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hpux(1m) [hpux man page]

hpux(1M)																  hpux(1M)

hpux - HP-UX bootstrap SYNOPSIS
devicefile] number] string] [devicefile] [devicefile] (same as [devicefile] devicefile string [devicefile] DESCRIPTION
is the HP-UX specific secondary system loader (SSL) utility for bootstrap (see isl(1M) for the initial system loader). It supports the operations summarized below, as shown in the and detailed later in this section. This hpux(1M) manpage only documents features on PA-RISC systems. For bootstrap information on Itanium(R)-based systems, see hpux.efi(1M). Operations The following operations are supported on PA-RISC systems: Loads an object file from an HP-UX file system or raw device and transfers control to the loaded image. (Note, the operation is position dependent). Lists the contents of HP-UX directories in a format similar to (See ls(1); only works on a local disk with a HFS file system). Lists the contents of HP-UX directories. (See ls(1); only works on a local disk with a HFS file system). Displays the contents of the file. Changes the contents of the file to that specified by string. Displays the release and version numbers of the utility. commands can be given interactively from the keyboard, or provided in an isl file. is limited to operations on the interface initialized by pdc(1M). In most cases, operations are limited to the boot device interface. Notation accepts numbers (numeric constants) in many of its options. Numbers follow the C language notation for decimal, octal, and hexadecimal constants. A leading 0 (zero) implies octal and a leading 0x or 0X implies hexadecimal. For example, 037, 0x1F, 0X1f, and 31 all repre- sent the same number, decimal 31. and operations accept devicefile specifications, which have the following format: The devicefiles specification is comprised of a device name and a file name. The device name (), consists of a generic name of an I/O sys- tem manager (device or interface driver) such as a hardware path to the device, and minor number. The manager name can be omitted entirely if the default is used. z is the physical hardware path to the device. The n is the minor number that controls manager-dependent func- tionality and is typically 0 or omitted. The file name part, filename, is a standard HP-UX path name. Some operations have defaults for particular components. A devicefile specification containing a device part only specifies a raw device. A devicefile specification con- taining a file name implies that the device contains an HP-UX file system, and that the filename resides in that file system. A typical boot devicefile specification is The manager is the lunpath hardware path (see intro(7)) to the disk device is and is the filename for the boot device. supports a consolidated list of managers: and The manager manages all disk devices. The manager manages the LAN interface used during Ignite-UX system installs. The manager manages all tape drives. Defaults Default values chosen by to complete a command are obtained through a sequence of steps. First, any components of the command specified explicitly are used. If the command is not complete, attempts to construct defaults from information maintained by (see pdc(1M)). If suf- ficient information to complete the command is unavailable, the file is searched. If the search fails, any remaining unresolved components of the command are satisfied by hard-coded defaults. There is no hard-coded default choice for a manager; if none can be chosen, reports an error. When the hardware path to the boot device is not specified, defaults to information maintained by The hardware path element has no hard- coded default. For the command, a devicefile specification without a file name indicates that the boot device does not contain an HP-UX file system. interprets this as a NULL (instead of missing) file name and does not search for a default. If the entire devicefile specification is missing, searches for a default; either the file contents or the hard-coded default is chosen. There are two possible hard-coded default devicefile specifications. One hard-coded default devicefile specification is The other hard- coded default devicefile specification is If you have a LVM or VxVM system where the boot volume and the root volume are on different logical volumes, the kernel would be This is because the boot volume will be mounted under /stand when the system is up. For all other configurations, the kernel would be The search order for the hard-coded defaults is and then boot Operation The operation loads an object file from an HP-UX file system or raw device as specified by the optional devicefile. It then transfers con- trol to the loaded image. Any missing components in a specified devicefile are supplied with a default. For example, a devicefile of would actually yield: and a devicefile of would yield To boot a saved kernel configuration, specify a devicefile of where configname is the name of the saved configuration to boot. For more details on saved kernel configurations, see kconfig(5). Regardless of how incomplete the specified devicefile may be, announces the complete devicefile specification used to find the object file. Along with this information, gives the sizes of the and segments and the entry offset of the loaded image, before transferring control to it. The operation accepts several options. Note that options be specified positionally as shown in the syntax statement in the SYNOPSIS. Options for the operations are as follows: Accept a new location (as specified by devicefile) and pass it to the loaded image. If that image is an HP-UX kernel, the kernel will erase its predefined I/O configuration, and configure in the specified devicefile. If the or option is specified, the kernel configures the devicefile as the or device, respectively. Note that can be repeated multiple times. Use the number and pass it as the flags word to the loaded image. Set the initial run-level for (see init(1M)) when booting the system. The run-level specified will override any run-level specified in an initdefault entry in (see inittab(4)). Boot the system in LVM maintenance mode, configure only the root volume, and then initiate single user mode. Boot the system in VxVM maintenance mode, configure only the root volume, and then initiate single user mode. Boot the system in tunable maintenance mode, also known as "failsafe boot" mode. This option will disregard the tunable settings and module settings in the kernel configuration, and boot with known good settings instead. Note: some systems that have been updated from earlier versions of HP-UX have boot loaders that do not support this flag. On those systems, the flag can be used instead. Boot the system with quorum override option. This option is used in a scenario where a disk is removed from the system or is otherwise unavailable, but the corre- sponding entry for the physical volume has not yet been removed from the volume group using Set the specified variable to the specified value. (No whitespace is allowed.) If variable is a kernel tunable parameter, this sets the value of that tunable, overriding the value in the kernel configuration being booted. value must be a decimal integer or a hexadecimal integer (with a prefix). places some restrictions on object files it can load. It accepts only the HP-UX magic numbers(0407), (0410), and(0413). See magic(4). The object file must contain an Auxiliary Header of the type and it must be the first Auxiliary Header (see a.out(4)). ll and ls Operations The and operations list the contents of the HP-UX directory specified by the optional devicefile. The output is similar to that of com- mand. The default devicefile is generated just as for defaulting to the current directory. set autofile Operation The operation overwrites the contents of the file, autofile, with the string specified (see in the section). show autofile Operation The operation displays the contents of the file, autofile (see in the section). DIAGNOSTICS
If an error is encountered, prints diagnostic messages to indicate the cause of the error. These messages fall into the General, Boot, Copy, Configuration, and System Call categories. System Call error messages are described in errno(2). The remaining messages are listed below. General The minor number in the devicefile specification is not recognized. The hardware path in the devicefile specification is not recognized. The devicefile specification requires (but does not contain) a hardware path component. A severe internal error has occurred. Report to your nearest HP Field Representative. Boot The specified object file does not have a recognizable magic number. The flags specification in the option is not recognized. Neither /stand/vmunix or /vmunix could be found. In booting from a raw device, the manager specified only has a character interface, which might cause problems if the block size is incorrect. An unsuccessful operation has overlaid in memory. It is impossible to return control to The specified object file is internally inconsistent; it is not long enough. Loading the specified object file would overlay Configuration An unknown error has occurred in adding the hardware path to the I/O tree. The internal error number is given. Contact your HP Field Representative. The manager specified is not configured into The manager named is not that of a logical device manager and cannot be used for direct I/O operations. An error was encountered attempting to rewind a device. An error was encountered attempting to forward-space a tape device. The skip count, if specified, must be greater than or equal to zero. The specified manager has no entry in the block or character device switch tables. Multiple incompatible hardware paths have been specified. The hardware path specified contains too many components for the specified manager. The hardware path specified contains too few components for the specified manager. Too many devices have been specified to EXAMPLES
As a preface to the examples which follow, here is a brief overview of HP-UX system boot-up sequences. Automatic Boot Automatic boot processes on various HP-UX systems follow similar general sequences. When power is applied to the HP-UX system processor, or the system Reset button is pressed, processor-dependent code (firmware) is executed to verify hardware and general system integrity (see pdc(1M)). After checking the hardware, gives the user the option to override the sequence by pressing any key. At that point, a message resembling the following usually appears on the console. If no keyboard activity is detected, commences the sequence by loading (see isl(1M)) and transferring control to it. Since an sequence is occurring, finds and executes the file which, on an HP-UX system, requests that be run with appropriate arguments. Messages similar to the following are displayed by on the console: the secondary system loader, then announces the operation it is performing, in this case the devicefile from which the load image comes, and the size, size, size, and start address of the load image, as shown below, before control is passed to the image. The loaded image then displays numerous configuration and status messages. Interactive Boot To use interactively, must be brought up in interactive mode by pressing any key during the interval allowed by then displays the primary, alternate, and if applicale, HA boot devices and presents the Main Menu. The bootpath may be chosen using such as or A search can also be done for boot devices: Potential boot devices are then displayed: The boot path may be chosen by Although all of the operations and options of can be used from interactively, they can also be executed from an file. In the examples below, user input is the remainder of the line after each prompt shown. The remainder of each example is text displayed by the system. Before going over specific examples of the various options and operations of here is an outline of the steps taken in the automatic boot process. Although the hardware configuration and boot paths shown are for a single server machine, the user interfaces are consistent across all models. When the system Reset button is depressed, executes self-test, and assuming the hardware tests pass, announces itself, and gives the user 10 seconds to override the sequence by entering any character. Text resembling the following is displayed on the con- sole: If no keyboard character is pressed within 10 seconds, commences the sequence by loading and transferring control to it. Because an sequence is occurring, merely announces itself, finds and executes the file which, on an HP-UX system, requests that be run with appropri- ate arguments. The following is displayed on the console. then announces the operation it is performing, in this case the devicefile from which the load image comes, and the size, size, size, and start address of the load image. The following is displayed before control is passed to the image. Finally, the loaded image displays numerous configuration and status messages, then proceeds to run-level 2 for multiuser mode of opera- tion. must be brought up in interactive mode to use the operations and options of To do this, simply enter a character during the 10 second interval allowed by then asks if the primary boot path is acceptable. Answering yes is usually appropriate. then loads and interactively prompts for commands. The following lines show the boot prompt, the response, subsequent boot messages, and finally the Initial System Loader (ISL) prompt that are sent to the display terminal: Although all of the operations and options of can be used from interactively, they can also be executed from an file. In the examples below, all user input follows the prompt on the same line. Subsequent text is resultant messages from the ISL. Default Boot Entering initiates the default boot sequence. The boot path read from is the manager associated with the device at that path is and the object file name is Booting Another Kernel Configuration In this example, initiates a operation for the saved kernel configuration Booting From Another Disk Only the hardware path and file name are specified in this example. All other values are boot defaults. The object file comes from the file system on another disk. Booting From LAN supports booting over a local area network for the purpose of installing the HP-UX operating system using Ignite-UX. See ignite(5) for details on configuring an Ignite-UX server and client system installation. This example shows how to boot a system from an Ignite-UX server to perform a cold-install of HP-UX. After turning the system on or press- ing the Reset button, press a key to interrupt the autoboot process (if autoboot is enabled) and at the BCH prompt, enter: where: is the IP address of the Ignite-UX server. The client then begins to load the install kernel (ignite the client) from the network server. To search for Ignite-UX servers, type the following ath the client console: The list of servers that you can boot the client from is displayed with the corresponding IP addresses and is similar to: You may need to run the command on another system to determine which address corresponds to your Ignite-UX server. To boot from one of the above servers, you would then type: Booting to from a local disk and then requesting an image to be loaded from the LAN is supported. Booting To Single User Mode In this example, the option is used to make the system come up in run-level for single user mode of operation. (Kernel Startup Messages Omitted) Booting With A Modified I/O Configuration Here a new console and dump device with a lunpath hardware path (see intro(7)) of are configured. Lunpath hardware paths cannot be directly used with the "-a" option. Instead, the output given by "ioscan -e" (ioscan(1m)) must be used. (Additional Kernel Startup Messages Omitted) Displaying The Autoexecute File In this example, is used to print the contents of the file residing in the boot LIF, on the device from which was booted. Optionally, a devicefile can be specified in order to read the file from the boot LIF of another boot device. Changing The Autoexecute File This example shows how to change the contents of the file. Once done, the system can be reset, and the new command will be used during any unattended boot. Listing Directory Contents The contents of the directory on the root disk are listed. The format shows the file protections, number of links, user id, group id, and size in bytes for each file in the directory. There are three available kernel configurations to boot: the default configuration the auto- matic backup configuration and one other saved configuration Listing the files over the LAN is not supported. Getting The Version The option is used to get the version numbers of SEE ALSO
ls(1), nslookup(1), boot(1M), fsck(1M), hpux.efi(1M), init(1M), ioscan(1M), isl(1M), pdc(1M), errno(2), a.out(4), inittab(4), magic(4), ignite(5), intro(7). PA-RISC Systems Only hpux(1M)
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