (/).

       o      a '[' introduces a character class, such as [a-z] or [[:alpha:]].

       o      in  a wildcard pattern, a backslash can be used to escape a wildcard character, but
	      it is matched literally when no wildcards are present.

       o      if the pattern contains a / (not counting a trailing /)  or  a  "**",  then  it  is
	      matched  against	the full pathname, including any leading directories. If the pat-
	      tern doesn't contain a / or a "**", then it is matched only against the final  com-
	      ponent  of  the  filename.   (Remember that the algorithm is applied recursively so
	      "full filename" can actually be any portion of a path from the  starting	directory
	      on down.)

       o      a trailing "dir_name/***" will match both the directory (as if "dir_name/" had been
	      specified) and everything in the directory (as if  "dir_name/**"	had  been  speci-
	      fied).  This behavior was added in version 2.6.7.

       Note  that, when using the --recursive (-r) option (which is implied by -a), every subcom-
       ponent of every path is visited from the top down, so include/exclude patterns get applied
       recursively to each subcomponent's full name (e.g. to include "/foo/bar/baz" the subcompo-
       nents "/foo" and  "/foo/bar"  must  not	be  excluded).	 The  exclude  patterns  actually
       short-circuit the directory traversal stage when rsync finds the files to send.	If a pat-
       tern excludes a particular parent directory, it can render a deeper include pattern  inef-
       fectual	because  rsync	did  not  descend through that excluded section of the hierarchy.
       This is particularly important when using a trailing '*' rule.  For instance,  this  won't

	      + /some/path/this-file-will-not-be-found
	      + /file-is-included
	      - *

       This fails because the parent directory "some" is excluded by the '*' rule, so rsync never
       visits any of the files in the "some" or "some/path" directories.  One solution is to  ask
       for all directories in the hierarchy to be included by using a single rule: "+ */" (put it
       somewhere before the "- *" rule), and perhaps use the --prune-empty-dirs option.   Another
       solution is to add specific include rules for all the parent dirs that need to be visited.
       For instance, this set of rules works fine:

	      + /some/
	      + /some/path/
	      + /some/path/this-file-is-found
	      + /file-also-included
	      - *

       Here are some examples of exclude/include matching:

       o      "- *.o" would exclude all names matching *.o

       o      "- /foo" would exclude a file (or directory) named foo in the transfer-root  direc-

       o      "- foo/" would exclude any directory named foo

       o      "-  /foo/*/bar"  would  exclude  any  file named bar which is at two levels below a
	      directory named foo in the transfer-root directory

       o      "- /foo/**/bar" would exclude any file named bar two or more levels below a  direc-
	      tory named foo in the transfer-root directory

       o      The  combination	of "+ */", "+ *.c", and "- *" would include all directories and C
	      source files but nothing else (see also the --prune-empty-dirs option)

       o      The combination of "+ foo/", "+ foo/bar.c", and "- *" would include  only  the  foo
	      directory  and foo/bar.c (the foo directory must be explicitly included or it would
	      be excluded by the "*")

       The following modifiers are accepted after a "+" or "-":

       o      A / specifies that the include/exclude rule should be matched against the  absolute
	      pathname	of  the  current  item.   For example, "-/ /etc/passwd" would exclude the
	      passwd file any time the transfer was sending files from the "/etc" directory,  and
	      "-/ subdir/foo" would always exclude "foo" when it is in a dir named "subdir", even
	      if "foo" is at the root of the current transfer.

       o      A ! specifies that the include/exclude should take effect if the pattern	fails  to
	      match.  For instance, "-! */" would exclude all non-directories.

       o      A C is used to indicate that all the global CVS-exclude rules should be inserted as
	      excludes in place of the "-C".  No arg should follow.

       o      An s is used to indicate that the rule applies to the sending side.   When  a  rule
	      affects the sending side, it prevents files from being transferred.  The default is
	      for a rule to affect both sides unless --delete-excluded was  specified,	in  which
	      case  default  rules  become  sender-side only.  See also the hide (H) and show (S)
	      rules, which are an alternate way to specify sending-side includes/excludes.

       o      An r is used to indicate that the rule applies to the receiving side.  When a  rule
	      affects  the receiving side, it prevents files from being deleted.  See the s modi-
	      fier for more info.  See also the protect (P) and risk  (R)  rules,  which  are  an
	      alternate way to specify receiver-side includes/excludes.

       o      A  p indicates that a rule is perishable, meaning that it is ignored in directories
	      that are being deleted.  For instance, the -C option's default rules  that  exclude
	      things like "CVS" and "*.o" are marked as perishable, and will not prevent a direc-
	      tory that was removed on the source from being deleted on the destination.

       You can merge whole files into your filter rules by specifying either a	merge  (.)  or	a
       dir-merge (:) filter rule (as introduced in the FILTER RULES section above).

       There  are  two kinds of merged files -- single-instance ('.') and per-directory (':').	A
       single-instance merge file is read one time, and its rules are incorporated into the  fil-
       ter  list  in  the  place of the "." rule.  For per-directory merge files, rsync will scan
       every directory that it traverses for the named file, merging its contents when	the  file
       exists  into  the current list of inherited rules.  These per-directory rule files must be
       created on the sending side because it is the sending side that is being scanned  for  the
       available  files  to  transfer.	 These	rule files may also need to be transferred to the
       receiving side if you want them to affect what files don't get deleted (see  PER-DIRECTORY
       RULES AND DELETE below).

       Some examples:

	      merge /etc/rsync/default.rules
	      . /etc/rsync/default.rules
	      dir-merge .per-dir-filter
	      dir-merge,n- .non-inherited-per-dir-excludes
	      :n- .non-inherited-per-dir-excludes

       The following modifiers are accepted after a merge or dir-merge rule:

       o      A  - specifies that the file should consist of only exclude patterns, with no other
	      rule-parsing except for in-file comments.

       o      A + specifies that the file should consist of only include patterns, with no  other
	      rule-parsing except for in-file comments.

       o      A  C  is	a way to specify that the file should be read in a CVS-compatible manner.
	      This turns on 'n', 'w', and '-', but also allows the list-clearing token (!) to  be
	      specified.  If no filename is provided, ".cvsignore" is assumed.

       o      A  e will exclude the merge-file name from the transfer; e.g.  "dir-merge,e .rules"
	      is like "dir-merge .rules" and "- .rules".

       o      An n specifies that the rules are not inherited by subdirectories.

       o      A w specifies that the rules are word-split on whitespace  instead  of  the  normal
	      line-splitting.	This also turns off comments.  Note: the space that separates the
	      prefix from the rule is treated specially, so "- foo + bar" is parsed as two  rules
	      (assuming that prefix-parsing wasn't also disabled).

       o      You may also specify any of the modifiers for the "+" or "-" rules (above) in order
	      to have the rules that are read in from the file default to  having  that  modifier
	      set  (except  for  the  !  modifier,  which  would  not  be useful).  For instance,
	      "merge,-/ .excl" would treat the contents of .excl as absolute-path excludes, while
	      "dir-merge,s  .filt"  and ":sC" would each make all their per-directory rules apply
	      only on the sending side.  If the merge rule specifies sides to affect (via  the	s
	      or  r  modifier  or both), then the rules in the file must not specify sides (via a
	      modifier or a rule prefix such as hide).

       Per-directory rules are inherited  in  all  subdirectories  of  the  directory  where  the
       merge-file was found unless the 'n' modifier was used.  Each subdirectory's rules are pre-
       fixed to the inherited per-directory rules from its parents, which gives the newest  rules
       a higher priority than the inherited rules.  The entire set of dir-merge rules are grouped
       together in the spot where the merge-file was specified, so it  is  possible  to  override
       dir-merge  rules  via a rule that got specified earlier in the list of global rules.  When
       the list-clearing rule ("!") is read from a per-directory file, it only clears the  inher-
       ited rules for the current merge file.

       Another	way  to  prevent  a  single rule from a dir-merge file from being inherited is to
       anchor it with a leading slash.	Anchored rules in a per-directory merge-file are relative
       to  the merge-file's directory, so a pattern "/foo" would only match the file "foo" in the
       directory where the dir-merge filter file was found.

       Here's an example filter file which you'd specify via --filter=". file":

	      merge /home/user/.global-filter
	      - *.gz
	      dir-merge .rules
	      + *.[ch]
	      - *.o

       This will merge the contents of the /home/user/.global-filter file at  the  start  of  the
       list  and  also	turns  the ".rules" filename into a per-directory filter file.	All rules
       read in prior to the start of the directory scan follow the global anchoring rules (i.e. a
       leading slash matches at the root of the transfer).

       If  a  per-directory merge-file is specified with a path that is a parent directory of the
       first transfer directory, rsync will scan all the parent dirs from that starting point  to
       the transfer directory for the indicated per-directory file.  For instance, here is a com-
       mon filter (see -F):

	      --filter=': /.rsync-filter'

       That rule tells rsync to scan for the file .rsync-filter in all directories from the  root
       down  through the parent directory of the transfer prior to the start of the normal direc-
       tory scan of the file in the directories that are sent as a part of the transfer.   (Note:
       for an rsync daemon, the root is always the same as the module's "path".)

       Some examples of this pre-scanning for per-directory files:

	      rsync -avF /src/path/ /dest/dir
	      rsync -av --filter=': ../../.rsync-filter' /src/path/ /dest/dir
	      rsync -av --filter=': .rsync-filter' /src/path/ /dest/dir

       The  first  two	commands above will look for ".rsync-filter" in "/" and "/src" before the
       normal scan begins looking for the file in "/src/path" and its subdirectories.	The  last
       command	avoids	the  parent-dir scan and only looks for the ".rsync-filter" files in each
       directory that is a part of the transfer.

       If you want to include the contents of a ".cvsignore" in your patterns, you should use the
       rule  ":C", which creates a dir-merge of the .cvsignore file, but parsed in a CVS-compati-
       ble manner.  You can use this to affect where the --cvs-exclude (-C) option's inclusion of
       the per-directory .cvsignore file gets placed into your rules by putting the ":C" wherever
       you like in your filter rules.  Without this, rsync would add the dir-merge rule  for  the
       .cvsignore  file  at the end of all your other rules (giving it a lower priority than your
       command-line rules).  For example:

	      cat <<EOT | rsync -avC --filter='. -' a/ b
	      + foo.o
	      - *.old
	      rsync -avC --include=foo.o -f :C --exclude='*.old' a/ b

       Both of the above rsync commands are identical.	Each one will merge all the per-directory
       .cvsignore  rules  in  the  middle  of the list rather than at the end.	This allows their
       dir-specific rules to supersede the rules that follow the :C instead of being  subservient
       to all your rules.  To affect the other CVS exclude rules (i.e. the default list of exclu-
       sions, the contents of $HOME/.cvsignore, and the value of $CVSIGNORE) you should omit  the
       -C command-line option and instead insert a "-C" rule into your filter rules; e.g. "--fil-

       You can clear the current include/exclude list by using the "!" filter rule (as introduced
       in the FILTER RULES section above).  The "current" list is either the global list of rules
       (if the rule is encountered while parsing the filter options) or a  set	of  per-directory
       rules  (which are inherited in their own sub-list, so a subdirectory can use this to clear
       out the parent's rules).

       As mentioned earlier, global include/exclude patterns are anchored at  the  "root  of  the
       transfer"  (as  opposed	to per-directory patterns, which are anchored at the merge-file's
       directory).  If you think of the transfer as a subtree of names that are being  sent  from
       sender  to  receiver,  the  transfer-root is where the tree starts to be duplicated in the
       destination directory.  This root governs where patterns that start with a / match.

       Because the matching is relative to the transfer-root, changing the trailing  slash  on	a
       source path or changing your use of the --relative option affects the path you need to use
       in your matching (in addition to changing how much of the file tree is duplicated  on  the
       destination host).  The following examples demonstrate this.

       Let's  say  that  we  want  to  match  two  source  files,  one	with  an absolute path of
       "/home/me/foo/bar", and one with a path of "/home/you/bar/baz".	Here is how  the  various
       command choices differ for a 2-source transfer:

	      Example cmd: rsync -a /home/me /home/you /dest
	      +/- pattern: /me/foo/bar
	      +/- pattern: /you/bar/baz
	      Target file: /dest/me/foo/bar
	      Target file: /dest/you/bar/baz

	      Example cmd: rsync -a /home/me/ /home/you/ /dest
	      +/- pattern: /foo/bar		  (note missing "me")
	      +/- pattern: /bar/baz		  (note missing "you")
	      Target file: /dest/foo/bar
	      Target file: /dest/bar/baz

	      Example cmd: rsync -a --relative /home/me/ /home/you /dest
	      +/- pattern: /home/me/foo/bar	  (note full path)
	      +/- pattern: /home/you/bar/baz	  (ditto)
	      Target file: /dest/home/me/foo/bar
	      Target file: /dest/home/you/bar/baz

	      Example cmd: cd /home; rsync -a --relative me/foo you/ /dest
	      +/- pattern: /me/foo/bar	    (starts at specified path)
	      +/- pattern: /you/bar/baz     (ditto)
	      Target file: /dest/me/foo/bar
	      Target file: /dest/you/bar/baz

       The  easiest  way  to  see  what name you should filter is to just look at the output when
       using --verbose and put a / in front of the name (use the --dry-run option if  you're  not
       yet ready to copy any files).

       Without a delete option, per-directory rules are only relevant on the sending side, so you
       can feel free to exclude the merge files themselves without affecting  the  transfer.   To
       make  this  easy, the 'e' modifier adds this exclude for you, as seen in these two equiva-
       lent commands:

	      rsync -av --filter=': .excl' --exclude=.excl host:src/dir /dest
	      rsync -av --filter=':e .excl' host:src/dir /dest

       However, if you want to do a delete on the receiving side AND you want some  files  to  be
       excluded  from  being  deleted,	you'll need to be sure that the receiving side knows what
       files to exclude.  The easiest way is to include the  per-directory  merge  files  in  the
       transfer and use --delete-after, because this ensures that the receiving side gets all the
       same exclude rules as the sending side before it tries to delete anything:

	      rsync -avF --delete-after host:src/dir /dest

       However, if the merge files are not a part of the transfer, you'll need to either  specify
       some global exclude rules (i.e. specified on the command line), or you'll need to maintain
       your own per-directory merge files on the receiving side.  An example of the first is this
       (assume that the remote .rules files exclude themselves):

       rsync -av --filter=': .rules' --filter='. /my/extra.rules'
	  --delete host:src/dir /dest

       In  the	above example the extra.rules file can affect both sides of the transfer, but (on
       the sending side) the rules are subservient to the rules  merged  from  the  .rules  files
       because they were specified after the per-directory merge rule.

       In one final example, the remote side is excluding the .rsync-filter files from the trans-
       fer, but we want to use our own .rsync-filter files to control what gets  deleted  on  the
       receiving side.	To do this we must specifically exclude the per-directory merge files (so
       that they don't get deleted) and then put rules into the local files to control what  else
       should not get deleted.	Like one of these commands:

	   rsync -av --filter=':e /.rsync-filter' --delete \
	       host:src/dir /dest
	   rsync -avFF --delete host:src/dir /dest

       Batch mode can be used to apply the same set of updates to many identical systems. Suppose
       one has a tree which is replicated on a number of hosts.  Now suppose  some  changes  have
       been  made to this source tree and those changes need to be propagated to the other hosts.
       In order to do this using batch mode, rsync is run with the write-batch	option	to  apply
       the  changes  made  to  the  source tree to one of the destination trees.  The write-batch
       option causes the rsync client to store in a "batch file" all the  information  needed  to
       repeat this operation against other, identical destination trees.

       Generating the batch file once saves having to perform the file status, checksum, and data
       block generation more than once when updating multiple destination trees. Multicast trans-
       port protocols can be used to transfer the batch update files in parallel to many hosts at
       once, instead of sending the same data to every host individually.

       To apply the recorded changes to another destination tree, run rsync with  the  read-batch
       option,	specifying  the  name  of  the	same batch file, and the destination tree.  Rsync
       updates the destination tree using the information stored in the batch file.

       For your convenience, a script file is also created when the write-batch option	is  used:
       it  will  be  named the same as the batch file with ".sh" appended.  This script file con-
       tains a command-line suitable for updating a destination tree using the	associated  batch
       file.  It  can be executed using a Bourne (or Bourne-like) shell, optionally passing in an
       alternate destination tree pathname which is then used instead of the original destination
       path.   This is useful when the destination tree path on the current host differs from the
       one used to create the batch file.


	      $ rsync --write-batch=foo -a host:/source/dir/ /adest/dir/
	      $ scp foo* remote:
	      $ ssh remote ./foo.sh /bdest/dir/

	      $ rsync --write-batch=foo -a /source/dir/ /adest/dir/
	      $ ssh remote rsync --read-batch=- -a /bdest/dir/ <foo

       In these examples, rsync is used to update /adest/dir/ from /source/dir/ and the  informa-
       tion  to repeat this operation is stored in "foo" and "foo.sh".	The host "remote" is then
       updated with the batched data  going  into  the	directory  /bdest/dir.	 The  differences
       between	the  two  examples  reveals some of the flexibility you have in how you deal with

       o      The first example shows that the initial copy doesn't have to be local --  you  can
	      push  or	pull  data  to/from a remote host using either the remote-shell syntax or
	      rsync daemon syntax, as desired.

       o      The first example uses the created "foo.sh" file to get  the  right  rsync  options
	      when running the read-batch command on the remote host.

       o      The  second  example reads the batch data via standard input so that the batch file
	      doesn't need to be copied to the remote machine first.   This  example  avoids  the
	      foo.sh  script  because  it  needed  to use a modified --read-batch option, but you
	      could edit the script file if you wished to make use of it (just be  sure  that  no
	      other  option  is  trying  to  use  standard  input, such as the "--exclude-from=-"


       The read-batch option expects the destination tree that it is updating to be identical  to
       the  destination tree that was used to create the batch update fileset.	When a difference
       between the destination trees is encountered the update might be discarded with a  warning
       (if  the  file  appears	to be up-to-date already) or the file-update may be attempted and
       then, if the file fails to verify, the update discarded with an error.  This means that it
       should  be  safe  to re-run a read-batch operation if the command got interrupted.  If you
       wish to force the batched-update to always be attempted regardless of the file's size  and
       date,  use  the	-I  option (when reading the batch).  If an error occurs, the destination
       tree will probably be in a partially updated state. In that case, rsync can be used in its
       regular (non-batch) mode of operation to fix up the destination tree.

       The rsync version used on all destinations must be at least as new as the one used to gen-
       erate the batch file.  Rsync will die with an error if the protocol version in  the  batch
       file is too new for the batch-reading rsync to handle.  See also the --protocol option for
       a way to have the creating rsync generate a batch file that an older rsync can understand.
       (Note that batch files changed format in version 2.6.3, so mixing versions older than that
       with newer versions will not work.)

       When reading a batch file, rsync will force the value of certain options to match the data
       in  the batch file if you didn't set them to the same as the batch-writing command.  Other
       options can (and should) be changed.  For instance --write-batch changes to  --read-batch,
       --files-from  is  dropped,  and	the  --filter/--include/--exclude  options are not needed
       unless one of the --delete options is specified.

       The code that creates the BATCH.sh file transforms any filter/include/exclude options into
       a single list that is appended as a "here" document to the shell script file.  An advanced
       user can use this to modify the exclude list if a change in what gets deleted by  --delete
       is desired.  A normal user can ignore this detail and just use the shell script as an easy
       way to run the appropriate --read-batch command for the batched data.

       The original batch mode in rsync was based on "rsync+", but the latest version uses a  new

       Three  basic  behaviors	are  possible when rsync encounters a symbolic link in the source

       By default, symbolic links are not transferred at all.  A message  "skipping  non-regular"
       file is emitted for any symlinks that exist.

       If  --links is specified, then symlinks are recreated with the same target on the destina-
       tion.  Note that --archive implies --links.

       If --copy-links is specified, then symlinks are "collapsed"  by	copying  their	referent,
       rather than the symlink.

       Rsync  can  also  distinguish  "safe"  and "unsafe" symbolic links.  An example where this
       might be used is a web site mirror that wishes to ensure that the  rsync  module  that  is
       copied  does  not include symbolic links to /etc/passwd in the public section of the site.
       Using --copy-unsafe-links will cause any links to be copied as the file they point  to  on
       the  destination.   Using  --safe-links	will cause unsafe links to be omitted altogether.
       (Note that you must specify --links for --safe-links to have any effect.)

       Symbolic links are considered unsafe if they are absolute symlinks (start with /),  empty,
       or if they contain enough ".." components to ascend from the directory being copied.

       Here's  a  summary  of  how  the symlink options are interpreted.  The list is in order of
       precedence, so if your combination of options isn't mentioned, use the first line that  is
       a complete subset of your options:

	      Turn  all  symlinks into normal files (leaving no symlinks for any other options to

       --links --copy-unsafe-links
	      Turn all unsafe symlinks into files and duplicate all safe symlinks.

	      Turn all unsafe symlinks into files, noisily skip all safe symlinks.

       --links --safe-links
	      Duplicate safe symlinks and skip unsafe ones.

	      Duplicate all symlinks.

       rsync occasionally produces error messages that may seem a little cryptic.  The	one  that
       seems to cause the most confusion is "protocol version mismatch -- is your shell clean?".

       This  message is usually caused by your startup scripts or remote shell facility producing
       unwanted garbage on the stream that rsync is using for its transport. The way to  diagnose
       this problem is to run your remote shell like this:

	      ssh remotehost /bin/true > out.dat

       then  look  at  out.dat.  If everything is working correctly then out.dat should be a zero
       length file. If you are getting the above error from rsync then	you  will  probably  find
       that  out.dat contains some text or data. Look at the contents and try to work out what is
       producing it. The most common cause is incorrectly configured shell startup scripts  (such
       as .cshrc or .profile) that contain output statements for non-interactive logins.

       If  you	are having trouble debugging filter patterns, then try specifying the -vv option.
       At this level of verbosity rsync will  show  why  each  individual  file  is  included  or

       0      Success

       1      Syntax or usage error

       2      Protocol incompatibility

       3      Errors selecting input/output files, dirs

       4      Requested action not supported: an attempt was made to manipulate 64-bit files on a
	      platform that cannot support them; or an option was specified that is supported  by
	      the client and not by the server.

       5      Error starting client-server protocol

       6      Daemon unable to append to log-file

       10     Error in socket I/O

       11     Error in file I/O

       12     Error in rsync protocol data stream

       13     Errors with program diagnostics

       14     Error in IPC code

       20     Received SIGUSR1 or SIGINT

       21     Some error returned by waitpid()

       22     Error allocating core memory buffers

       23     Partial transfer due to error

       24     Partial transfer due to vanished source files

       25     The --max-delete limit stopped deletions

       30     Timeout in data send/receive

       35     Timeout waiting for daemon connection

	      The  CVSIGNORE  environment  variable supplements any ignore patterns in .cvsignore
	      files. See the --cvs-exclude option for more details.

	      Specify a default --iconv setting using this environment variable. (First supported
	      in 3.0.0.)

	      The RSYNC_RSH environment variable allows you to override the default shell used as
	      the transport for rsync.	Command line options  are  permitted  after  the  command
	      name, just as in the -e option.

	      The  RSYNC_PROXY	environment  variable allows you to redirect your rsync client to
	      use a web proxy when connecting to a rsync daemon. You should set RSYNC_PROXY to	a
	      hostname:port pair.

	      Setting  RSYNC_PASSWORD  to  the	required password allows you to run authenticated
	      rsync connections to an rsync daemon without user intervention. Note that this does
	      not  supply  a password to a remote shell transport such as ssh; to learn how to do
	      that, consult the remote shell's documentation.

       USER or LOGNAME
	      The USER or LOGNAME environment variables are used to determine the  default  user-
	      name  sent  to  an  rsync  daemon.   If  neither	is  set, the username defaults to

       HOME   The HOME environment variable is used to find the user's default .cvsignore file.

       /etc/rsyncd.conf or rsyncd.conf


       times are transferred as *nix time_t values

       When transferring to FAT filesystems rsync may re-sync unmodified files.  See the comments
       on the --modify-window option.

       file permissions, devices, etc. are transferred as native numerical values

       see also the comments on the --delete option

       Please report bugs! See the web site at http://rsync.samba.org/

       This man page is current for version 3.0.8 of rsync.

       The  options --server and --sender are used internally by rsync, and should never be typed
       by a user under normal circumstances.  Some awareness of these options may  be  needed  in
       certain	scenarios,  such  as  when setting up a login that can only run an rsync command.
       For instance, the support directory of the rsync distribution has an example script  named
       rrsync (for restricted rsync) that can be used with a restricted ssh login.

       rsync is distributed under the GNU public license.  See the file COPYING for details.

       A  WEB  site  is  available  at http://rsync.samba.org/.  The site includes an FAQ-O-Matic
       which may cover questions unanswered by this manual page.

       The primary ftp site for rsync is ftp://rsync.samba.org/pub/rsync.

       We would be delighted to hear from you if you like this program.  Please contact the mail-
       ing-list at rsync@lists.samba.org.

       This  program  uses the excellent zlib compression library written by Jean-loup Gailly and
       Mark Adler.

       Special thanks go out to: John Van Essen, Matt McCutchen, Wesley W. Terpstra,  David  Dyk-
       stra, Jos Backus, Sebastian Krahmer, Martin Pool, and our gone-but-not-forgotten compadre,
       J.W. Schultz.

       Thanks also to Richard Brent, Brendan Mackay, Bill Waite, Stephen Rothwell and David Bell.
       I've probably missed some people, my apologies if I have.

       rsync  was  originally  written	by  Andrew Tridgell and Paul Mackerras.  Many people have
       later contributed to it.  It is currently maintained by Wayne Davison.

       Mailing lists for support and development are available at http://lists.samba.org

					   26 Mar 2011					 rsync(1)

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