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init(8) [linux man page]

init(8) 						      System Manager's Manual							   init(8)

init - Upstart process management daemon SYNOPSIS
init is the parent of all processes on the system, it is executed by the kernel and is responsible for starting all other processes; it is the parent of all processes whose natural parents have died and it is responsible for reaping those when they die. Processes managed by init are known as jobs and are defined by files in the /etc/init directory. See init(5) for more details on configur- ing Upstart. Events init(8) is an event-based init daemon. This means that jobs will be automatically started and stopped by changes that occur to the system state, including as a result of jobs starting and stopping. This is different to dependency-based init daemons which start a specified set of goal jobs, and resolve the order in which they should be started and other jobs required by iterating their dependencies. For more information on starting and stopping jobs, as well as emitting events that will automatically start and stop jobs, see the manual page for the initctl(8) tool. The primary event is the startup(7) event, emitted when the daemon has finished loading its configuration. Other useful events are the starting(7), started(7), stopping(7) and stopped(7) events emitted as jobs change state. See upstart-events(7) for a summary of well-known events. System V compatibility The Upstart init(8) daemon does not keep track of runlevels itself, instead they are implemented entirely by its userspace tools. The event emitted to signify a change of runlevel is the runlevel(7) event. For more information see its manual page. OPTIONS
Options are passed to init(8) by placing them on the kernel command-line. --confdir directory Read job configuration files from a directory other than /etc/init. --no-sessions Disable user and chroot sessions. --no-startup-event Suppress emission of the initial startup event. This option should only be used for testing since it will stop the init(8) daemon from starting any jobs automatically. --session Connect to the D-Bus session bus. This should only be used for testing. --startup-event event Specify a different initial startup event from the standard startup(7). --verbose Outputs verbose messages about job state changes and event emissions to the system console or log, useful for debugging boot. NOTES
init is not normally executed by a user process, and expects to have a process id of 1. If this is not the case, it will actually execute telinit(8) and pass all arguments to that. See that manual page for further details. FILES
/etc/init.conf /etc/init/*.conf $HOME/.init/ AUTHOR
Written by Scott James Remnant <> REPORTING BUGS
Report bugs at <> COPYRIGHT
Copyright (C) 2009-2011 Canonical Ltd. This is free software; see the source for copying conditions. There is NO warranty; not even for MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICU- LAR PURPOSE. SEE ALSO
control-alt-delete(7) init(5) initctl(8) runlevel(7) startup(7) starting(7) started(7) stopping(7) stopped(7) telinit(8) upstart-events(7) Upstart 2011-04-06 init(8)

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stopping(7)						 Miscellaneous Information Manual					       stopping(7)

stopping - event signalling that a job is stopping SYNOPSIS
The stopping event is generated by the Upstart init(8) daemon when an instance of a job begins stopping. The JOB environment variable con- tains the job name, and the INSTANCE environment variable contains the instance name which will be empty for single-instance jobs. If the job is stopping normally, the RESULT environment variable will be ok, otherwise if the job is stopping because it has failed it will be failed. When the job has failed, the process that failed will be given in the PROCESS environment variable. This may be pre-start, post-start, main, pre-stop or post-stop; it may also be the special value respawn to indicate that the job is stopping because it hit the respawn limit. Finally in the case of a failed job, one of either EXIT_STATUS or EXIT_SIGNAL may be given to indicate the cause of the stop. Either EXIT_STATUS will contain the exit status code of the process, or EXIT_SIGNAL will contain the name of the signal that the process received. The normal exit job configuration stanza can be used to prevent particular exit status values or signals resulting in a failed job, see init(5) for more information. If neither EXIT_STATUS or EXIT_SIGNAL is given for a failed process, it is because the process failed to spawn (for example, file not found). See the system logs for the error. init(8) will wait for all services started by this event to be running, all tasks started by this event to have finished and all jobs stopped by this event to be stopped before allowing the job to continue stopping. This allows jobs to depend on other jobs, safely stopping themselves before their dependency goes away. This event is typically combined with the started(7) event by services. Job configuration files may use the export stanza to export environment variables from their own environment into the stopping event. See init(5) for more details. EXAMPLE
A service that wishes to depend on another service might use: start on started apache stop on stopping apache A task that must be run before another task or service is stopped might use: start on stopping postgresql RESULT=ok SEE ALSO
starting(7) started(7) stopped(7) init(5) Upstart 2009-07-09 stopping(7)
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