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Linux 2.6 - man page for make (linux section 1)

MAKE(1) 			       LOCAL USER COMMANDS				  MAKE(1)

       make - GNU make utility to maintain groups of programs

       make [ -f makefile ] [ options ] ... [ targets ] ...

       This  man  page	is an extract of the documentation of GNU make.  It is updated only occa-
       sionally, because the GNU project does not use nroff.  For  complete,  current  documenta-
       tion,  refer  to  the  Info  file  make.info  which  is	made from the Texinfo source file

       The purpose of the make utility is to determine automatically which pieces of a large pro-
       gram  need  to  be  recompiled,	and  issue  the  commands  to recompile them.  The manual
       describes the GNU implementation of make, which was written by Richard Stallman and Roland
       McGrath,  and  is currently maintained by Paul Smith.  Our examples show C programs, since
       they are most common, but you can use make with any programming	language  whose  compiler
       can  be	run with a shell command.  In fact, make is not limited to programs.  You can use
       it to describe any task where some files must be updated automatically from  others  when-
       ever the others change.

       To prepare to use make, you must write a file called the makefile that describes the rela-
       tionships among files in your program, and the states the commands for updating each file.
       In  a  program,	typically  the executable file is updated from object files, which are in
       turn made by compiling source files.

       Once a suitable makefile exists, each time you change some source files, this simple shell


       suffices to perform all necessary recompilations.  The make program uses the makefile data
       base and the last-modification times of the files to decide which of the files need to  be
       updated.  For each of those files, it issues the commands recorded in the data base.

       make  executes  commands in the makefile to update one or more target names, where name is
       typically a program.  If no -f option is present, make will look for  the  makefiles  GNU-
       makefile, makefile, and Makefile, in that order.

       Normally  you  should call your makefile either makefile or Makefile.  (We recommend Make-
       file because it appears prominently near the beginning of a directory listing, right  near
       other important files such as README.)  The first name checked, GNUmakefile, is not recom-
       mended for most makefiles.  You should use this name if you have a makefile that  is  spe-
       cific  to  GNU make, and will not be understood by other versions of make.  If makefile is
       `-', the standard input is read.

       make updates a target if it depends on prerequisite files that have  been  modified  since
       the target was last modified, or if the target does not exist.

       -b, -m
	    These options are ignored for compatibility with other versions of make.

       -B, --always-make
	    Unconditionally make all targets.

       -C dir, --directory=dir
	    Change to directory dir before reading the makefiles or doing anything else.  If mul-
	    tiple -C options are specified, each is interpreted relative to the previous one:  -C
	    / -C etc is equivalent to -C /etc.	This is typically used with recursive invocations
	    of make.

       -d   Print debugging information in addition to normal processing.  The debugging informa-
	    tion  says	which files are being considered for remaking, which file-times are being
	    compared and with what results,  which  files  actually  need  to  be  remade,  which
	    implicit  rules  are  considered and which are applied---everything interesting about
	    how make decides what to do.

	    Print debugging information in addition to normal processing.  If the FLAGS are omit-
	    ted,  then	the  behavior is the same as if -d was specified.  FLAGS may be a for all
	    debugging output (same as using -d), b for basic debugging, v for more verbose  basic
	    debugging, i for showing implicit rules, j for details on invocation of commands, and
	    m for debugging while remaking makefiles.

       -e, --environment-overrides
	    Give variables taken from the environment precedence over variables from makefiles.

       -f file, --file=file, --makefile=FILE
	    Use file as a makefile.

       -i, --ignore-errors
	    Ignore all errors in commands executed to remake files.

       -I dir, --include-dir=dir
	    Specifies a directory dir to search for included makefiles.  If  several  -I  options
	    are  used  to  specify several directories, the directories are searched in the order
	    specified.	Unlike the arguments to other flags of make, directories  given  with  -I
	    flags  may	come  directly after the flag: -Idir is allowed, as well as -I dir.  This
	    syntax is allowed for compatibility with the C preprocessor's -I flag.

       -j [jobs], --jobs[=jobs]
	    Specifies the number of jobs (commands) to run simultaneously.  If there is more than
	    one -j option, the last one is effective.  If the -j option is given without an argu-
	    ment, make will not limit the number of jobs that can run simultaneously.

       -k, --keep-going
	    Continue as much as possible after an error.  While the target that failed, and those
	    that  depend  on it, cannot be remade, the other dependencies of these targets can be
	    processed all the same.

       -l [load], --load-average[=load]
	    Specifies that no new jobs (commands) should be started if there are others jobs run-
	    ning  and the load average is at least load (a floating-point number).  With no argu-
	    ment, removes a previous load limit.

       -L, --check-symlink-times
	    Use the latest mtime between symlinks and target.

       -n, --just-print, --dry-run, --recon
	    Print the commands that would be executed, but do not execute them.

       -o file, --old-file=file, --assume-old=file
	    Do not remake the file file even if it is older than its  dependencies,  and  do  not
	    remake  anything  on  account of changes in file.  Essentially the file is treated as
	    very old and its rules are ignored.

       -p, --print-data-base
	    Print the data base (rules and variable values) that results from reading  the  make-
	    files; then execute as usual or as otherwise specified.  This also prints the version
	    information given by the -v switch (see below).  To print the data base without  try-
	    ing to remake any files, use make -p -f/dev/null.

       -q, --question
	    ``Question	mode''.   Do not run any commands, or print anything; just return an exit
	    status that is zero if the specified targets are already up to date,  nonzero  other-

       -r, --no-builtin-rules
	    Eliminate  use  of	the  built-in implicit rules.  Also clear out the default list of
	    suffixes for suffix rules.

       -R, --no-builtin-variables
	    Don't define any built-in variables.

       -s, --silent, --quiet
	    Silent operation; do not print the commands as they are executed.

       -S, --no-keep-going, --stop
	    Cancel the effect of the -k option.  This is never necessary except  in  a	recursive
	    make  where -k might be inherited from the top-level make via MAKEFLAGS or if you set
	    -k in MAKEFLAGS in your environment.

       -t, --touch
	    Touch files (mark them up to date without really changing them)  instead  of  running
	    their  commands.   This  is  used to pretend that the commands were done, in order to
	    fool future invocations of make.

       -v, --version
	    Print the version of the make program plus a copyright,  a	list  of  authors  and	a
	    notice that there is no warranty.

       -w, --print-directory
	    Print  a  message containing the working directory before and after other processing.
	    This may be useful for tracking down errors from complicated nests of recursive  make

	    Turn off -w, even if it was turned on implicitly.

       -W file, --what-if=file, --new-file=file, --assume-new=file
	    Pretend  that  the	target	file has just been modified.  When used with the -n flag,
	    this shows you what would happen if you were to modify that file.  Without -n, it  is
	    almost  the  same  as  running a touch command on the given file before running make,
	    except that the modification time is changed only in the imagination of make.

	    Warn when an undefined variable is referenced.

       GNU make exits with a status of zero if all makefiles were successfully parsed and no tar-
       gets that were built failed.  A status of one will be returned if the -q flag was used and
       make determines that a target needs to be rebuilt.  A status of two will  be  returned  if
       any errors were encountered.

       The GNU Make Manual

       See the chapter `Problems and Bugs' in The GNU Make Manual.

       This manual page contributed by Dennis Morse of Stanford University.  It has been reworked
       by Roland McGrath.  Further updates contributed by Mike Frysinger.

       Copyright (C) 1992, 1993, 1996, 1999 Free Software Foundation, Inc.  This file is part  of
       GNU make.

       GNU make is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the
       GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 2,
       or (at your option) any later version.

       GNU  make  is  distributed  in  the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY;
       without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR  PURPOSE.
       See the GNU General Public License for more details.

       You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with GNU make; see
       the file COPYING.  If not, write to the Free Software Foundation, Inc.,	51  Franklin  St,
       Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301, USA.

GNU					  22 August 1989				  MAKE(1)

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