dpkg-buildpackage(1) dpkg utilities dpkg-buildpackage(1)
dpkg-buildpackage - build binary or source packages from sources
dpkg-buildpackage is a program that automates the process of building a Debian package. It
consists of the following steps:
1. It prepares the build environment by setting various environment variables (see ENVI-
RONMENT) and calls dpkg-source --before-build (unless -T or --target has been used).
2. It checks that the build-dependencies and build-conflicts are satisfied (unless -d is
3. If a specific target has been selected with the -T or --target option, it calls that
target and stops here. Otherwise it calls fakeroot debian/rules clean to clean the
build-tree (unless -nc is specified).
4. It calls dpkg-source -b to generate the source package (unless a binary-only build has
been requested with -b, -B or -A).
5. It calls debian/rules build followed by fakeroot debian/rules binary-target (unless a
source-only build has been requested with -S). Note that binary-target is either binary
(default case, or if -b is specified) or binary-arch (if -B is specified) or binary-
indep (if -A is specified).
6. It calls gpg to sign the .dsc file (if any, unless -us is specified).
7. It calls dpkg-genchanges to generate a .changes file. Many dpkg-buildpackage options
are forwarded to dpkg-genchanges.
8. It calls gpg to sign the .changes file (unless -uc is specified).
9. If -tc is specified, it will call fakeroot debian/rules clean again. Finally it calls
-b Specifies a binary-only build, no source files are to be built and/or distributed.
Passed to dpkg-genchanges.
-B Specifies a binary-only build, limited to architecture dependent packages. Passed
-A Specifies a binary-only build, limited to architecture independent packages. Passed
-S Specifies a source-only build, no binary packages need to be made. Passed to dpkg-
-F Specifies a normal full build, binary and source packages will be built. This is
the same as the default case when no build option is specified.
Calls debian/rules target after having setup the build environment and stops the
package build process here. If --as-root is also given, then the command is exe-
cuted as root (see -r). Note that official targets that are required to be run as
root by the Debian policy do not need this option.
Only meaningful together with --target. Requires that the target be run with root
Passed unchanged to dpkg-genchanges. See its manual page.
Specify the Debian architecture we build for. The architecture of the machine we
build on is determined automatically, and is also the default for the host machine.
Specify the GNU system type we build for. It can be used in place of -a or as a
complement to override the default GNU system type of the target Debian architec-
-jjobs Number of jobs allowed to be run simultaneously, equivalent to the make(1) option
of the same name. Will add itself to the MAKEFLAGS environment variable, which
should cause all subsequent make invocations to inherit the option. Also adds par-
allel=jobs to the DEB_BUILD_OPTIONS environment variable which allows debian/rules
files to use this information for their own purposes. The parallel=jobs in
DEB_BUILD_OPTIONS environment variable will override the -j value if this option is
-D Check build dependencies and conflicts; abort if unsatisfied. This is the default
-d Do not check build dependencies and conflicts.
-nc Do not clean the source tree (implies -b if nothing else has been selected among
-B, -A or -S).
-tc Clean the source tree (using gain-root-command debian/rules clean) after the pack-
age has been built.
When dpkg-buildpackage needs to execute part of the build process as root, it pre-
fixes the command it executes with gain-root-command if one has been specified.
Otherwise, if none has been specified, fakeroot will be used by default, if the
command is present. gain-root-command should start with the name of a program on
the PATH and will get as arguments the name of the real command to run and the
arguments it should take. gain-root-command can include parameters (they must be
space-separated) but no shell metacharacters. gain-root-command might typically be
fakeroot, sudo, super or really. su is not suitable, since it can only invoke the
user's shell with -c instead of passing arguments individually to the command to be
Building a Debian package usually involves invoking debian/rules as a command with
several standard parameters. With this option it's possible to use another program
invocation to build the package (it can include space separated parameters).
Alternatively it can be used to execute the standard rules file with another make
program (for example by using /usr/local/bin/make -f debian/rules as rules-file).
When dpkg-buildpackage needs to execute GPG or PGP to sign a source control (.dsc)
file or a .changes file it will run sign-command (searching the PATH if necessary)
instead of gpg. sign-command will get all the arguments that pgp would have gotten.
If sign-command takes its arguments in GPG rather than PGP style, you should give
the -sgpg option. sign-command should not contain spaces or any other shell
Specify a key-ID to use when signing packages.
-us Do not sign the source package.
-uc Do not sign the .changes file.
Passed unchanged to dpkg-source. See its manual page.
Pass option opt to dpkg-source.
Pass option opt to dpkg-genchanges.
Change the location of the dpkg database. The default location is /var/lib/dpkg.
Show the usage message and exit.
Show the version and exit.
Even if dpkg-buildpackage export some variables, debian/rules should not rely on their
presence and should instead use the respective interface to retrieve the needed values.
Variables set by dpkg-architecture
dpkg-architecture is called with the -a and -t parameters forwarded. Any variable that is
output by its -s option is integrated in the build environment.
The CFLAGS, CXXFLAGS, FFLAGS, CPPFLAGS and LDFLAGS environment variables are set to the
values that dpkg-buildflags returned. See its manual page for more information.
It should be possible to specify spaces and shell metacharacters in and initial arguments
for gain-root-command and sign-command.
dpkg-source(1), dpkg-architecture(1), dpkg-genchanges(1), fakeroot(1), gpg(1).
Copyright (C) 1995-1996 Ian Jackson
Copyright (C) 2000 Wichert Akkerman
Copyright (C) 2007 Frank Lichtenheld
Copyright (C) 2008-2010 Raphael Hertzog
This is free software; see the GNU General Public Licence version 2 or later for copying
conditions. There is NO WARRANTY.
Debian Project 2010-07-29 dpkg-buildpackage(1)