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XDVI(1) 										  XDVI(1)

NAME
       xdvi - DVI Previewer for the X Window System

SYNOPSIS
       xdvi  [+[page]]	[--help]  [-allowshell] [-altfont font] [-bg color] [-browser WWWbrowser]
       [-copy]	[-cr  color]  [-debug  bitmask|string[,string  ...]]	[-display   host:display]
       [-dvipspath  path] [-editor command] [-expert] [-expertmode flag] [-fg color] [-findstring
       string] [-text-encoding encoding]  [-font  font]  [-fullscreen  ]  [-gamma  g]  [-geometry
       geometry]  [-gsalpha]  [-gspalette  palette]  [-h]  [-help]  [-hl  color] [-anchorposition
       anchor] [-hush] [-hushchars]  [-hushchecksums]  [-warnpecials]  [-hushstdout]  [-hushbell]
       [-icongeometry  geometry] [-iconic] [-install] [-interpreter path] [-keep] [-l] [-license]
       [-linkcolor color] [-linkstyle 0|1|2|3] [-margins dimen] [-mfmode mode-def[:dpi]] [-mgs[n]
       size]  [-mousemode  0|1|2]  [-nocolor]  [-nofork]  [-noghostscript] [-nogrey] [-nogssafer]
       [-noinstall] [-nomakepk] [-nomatchinverted] [-noomega] [-noscan] [-not1lib]  [-notempfile]
       [-offsets  dimen]  [-p  pixels] [-paper papertype] [-pause] [-pausespecial special-string]
       [-postscript flag] [-rulecolor color] [-rv] [-S density] [-s shrink] [-safer] [-sidemargin
       dimen]	[-sourceposition  line[:col][ ]filename]  [-statusline]  [-thorough]  [-topmargin
       dimen] [-unique] [-version] [-visitedlinkcolor color]  [-warnspecials]  [-watchfile  secs]
       [-wheelunit pixels] [-xoffset dimen] [-yoffset dimen] [dvi_file]

DESCRIPTION
       Xdvi  is a program for previewing dvi files, as produced e.g. by the tex(1) program, under
       the X window system.

       Xdvi can show the file shrunken by various integer factors,  and  it  has  a  ``magnifying
       glass''	for  viewing  parts  of the page enlarged (see the section MAGNIFIER below). This
       version of xdvi is also referred to as xdvik since it uses the kpathsea library to  locate
       and generate font files.  In addition to that, it supports the following features:

	 - hyperlinks in DVI files (section HYPERLINKS),

	 - direct rendering of Postscript<tm> Type1 fonts (section T1LIB),

	 - source specials in the DVI file (section SOURCE SPECIALS),

	 - string search in DVI files (section STRING SEARCH),

	 - saving or printing (parts of) the DVI file (sections PRINT DIALOG and SAVE DIALOG).

       Xdvi  can  be compiled with the Motif toolkit or the Xaw (Athena) toolkit (and variants of
       it), and the Motif version has a slightly different GUI; these differences are  noted  be-
       low.

       Before  displaying  a  page  of a DVI file, xdvi will check to see if the file has changed
       since the last time it was displayed.  If this is the case, it will reload the file.  This
       feature allows you to preview many versions of the same file while running xdvi only once.
       Since it cannot read partial DVI files, xdvik versions starting from 22.74.3 will create a
       temporary copy of the DVI file being viewed, to ensure that the file can be viewed without
       interruptions. (The -notempfile can be used to turn off this feature).

       Xdvi can show PostScript<tm> specials by any of three methods.  It will try first  to  use
       Display	PostScript<tm>,  then NeWS, then it will try to use Ghostscript to render the im-
       ages.  All of these options depend on additional software to work properly; moreover, some
       of them may not be compiled into this copy of xdvi.

       For performance reasons, xdvi does not render PostScript specials in the magnifying glass.

       If no file name has been specified on the command line, xdvi will try to open the most re-
       cently opened file; if the file history (accessible via the File > Open	Recent	menu)  is
       empty,  or  if none of the files in the history are valid DVI files, it will pop up a file
       selector for choosing a file name.  (In previous versions, which didn't have a file histo-
       ry,  the  file selector was always used; you can set the X resource noFileArgUseHistory to
       false to get back the old behaviour.)

OPTIONS
       In addition to specifying the dvi file (with or without the .dvi extension), xdvi supports
       the following command line options.  If the option begins with a `+' instead of a `-', the
       option is restored to its default value.  By default, these options can be set via the re-
       source names given in parentheses in the description of each option.

       +page  Specifies the first page to show.  If + is given without a number, the last page is
	      assumed; the first page is the default.

       -allowshell
	      (.allowShell) This option enables the shell escape in  PostScript  specials.   (For
	      security	reasons,  shell  escapes are disabled by default.)  This option should be
	      rarely used; in particular it should not be used just  to  uncompress  files:  that
	      function	is  done  automatically if the file name ends in .Z, .gz, or .bz2.  Shell
	      escapes are always turned off if the -safer option is used.

       -altfont font
	      (.altFont) Declares a default font to use when the font in the dvi file  cannot  be
	      found.  This is useful, for example, with PostScript <tm> fonts.

       -background color
	      (.background) Determines the color of the background.  Same as -bg.

       -bg color
	      (.background) Determines the color of the background.

       -browser browser
	      (.wwwBrowser) Defines the web browser used for handling external URLs. The value of
	      this option or resource has the same syntax as the  BROWSER  environment	variable;
	      see  the	explanation of that variable in the section `ENVIRONMENT' below for a de-
	      tailed description.  If neither the option nor the X resource wwwBrowser is  speci-
	      fied,  the environment variables BROWSER and WWWBROWSER (in that order) are used to
	      determine the browser command. If these are not set either, the  following  default
	      value is used: xdg-open %s:htmlview %s:firefox -remote -remote "openURL(%s,new-win-
	      dow)":mozilla    -remote	  "openURL(%s,new-window)":netscape    -raise	  -remote
	      "openURL(%s,new-window)":xterm -e w3m %s:xterm -e lynx %s:xterm -e wget %s

       -copy  (.copy) Always use the copy operation when writing characters to the display.  This
	      option may be necessary for correct operation on a color	display,  but  overstrike
	      characters  will be incorrect.  If greyscale anti-aliasing is in use, the -copy op-
	      eration will disable the use of colorplanes and make overstrikes	come  out  incor-
	      rectly.  See also -thorough.

       -cr color
	      (.cursorColor)  Determines  the color of the mouse cursor.  The default is the same
	      as the foreground color.

       -debug bitmask|string[,string ...]
	      (.debugLevel) If nonzero, prints additional information on  standard  output.   The
	      argument	can be either a bitmask specified as a decimal number, or comma-separated
	      list of strings.
	      For the bitmask representation, multiple values can be specified by adding the num-
	      bers  that  represent the individual bits; e.g. to debug all all file searching and
	      opening commands, use 4032 (= 2048 + 1024 + 512 + 256 + 128 + 64). Use -1  to  turn
	      on debugging of everything (this will produce huge output).
	      For  the string representation, use the strings listed in the following table, with
	      a comma to separate the values; e.g. to debug all file searching and  opening  com-
	      mands,  use search,expand,paths,hash,stat,open.  (The option `kpathsea' is provided
	      as a shorthand for these.)  Note that such a list may need to be quoted to  prevent
	      the shell from interpreting commas or spaces in the list.
	      The individual numbers and strings have the following meanings:

	       1       bitmap	   Bitmap creation
	       2       dvi	   DVI translation
	       4       pk	   PK fonts
	       8       batch	   Batch mode: Exit after
				   reading the DVI file
	       16      event	   Event handling
	       32      ps	   PostScript interpreter calls
	       64      stat	   Kpathsea stat(2) calls
	       128     hash	   Kpathsea hash table lookups
	       256     open	   Kpathsea file opening
	       512     paths	   Kpathsea path definitions
	       1024    expand	   Kpathsea path expansion
	       2048    search	   Kpathsea searching
	       4032    kpathsea    All Kpathsea options
	       4096    htex	   Hypertex specials
	       8192    src	   Source specials
	       16384   client	   Client/server mode (see -unique
				   and -sourceposition options)
	       32768   t1	   Type1 font library messages
	       65536   t1_verbose  Verbose Type1 library messages
	       131072  gui	   GUI elements

	      Some  of	the Kpathsea debugging options are actually provided by Kpathsea; see the
	      Debugging section in the Kpathsea manual for more information on these.

       -density density
	      (.densityPercent) Determines the density used when shrinking bitmaps for fonts.	A
	      higher  value produces a lighter font.  The default value is 40.	If greyscaling is
	      in use, this argument does not apply; use -gamma instead.  See also  the	`S'  key-
	      stroke.  Same as -S.

       -display host:display
	      Specifies  the  host and screen to be used for displaying the dvi file.  By default
	      this is obtained from the environment variable DISPLAY.

       -dvipspath path
	      (.dvipsPath) Use path as the dvips program to use when printing.	The  default  for
	      this is dvips.  The program or script should read the DVI file from standard input,
	      and write the Postscript file to standard output.

       -editor editor
	      (.editor) Specifies the editor that will be invoked when the  source-special()  ac-
	      tion is triggered to start a reverse search (by default via Ctrl-Mouse 1).  The ar-
	      gument to this option is a format string in which occurrences  of  ``%f''  are  re-
	      placed  by  the  file  name,  occurrences of ``%l'' are replaced by the line number
	      within the file, and optional occurrences of ``%c'' are replaced by the column num-
	      ber within the line.

	      If  neither the option nor the X resource .editor is specified, the following envi-
	      ronment variables are checked to determine the editor command: XEDITOR, VISUAL, and
	      EDITOR (in this sequence). If the string is found as the value of the VISUAL or ED-
	      ITOR environment variables, then ``xterm -e '' is prepended to the string;  if  the
	      editor  is specified by other means, then it must be in the form of a shell command
	      to pop up an X window with an editor in it. If none of these variables  is  set,	a
	      warning message is displayed and the command ``xterm -e vi +%l %f'' is used.

	      If no ``%f'' or ``%l'' occurs in the string, the missing format strings are append-
	      ed automatically.  (This is for compatibility with other programs when using one of
	      the environment variables).

	      A  new  instance of the editor is started each time this command is used; therefore
	      it is preferable to use an editor that can be invoked in `client' mode to load  new
	      files into the same instance. Example settings are:

	      emacsclient --no-wait
		     (older Emacsen)

	      gnuclient -q
		     (XEmacs and newer Emacsen)

	      gvim --servername xdvi --remote
		     (VIM v6.0+; the `--servername xdvi' option will cause gvim to run a dedicat-
		     ed instance for the files opened by xdvi.)

	      nc     (nedit)

	      Note that those strings need to be enclosed into quotes when using them on the com-
	      mand-line to protect them from the shell; when using them as argument for the .edi-
	      tor resource in an X resource file, no quotes should be used.

	      NOTE ON SECURITY: The argument of this option isn't executed as  a  shell  command,
	      but via exec() to prevent evil tricks with the contents of source specials.

       -expert
	      This option is only supported for backwards compatibility; it is equivalent to -ex-
	      pertmode 0, which should be preferred.

       -expertmode flag
	      (.expertMode) With an argument of 0, this option switches off the  display  of  the
	      buttons,	scrollbars,  the  toolbar (Motif only), the statusline and the page list.
	      These GUI elements can also be (de)activated separately, by combining the appropri-
	      ate  values in the flag argument. This acts similar to the -debug option: The inte-
	      ger flag is treated as a bitmap where each bit represents one element. If  the  bit
	      has  the value 1, the element is switched on, if it has the value 0, the element is
	      switched off. The meaning of the bits is as follows:

	       1       statusline
	       2       scrollbars
	       4       Motif: pagelist, Xaw: buttons and pagelist
	       8       toolbar (Motif only)
	       16      menubar (Motif only)

	      For example, to turn on only the statusline and the scrollbars, use 3 (=	1  +  2).
	      See also the `x' keystroke, where the bits are addressed by their positions, from 1
	      to 3 (Xaw) or 5 (Motif), respectively.

       If the statusline is not active, all messages that would normally be printed to	the  sta-
       tusline will be printed to stdout, unless the -hushstdout option is used.

       -fg color
	      (.foreground) Determines the color of the text (foreground).

       -text-encoding encoding
	      (.textEncoding)  Use  encoding as text encoding of the string in the "Find" window.
	      Usually, this shouldn't be needed since the encoding is determined from the  locale
	      settings.

       -findstring string
	      This  option triggers a search for string in the DVI file mentioned on the command-
	      line, similar to forward search (see the description of the sourceposition option):
	      If  there  is  already  another instance of xdvi running on the displaying that DVI
	      file, it will cause that instance to perform the search instead. The search  starts
	      at the top of the current page of the DVI file.

       -font font
	      (*font)  Sets  the  font used in menus, buttons etc., as described in the X(7x) man
	      page. The font for child windows can be set separately, e.g.:

	      xdvi*statusline*font: \
		 -*-helvetica-medium-r-*-*-12-*-*-*-*-*-*-*

       -foreground color
	      Same as -fg.

       -fullscreen
	      When this option is used, xdvi will (try to) run in fullscreen mode, with no window
	      decorations.   This  option is not guaranteed to work with all windowmanagers/desk-
	      tops; if you're experiencing problems with it, please use the -geometry option  in-
	      stead,  and  a  suitable	window	manager setting to remove the window decorations.
	      When using this option for presentations, you might want to get rid of all the con-
	      trol widgets as well, using the -expertmode option. This option can also be toggled
	      at runtime using the fullscreen action (by default bound to Ctrl-l).

       -gamma gamma
	      (.gamma) Controls the interpolation of colors in the greyscale anti-aliasing  color
	      palette.	Default value is 1.0.  For 0 < gamma < 1, the fonts will be lighter (more
	      like the background), and for gamma > 1, the fonts will be darker  (more	like  the
	      foreground).  Negative values behave the same way, but use a slightly different al-
	      gorithm.	For color and grayscale displays; for monochrome, see -density.  See also
	      the `S' keystroke.

       -geometry geometry
	      (.geometry)  Specifies the initial geometry of the main window, as described in the
	      X(7x) man page. The geometry of child windows can be set separately, e.g.:
	      xdvi*helpwindow.geometry: 600x800

       -gsalpha
	      (.gsAlpha) Causes Ghostscript to be called with the x11alpha driver instead of  the
	      x11  driver.  The x11alpha driver enables anti-aliasing in PostScript specials, for
	      a nicer appearance.  It is available on newer versions of Ghostscript.  This option
	      can also be toggled with the `V' keystroke.

       -gspalette palette
	      (.palette)  Specifies  the  palette to be used when using Ghostscript for rendering
	      PostScript specials.  Possible values are Color, Greyscale,  and	Monochrome.   The
	      default is Color.

       -h, -help, --help
	      Prints  a  short help text with an overview of the command-line options to standard
	      output.

       -hl color
	      (.highlight) Determines the color of the page border, of the ruler in `ruler mode',
	      and  of  the highlighting markers in forward search and string search.  The default
	      is the foreground color.

       -anchorposition anchor
	      Jump to anchor after opening the DVI file. This is only useful when  invoking  xdvi
	      from other applications.

       -hush  (.Hush) Causes xdvi to suppress all suppressible warnings.

       -hushchars
	      (.hushLostChars)	Causes	xdvi  to suppress warnings about references to characters
	      which are not defined in the font.

       -hushchecksums
	      (.hushChecksums) Causes xdvi to suppress warnings about checksum mismatches between
	      the dvi file and the font file.

       -hushstdout
	      (.hushStdout)  Suppresses  printing of status messages to stdout.  Note that errors
	      or warnings will still be printed to stderr even if this option is used.

       -hushbell
	      (.hushBell) Don't sound the X bell when an error occurs.

       -icongeometry geometry
	      (.iconGeometry) Specifies the initial position for the icon.

       -iconic
	      (.iconic) Causes the xdvi window to start in the iconic state.  The default  is  to
	      start with the window open.

       -install
	      (.install) If xdvi is running under a PseudoColor visual, then (by default) it will
	      check for TrueColor visuals with more bits per pixel, and switch to such	a  visual
	      if  one  exists.	If no such visual exists, it will use the current visual and col-
	      ormap.  If -install is selected, however, it will still use a TrueColor visual with
	      a  greater  depth, if one is available; otherwise, it will install its own colormap
	      on the current visual.  If the current visual is not PseudoColor,  then  xdvi  will
	      not switch the visual or colormap, regardless of its options.  The default value of
	      the install resource is the special value, maybe.  There	is  no	+install  option.
	      See also -noinstall, and the GREYSCALING AND COLORMAPS section.

       -interpreter filename
	      (.interpreter) Use filename as the Ghostscript interpreter.  By default it uses gs.

       -keep  (.keepPosition) Sets a flag to indicate that xdvi should not move to the home posi-
	      tion when moving to a new page.  See also the `k' keystroke. This flag  is  honored
	      by  all  page  switching actions and by up-or-previous() / down-or-next(), although
	      the latter only honor the horizontal postion, not the vertical  one.   This  allows
	      for a "continuous" scrolling back an forth through a document with a display window
	      narrower than a page width.

       -l     (.listFonts) List the names of all fonts used.

       -license
	      Prints licensing information.

       -linkcolor
	      (.linkColor) Color used for unvisited hyperlinks (`Blue2' by  default).  Hyperlinks
	      are  unvisited  before  you click on them, or after the DVI file has been reloaded.
	      The value should be either a valid X color name (such as DarkGoldenrod4) or a hexa-
	      decimal color string (such as #8b6508).  See also -visitedlinkcolor and -linkstyle.

       -linkstyle
	      (.LinkStyle)  Determines the style in which hyperlinks are displayed. Possible val-
	      ues and their meanings are:

	       0       No highlighting of links
	       1       Underline links with link color
	       2       No underlining, color text with link color
	       3       Underline and display text colored with
		       link color

	      The values for link color are specified by  the  options/resources  -linkcolor  and
	      -visitedlinkcolor (which see).

       -margins dimen
	      (.Margin)  Specifies  the size of both the top margin and side margin.  This deter-
	      mines the ``home'' position of the page within the window as follows.  If  the  en-
	      tire page fits in the window, then the margin settings are ignored.  If, even after
	      removing the margins from the left, right, top, and bottom, the page  still  cannot
	      fit  in  the  window, then the page is put in the window such that the top and left
	      margins are hidden, and presumably the upper left-hand corner of the  text  on  the
	      page  will  be in the upper left-hand corner of the window.  Otherwise, the text is
	      centered in the window.  The dimension should be a decimal number  optionally  fol-
	      lowed by any of the two-letter abbreviations for units accepted by TeX (pt, pc, in,
	      bp, cm, mm, dd, cc, or sp).  By default, the unit will be  cm  (centimeters).   See
	      also -sidemargin, -topmargin, and the keystroke `M.'

       -mfmode mode-def
	      (.mfMode)  Specifies  a  mode-def  string, which can be used in searching for fonts
	      (see ENVIRONMENT, below).  Generally, when changing the mode-def, it is also neces-
	      sary  to change the font size to the appropriate value for that mode.  This is done
	      by adding a colon and the value in dots per inch; for example, -mfmode  ljfour:600.
	      This  method overrides any value given by the pixelsPerInch resource or the -p com-
	      mand-line argument.  The metafont mode is also passed to metafont during	automatic
	      creation of fonts.  By default, it is unspecified.

       -mgs size
	      Same as -mgs1.

       -mgs[n] size
	      (.magnifierSize[n])  Specifies the size of the window to be used for the ``magnify-
	      ing glass'' for Button n.  The size may be given as an integer (indicating that the
	      magnifying  glass  is  to  be square), or it may be given in the form widthxheight.
	      See the MOUSE ACTIONS section.  Defaults are 200x150, 400x250,  700x500,	1000x800,
	      and 1200x1200.

       -mousemode [0|1|2]
	      (.mouseMode) Specifies the default mode of xdvi at startup: Magnifier(0), Text Se-
	      lection Mode(1) or Ruler Mode(2). See the section MODES, below, for more informa-
	      tion.

       -nocolor
	      (.color)	Turns off the use of color specials.  This option can be toggled with the
	      `C' keystroke.  (Note: -nocolor corresponds to color:off; +nocolor to color:on.)

       -nofork
	      (.fork) With the -sourceposition and -unique options, the default behavior  is  for
	      xdvi  to	put itself into the background (like a daemon) if there is no appropriate
	      instance of xdvi already running.  This argument makes it run in the foreground in-
	      stead.   This  is  useful  for debugging, or if your client application cannot deal
	      well with a program self-backgrounding itself in this way -- e.g.,  the  IPC  func-
	      tions  in  emacs	are  known  to have problems with this.  If no -sourceposition or
	      -unique argument is given, then this option has no effect.  (Note:  -nofork  corre-
	      sponds to fork:off; +nofork to fork:on.)

       -noghostscript
	      (.ghostscript)  Inhibits	the use of Ghostscript for displaying PostScript<tm> spe-
	      cials.  (Note: -noghostscript corresponds  to  ghostscript:off;  +noghostscript  to
	      ghostscript:on.)

       -nogrey
	      (.grey)  Turns  off  the use of greyscale anti-aliasing when printing shrunken bit-
	      maps.  (Note: -nogrey corresponds to grey:off; +nogrey to grey:on.)  See	also  the
	      `G' keystroke.

       -nogssafer
	      (.gsSafer)  Normally,  if  Ghostscript  is  used to render PostScript specials, the
	      Ghostscript interpreter is run with the option -dSAFER.  The -nogssafer option runs
	      Ghostscript without -dSAFER.  The -dSAFER option in Ghostscript disables PostScript
	      operators such as deletefile, to prevent	possibly  malicious  PostScript  programs
	      from having any effect.  If the -safer option is specified, then this option has no
	      effect; in that case Ghostscript is always run  with  -dSAFER.   (Note:  -nogssafer
	      corresponds to gsSafer:off; +nogssafer to gsSafer:on.)

       -noinstall
	      (.install)  Inhibit  the default behavior of switching to a TrueColor visual if one
	      is available with more bits per pixel than the current visual.   (Note:  -noinstall
	      corresponds  install:off;  there	is no +noinstall option.)  See also -install, and
	      the GREYSCALING AND COLORMAPS section.

       -nomakepk
	      (.makePk) Turns off automatic generation of font files that cannot be found by oth-
	      er means.  (Note: -nomakepk corresponds to makePk:off; +nomakepk to makePK:on.)

       -nomatchinverted
	      (.matchInverted)	Don't highlight string search matches in inverted color; instead,
	      draw a rectangle in highlight color (see the -hl option) around the match. This op-
	      tion  is activated automatically if the display isn't running in TrueColor.  (Note:
	      -nomatchinverted corresponds to matchInverted:off; +nomatchinverted to matchInvert-
	      ed:on.)

       -noomega
	      (.omega) This will disable the use of Omega extensions when interpreting DVI files.
	      By default, the additional opcodes 129 and 134 are recognized by xdvi as Omega  ex-
	      tensions and interpreted as requests to set 2-byte characters. The only drawback is
	      that the virtual font array will require 65536 positions instead of the default 256
	      positions,  i.e.	the  memory  requirements of xdvi will be slightly larger. If you
	      find this unacceptable or encounter another problem with the Omega extensions,  you
	      can switch this extension off by using -noomega (but please do send a bug report if
	      you find such problems - see the bug address in the AUTHORS section below).
	      (Note: -noomega corresponds to omega: off; +noomega to omega: on.)

       -noscan
	      (.prescan) By default, xdvi does a preliminary scan of the dvi file to process  any
	      papersize  specials;  this  is especially important at startup since the paper size
	      may be needed to determine the window size.  If  PostScript<tm>  is  in  use,  then
	      prescanning  is also necessary in order to properly process header files.  In addi-
	      tion, prescanning is needed to correctly determine the background color of a  page.
	      This  option  turns  off	such  prescanning.  (Prescanning will be automatically be
	      turned back on if xdvi detects  any  of  the  specials  mentioned  above.)   (Note:
	      -noscan corresponds to prescan:off; +noscan to prescan:on.)

       -not1lib
	      (.t1lib)	This  will disable the use of T1Lib to display PostScript<tm> fonts.  Use
	      this option as a workaround when you encounter problems with the display	of  T1Lib
	      (but please don't forget to send a bug report in this case, to the URL mentioned in
	      the section AUTHORS below).
	      (Note: -not1lib corresponds to t1lib:off; +not1lib to t1lib:on.)

       -notempfile
	      (.tempFile) As mentioned in the section DESCRIPTION above, xdvi will create a  tem-
	      porary  copy  of the DVI file so that it can be accessed without interruptions even
	      while the file is being rewritten by TeX.  Since this introduces	the  overhead  of
	      copying  the file every time it has changed, the -notempfile allows you to turn off
	      this behaviour. In this case, exposing parts of the window while the  DVI  file  is
	      being  written by TeX will erase the current window contents until the DVI file can
	      be completely reread.
	      (Note: -notempfile corresponds to tempFile:off; +notempfile to tempFile:on.)

       -offsets dimen
	      (.Offset) Specifies the size of both the horizontal and  vertical  offsets  of  the
	      output  on  the  page.  By decree of the Stanford TeX Project, the default TeX page
	      origin is always 1 inch over and down from the top-left page corner, even when non-
	      American	paper  sizes are used.	Therefore, the default offsets are 1.0 inch.  The
	      argument dimen should be a decimal number optionally followed by any  of	the  two-
	      letter  abbreviations for units accepted by TeX (pt, pc, in, bp, cm, mm, dd, cc, or
	      sp).  By default, the unit will be cm (centimeters).  See also -xoffset and  -yoff-
	      set.

       -p pixels
	      (.pixelsPerInch) Defines the size of the fonts to use, in pixels per inch.  The de-
	      fault value is 600.  This option is provided only for backwards compatibility;  the
	      preferred   way is to set both the resolution and the Metafont mode via the -mfmode
	      option (which see).

       -paper papertype
	      (.paper) Specifies the size of the printed page. Note that in most cases it's  best
	      to specify the paper size in the TeX input file via the line

	      \usepackage[dvips]{geometry}

	      which will be recognized by both dvips and xdvi; in that case the use of a `-paper'
	      option should be unnecessary.
	      The paper size may be specified in the form widthxheight optionally followed  by	a
	      unit, where width and height are decimal numbers giving the width and height of the
	      paper, respectively, and the unit is any of the two-letter abbreviations for  units
	      accepted	by  TeX (pt, pc, in, bp, cm, mm, dd, cc, or sp).  By default, the unit is
	      cm (centimeters).
	      There are also synonyms  which  may  be  used:  us  (8.5x11in),  legal  (8.5x14in),
	      foolscap	(13.5x17in), as well as the ISO sizes a1-a7, b1-b7, c1-c7.  Each of these
	      also has a landscape or `rotated' variant: usr (11x8.5in), a1r-a7r, etc.	For  com-
	      patibility  with dvips, the formats letter (8.5x11in), ledger(17x11in) and tabloid(11x17in) are also supported (these don't have rotated variants).
	      Any of the above sizes may be preceded by a plus sign (`+'); this causes the  paper
	      size  given here to override any paper size given in the dvi file.  The default pa-
	      per size is 21 x 29.7 cm (A4 size).

       -pause (.pause) This option provides a simple  implementation  of  incremental  (stepwise)
	      display,	which can be used for presentations.  When this option is used, xdvi will
	      pause the display of the current page whenever it  encounters  a	special  special-
	      string  (xdvi:pause by default; the string can be customized via -pausespecial, see
	      below), and the cursor will change its shape.  The action unpause-or-next() (by de-
	      fault  bound  to the Space key) will display the next portion of the page up to the
	      following special-string, or until the end of the page is reached.  When the option
	      is not used, specials containing special-string will be ignored.

       -pausespecial special-string
	      (.pauseSpecial)  Sets  the special string that causes xdvi to pause when the -pause
	      option is active. The default value of special-string is xdvi:pause.

       -postscript flag
	      (.postscript) If flag = 0, rendering of PostScript<tm> specials  is  disabled;  in-
	      stead,  bounding boxes will be displayed (if available). A value of 1 (the default)
	      switches PostScript<tm> specials on. With a value of 2, the PostScript<tm> specials
	      are  displayed  along  with their bounding boxes; this allows you to visually check
	      the correctness of the bounding boxes. The values can also be  toggled  at  runtime
	      with the `v' keystroke and the corresponding numerical prefix arguments 0, 1 and 2.

       -ps2pdfpath path
	      (.ps2pdfPath)  Use path as a conversion program from Postscript to PDF. The program
	      or script should accept two command-line arguments: The Postscript  file	as  first
	      argument, and the PDF output file as second argument.

       -rulecolor color
	      (.ruleColor) Determines the color of the rules used for the the magnifier (default:
	      foreground color).

       -q     (.noInitFile) Ignore the $HOME/.xdvirc startup file (i.e. don't read it at startup,
	      and  don't  write it at exit). This forces the defaults defined in $HOME/.Xdefaults
	      to be used. See FILES for more information on $HOME/.xdvirc.

       -rv    (.reverseVideo) Causes the page to be displayed with white characters  on  a  black
	      background, instead of vice versa.

       -S density
	      (.densityPercent) Same as -density (which see).

       -s shrink
	      (.shrinkFactor)  Defines	the  initial  shrink factor.  The default value is 8.  If
	      shrink is given as 0, then the initial shrink factor is computed so that	the  page
	      fits within the window (as if the `s' keystroke were given without a number).

       -safer (.safer)	This  option  turns on all available security options; it is designed for
	      use when xdvi is called by a browser that obtains a dvi or TeX  file  from  another
	      site.  This option selects +nogssafer and +allowshell.

       -sidemargin dimen
	      (.sideMargin) Specifies the side margin (see -margins).

       -sourceposition line[:col][ ]filename
	      This  option  makes  xdvi search in the dvi file for the place corresponding to the
	      indicated line (and, optionally, column) in the .tex source file, and highlight the
	      place  found  by	drawing  a  rectangle in the highlight color (see the -hl option)
	      around the corresponding text.  In addition, when run with this argument	(and  the
	      -nofork  option  is not given, which see), xdvi will always return immediately:  if
	      it finds another instance of xdvi already showing dvi_file, then it will cause that
	      instance to raise its window and move to the given place in the dvi file; otherwise
	      it will start up its own instance in the background.  If several instances of  xdvi
	      are  displaying  the respective dvi file, the instance which was last raised to the
	      foreground will be used.

	      The space before filename is only needed if the filename starts with a digit.  When
	      the space is used, the argument needs to be enclosed in quotes to prevent the shell
	      from misinterpreting the space as argument separator.

	      This option requires that dvi_file be prepared  with  source  special  information.
	      See the section on SOURCE SPECIALS for details on how to do this.

	      Here  is a more detailed description of how the filename in the -sourceposition ar-
	      gument is matched with the filename in the source specials:

	      1. If neither of the filenames contains a path name component,  the  filenames  are
		 compared ignoring the `.tex' extensions in both filenames.

	      2. Otherwise,  if  one  of  the  filenames  does	contain  a  path component (e.g.:
		 ./test.tex, ../test.tex, /my/homedir/tex/test.tex or any combination of  these),
		 both  filenames  are expanded to a full path, with any occurrences of ../ and ./
		 expanded, and multiple slashes removed.
		 The pathname in the -sourceposition is expanded relative to the current  working
		 directory  of	the  xdvi  -sourceposition  invocation,  and the pathnames in the
		 source specials are expanded relative to the path of the current DVI file  being
		 viewed.
		 The  path  names  are	then compared ignoring the `.tex' extensions in both path
		 names.

       -statusline
	      (.statusline) This option is obsolete; use -expertmode  flag instead (which see).

       -thorough
	      (.thorough) Xdvi will usually try  to  ensure  that  overstrike  characters  (e.g.,
	      \notin)  are  printed  correctly.   On monochrome displays, this is always possible
	      with one logical operation, either and or or.  On color displays, however, this may
	      take  two  operations, one to set the appropriate bits and one to clear other bits.
	      If this is the case, then by default xdvi will  instead  use  the  copy  operation,
	      which  does  not	handle	overstriking correctly.  The -thorough option chooses the
	      slower but more correct choice.  See also -copy.

       -topmargin dimen
	      (.topMargin) Specifies the top and bottom margins (see -margins).

       -unique
	      (.unique) This option will make another instance of xdvi running on the  same  dis-
	      play act as a `server'.  For example, the invocation

	      xdvi -unique +5 file.dvi

	      will cause this other instance to load file.dvi on page 5 in place of the file that
	      it is currently displaying. If there is already another instance	of  xdvi  already
	      displaying  the  file file.dvi, then it will just jump to page 5.  If the other in-
	      stance of xdvi is displaying a different file, it will load file.dvi instead.  Oth-
	      erwise,  if no other instance of xdvi is currently running on the display, this op-
	      tion instead starts a new instance of xdvi in the background  (unless  the  -nofork
	      option is specified, which see) displaying page 5 of file.dvi.
	      The  filename  and the +n option for the page number are the only options available
	      for controlling a remote instance of xdvi like this; all other options are current-
	      ly ignored.

       -useTeXpages
	      Use  logical  TeX  pages	(the  values of the \count0 register) instead of physical
	      pages for the pagelist labels and when jumping to a page in a document with the `g'
	      keystroke (or the goto-page() action).  This option can be toggled via the `T' key-
	      stroke.

       -version
	      Print information on the version of xdvi.

       -visitedlinkcolor
	      (.visitedLinkColor) Color used for visited hyperlinks (`Purple4' by  default).  Hy-
	      perlinks	become visited once you click on them. As for linkColor, the value should
	      be either a valid X color name or a hexadecimal color string.

       -warnspecials
	      (.warnSpecials) Causes xdvi to print warnings about \special strings that it cannot
	      process to stderr. These warnings are suppressed by default.

       -watchfile n
	      (.watchFile)  If	this  option is set to a value larger than 0, xdvi will check the
	      DVI file for changes every n seconds. If the DVI file has been  completely  written
	      by TeX, it will be reloaded automatically.  Fractional values (e.g. `2.5') are pos-
	      sible. The default for this option is 0, i.e. no watching.
	      Since xdvi cannot handle partial DVI files, it tries not to reload the  file  while
	      it  is  being  rewritten.   However, use of the magnifier or switching of pages re-
	      quires reading (a part of) the DVI file, and if the  tempfile  option  is  switched
	      off,  this  will erase the current contents of the window until the DVI file can be
	      read entirely.

       -wheelunit pixels
	      (.wheelUnit) Sets the number of pixels that a motion of a wheel mouse will move the
	      image  up, down, left, or right. (See the wheel and hwheel actions, below, for more
	      information on this.)  If set to zero, the wheel mouse functionality is (essential-
	      ly) disabled.  The default value is 80.

       -xoffset dimen
	      (.xOffset)  Specifies  the size of the horizontal offset of the output on the page.
	      See -offsets.

       -yoffset dimen
	      (.yOffset) Specifies the size of the vertical offset of the  output  on  the  page.
	      See -offsets.

KEYSTROKES
       Xdvi recognizes the following keystrokes when typed in its window.  Each may optionally be
       preceded by a (positive or negative) number, a  `prefix	argument',  whose  interpretation
       will  depend on the particular keystroke.  This prefix argument can be discarded by press-
       ing the ``Escape'' key.	If present, the ``Help'', ``Prior'' and ``Next''  keys	are  syn-
       onyms for `?', `b', and `f' keys, respectively.

       The  key bindings listed here are those that xdvi assigns by default.  The names appearing
       in brackets at the beginning of the descriptions are the names of the  actions  associated
       with  the  keys; these can be used to customize the key bindings, as explained in more de-
       tail in the section CUSTOMIZATION below. If only a lowercase binding is listed,	both  up-
       per- and lowercase keys will work for that binding.

       ESC key
	      [discard-number()]  The  escape  key  discards the numerical prefix for all actions
	      (useful when you mistyped a number).

       Return key
	      [forward-page()] Moves to the next page (or to the nth next page	if  a  number  is
	      given).  Synonyms are `n', `f' and Line Feed.

       Backspace key
	      [back-pagee()] Moves to the previous page (or back n pages).  Synonyms are `p', `b'
	      and Ctrl-h.

       Delete key
	      [up-or-previous()] Moves up two-thirds of a window-full, or to the top of the  pre-
	      vious  page  if already at the top of the page. With a float argument, moves up the
	      corresponding fraction of a window-full.

       Space key
	      [unpause-or-next()] Moves down two-thirds of a window-full, or to the next page  if
	      already at the bottom of the page.
	      When  the option -pause special-string is used and the display is currently paused,
	      this key will instead display the next portion of the page until the next  special-
	      string  or  the  end of the page is encountered.	See the description of the -pause
	      option for details. The action [down-or-next()] does a similar thing,  but  without
	      pausing; it is not bound to a key by default.

       Ctrl-Home (Xaw), Ctrl-osfBeginLine (Motif)
	      [goto-page(1)] Moves to the first page of the document.

       Ctrl-End (Xaw), Ctrl-osfEndLine (Motif)
	      [goto-page()] Moves to the last page of the document.

       Home (Xaw), osfBeginLine (Motif)
	      [home-or-top()]  Move  to  the  ``home'' position of the page, or to the top of the
	      page if the keep flag is set (in this case, the page doesn't scroll horizontally).

       End (Xaw), osfEndLine (Motif)
	      [end-or-bottom()] Move to the ``end'' position of the page  (the	lower  right-hand
	      corner),	or  to	the bottom of the page if the keep flag is set (in this case, the
	      page doesn't scroll horizontally).

       Down arrow
	      [down(0.015)] Scrolls page down.

       Up arrow
	      [up(0.015)] Scrolls page up.

       Right arrow
	      [right(0.015)] Scrolls page right.

       Left arrow
	      [left(0.015)] Scrolls page left.

       Alt-Ctrl-+
	      [change-density(25)] Increase the darkness of the fonts in the DVI window by adding
	      to the gamma value (see also the `S' keystroke).

       Alt-Ctrl--
	      [change-density(-25)]  Decrease the darkness of the fonts in the DVI window by sub-
	      tracting from the gamma value (see also the `S' keystroke).

       Ctrl-+ [set-shrink-factor(+)] Increase the shrink factor (see also the `s' keystroke).

       Ctrl-- [set-shrink-factor(-)] Decrease the shrink factor (see also the `s' keystroke).

       Ctr-[  [pagehistory-delete-backward()] Delete the current item in  the  page  history  and
	      move to the history item before the deleted one. With a prefix argument n, delete n
	      previous history items. See PAGE HISTORY for details.

       [      [pagehistory-back()] Move back in the page history (see PAGE HISTORY for	details).
	      With a prefix argument n, move back n history items.

       Ctr-]  [pagehistory-delete-forward()] Delete the current item in the page history and move
	      to the history item after the deleted one. With a prefix argument n, delete n  next
	      history items. See PAGE HISTORY for details.

       ]      [pagehistory-forward()]  Move forward in the page history (see PAGE HISTORY for de-
	      tails). With a prefix argument n, move forward n history items.

       ^      [home()] Move to the ``home'' position of the page.  This  is  normally  the  upper
	      left-hand corner of the page, depending on the margins as described in the -margins
	      option, above.

       ?      [help()] Same as the h key (which see).

       B      [htex-back()] This key jumps back to the previous hyperlink anchor. See the section
	      HYPERLINKS for more information on navigating the links.

       b      [back-page()]  Moves  to	the  previous  page (or back n pages).	Synonyms are `p',
	      Ctrl-h and Backspace.

       C      [set-color()] This key toggles the use of color specials.  The key  sequences  `0C'
	      and  `1C' turn interpretation of color specials off and on, respectively.  See also
	      the -nocolor option.

       c      [center()] Moves the page so that the point currently beneath the mouse  cursor  is
	      moved to the middle of the window, and warps the mouse cursor to the same place.

       D      [toggle-grid-mode()]  This key toggles the use of a grid on the displayed page.  If
	      no number is given, the grid mode is switched on or off.	By  prepending	a  number
	      from  1 to 3, 3 different grid levels can be set.  The units of the grid are inches
	      or centimeters, depending on whether the paper format is letter (in) or a4 (cm).

       d      [down()] Moves page down two thirds of a window-full.  With  a  float  argument  to
	      ``down'', moves down the corresponding fraction of a window-full.

       Ctrl-f [find()]	Pop  up  a window to search for a string in the DVI file. See the section
	      STRING SEARCH, below, for more details.

       f      [forward-page()] Moves to the next page (or to the nth next page	if  a  number  is
	      given).  Synonyms are `n', Return, and Line Feed.

       G      [set-greyscaling()]  This  key  toggles the use of greyscale anti-aliasing for dis-
	      playing shrunken bitmaps.  In addition, the key sequences `0G' and `1G'  clear  and
	      set this flag, respectively.  See also the -nogrey option.

	      If  given  a numeric argument that is not 0 or 1, greyscale anti-aliasing is turned
	      on, and the gamma resource is set to the value divided by 100. E.g.,  `150G'  turns
	      on greyscale and sets gamma to 1.5.

       Ctrl-g [find-next()]  Find the next match string in the DVI file; this can be used instead
	      of pressing the `Find' button in the search window.

       g      [goto-page()] Moves to the page with the given number. If no page number is  given,
	      xdvi jumps to the last page.
	      If  the option/resource useTeXpages is active, the numbers correspond to the actual
	      page numbers in the TeX file; otherwise, absolute page numbers  (starting  from  1)
	      are  used.  In  the  latter case, the page numbers can be changed with the `P' key-
	      stroke, below.  Note that with the useTeXpages option it is possible that the  same
	      page  number  occurs  multiple  times; in such a case, xdvi will use the first page
	      number that matches.

       h      Pops up a help window with a short explanation of the most important  key  bindings
	      and concepts.

       k      [set-keep-flag()]  Normally when xdvi switches pages, it moves to the home position
	      as well.	The `k' keystroke toggles a `keep-position' flag which,  when  set,  will
	      keep the same position when moving between pages.  Also `0k' and `1k' clear and set
	      this flag, respectively.	See also the -keep option.

       Ctrl-l [fullscreen(toggle)]  Toggles  fullscreen  mode  (see  the   description	 of   the
	      -fullscreen  option for more information on this). This is even more flaky than us-
	      ing the command-line option: There is no universal  standard  how  a  window  could
	      change  its  own	geometry or window decorations at run-time, so this will not work
	      with most window managers or desktops. Generally, it's better  to  use  the  window
	      manager controls to change the size or decorations of the xdvi window.

       l      [left()] Moves page left two thirds of a window-full.

       M      [set-margins()] Sets the margins so that the point currently under the mouse cursor
	      defines the upper left-hand corner of the text in the page.  Note that the  command
	      does  not  move  the  image, but only determines the margins for the page switching
	      commands. For details on how the margins are used, see the -margins option.

       m      [toggle-mark()] Toggles the mark for the current page in the page list. When a page
	      is  marked,  it  is  displayed  with a small star `*' next to the page number.  The
	      marked pages can then be printed or saved to a file.  A page or several  pages  can
	      also be marked by clicking or dragging Mouse-2 in the page list.

       Ctrl-n [toggle-mark()forward-page()]  Toggles  the  mark  for the current page in the page
	      list, and moves to the next page. This lets you quickly mark a series of subsequent
	      pages.

       n      [forward-page()]	Moves  to  the	next page (or to the nth next page if a number is
	      given).  Synonyms are `f', Return, and Line Feed.

       Ctrl-o [select-dvi-file()] Read a new dvi file. A file-selection widget is popped  up  for
	      you  to  choose  the  DVI file from. If a prefix argument n is given, the n th file
	      from the file history is opened instead.

       P      [declare-page-number()] ``This is page number n.''  This can be used  to	make  the
	      `g'  keystroke  refer  to  a different page number than the physical page.  (If you
	      want to use `logical' or TeX page numbers instead of physical pages, consider using
	      the option -useTeXpages instead.)  The argument n should be given as prefix to this
	      key.

       Ctrl-p [print()] Opens a popup window for printing the DVI file, or parts of it.  See  the
	      section PRINT DIALOG for an explanation of the options available, and the resources
	      to customize the default behaviour.

       p      [back-page()] Moves to the previous page (or back  n  pages).   Synonyms	are  `b',
	      Ctrl-h and Backspace.

       q      [quit()] Quits the program.

       Ctrl-r [forward-page(0)] Redisplays the current page.

       R      [reread-dvi-file()]  Forces  the dvi file to be reread.  This allows you to preview
	      many versions of the same file while running xdvi only once.

       r      [right()] Moves page right two thirds of a window-full.

       Ctrl-s [save()] Opens a popup window for saving the DVI file, or parts of it. See the sec-
	      tion SAVE DIALOG below for more information on this.

       S      [set-density()]  Sets  the  density factor to be used when shrinking bitmaps.  This
	      should be a number between 0 and 100; higher numbers  produce  lighter  characters.
	      If greyscaling mode is in effect, this changes the value of gamma instead.  The new
	      value of gamma is the given number divided by 100; negative values are allowed.

       s      [set-shrink-factor()] Changes the shrink factor to the given number.  If no  number
	      is  given, the smallest factor that makes the entire page fit in the window will be
	      used.  (Margins are ignored in this computation.)

       T      [use-tex-pages()] Use logical TeX pages (the values of the  \count0  register)  in-
	      stead  of  physical  pages  for the pagelist labels and when jumping to a page in a
	      document via goto-page().  See also the -useTeXpages option.

       t      [switch-magnifier-units()] Switches the units used for the  magnifier  tick  marks,
	      and  for	reporting  the distance between the mouse pointer and the ruler centre in
	      ruler mode (see the section MODES).  The default value is specified by  the  X  re-
	      source  tickUnits (`mm' by default). The units toggle through the following values;
	      except for `px', they all correspond to  TeX's  units:  mm  (millimeters)  pt  (TeX
	      points),	in  (inches), sp (scaled points, the unit used internally by TeX) bp (big
	      points or `Postscript points'), cc (cicero points), dd (didot points),  pc  (pica),
	      and px (screen pixels).

       Ctrl-u [back-page()toggle-mark()]  Moves  to  the  previous page, and toggles the mark for
	      that page. This is the dual action to Ctrl-n.

       u      [up()] Moves page up two thirds of a window-full. With a float argument to  ``up'',
	      moves up the corresponding fraction of a window-full.

       Ctrl-v [show-source-specials()]	Show  bounding boxes for every source special on the cur-
	      rent page, and print the strings contained in these specials to stderr. With prefix
	      1, show every bounding box on the page. This is for debugging purposes mainly.

       V      [set-gs-alpha()] This key toggles the anti-aliasing of PostScript<tm> specials when
	      Ghostscript is used as renderer.	In addition the key sequences `0V' and `1V' clear
	      and set this flag, respectively.	See also the -gsalpha option.

       v      [set-ps()]  This	key  toggles  the  rendering of PostScript<tm> specials between 3
	      states:

	      - specials (like EPS graphics) are displayed;

	      - specials are displayed along with their bounding box (if available);

	      - only the bounding box is displayed.

	      The states can also be selected directly by using `1v', `2v' and `0v' respectively.
	      See also the -postscript option.

       Ctrl-x [source-what-special()]  Display	information  about the source special next to the
	      mouse cursor in the statusline. This is the same special that  would  be	found  by
	      source-special(), but without invoking the editor. For debugging purposes.

       x      [set-expert-mode()]  Toggles  expert mode, in which the statusline, the scrollbars,
	      the menu buttons, the toolbar (Motif only) and the page list are not shown.  Typing
	      `1x' toggles the display of the statusline at the bottom of the window. Typing `2x'
	      toggles the scrollbars (if available). For Xaw, `3x' toggles the menu  buttons  and
	      the  page list, for Motif, it toggles the page list. In Motif, the additional bind-
	      ings `4x' toggle the toolbar, and `5x' the menu bar.
	      Without a prefix argument, all of the mentioned GUI elements are either switched on
	      (if they had been invisible before) or off.
	      Toggling	the  scrollbars  may  behave  erratically  with the Xaw widgets; e.g. the
	      scrollbars may reappear after resizing the window, and at certain window sizes  one
	      of the scrollbars may fail to disappear.
	      See  also  the  option -expertmode (the numbers above correspond to the bits in the
	      argument to -expertmode).

MOUSE ACTIONS IN THE MAIN WINDOW
       The mouse actions can be customized by setting the X  resource  mouseTranslations.   Since
       there  are  three  different mouse modes (see the section MODES below), there is a special
       action mouse-modes which lists the actions for each of the three  modes:  mouse-modes("AC-
       TIONS-FOR-MODE1",  "ACTIONS-FOR-MODE2",	"ACTIONS-FOR-MODE3").	If  only  one argument is
       specified, this action is used for all modes.  The default bindings are as follows:

	    xdvi.mouseTranslations: \
	    Shift<Btn1Down>:mouse-modes("drag(+)")\n\
	    Shift<Btn2Down>:mouse-modes("drag(|)")\n\
	    Shift<Btn3Down>:mouse-modes("drag(-)")\n\
	    Ctrl<Btn1Down>:mouse-modes("source-special()")\n\
	    <Btn1Down>: mouse-modes("do-href()magnifier(*2)", "text-selection()", "ruler()")\n\
	    <Btn2Down>: mouse-modes("do-href-newwindow()magnifier(*2)", "text-selection()", "ruler()")\n\
	    <Btn3Down>: mouse-modes("magnifier(*3)")\n\
	    <Btn4Down>: mouse-modes("wheel(-0.2)")\n\
	    <Btn5Down>: mouse-modes("wheel(0.2)")\n\
	    <Btn6Down>: mouse-modes("hwheel(-0.2)")\n\
	    <Btn7Down>: mouse-modes("hwheel(0.2)")\n\

       All of these actions are described in more detail below.  Note the use  of  quote  symbols
       around  the  action strings, which are necessary to group them into one argument.  Buttons
       4, 5, 6, and 7 refer to wheel movements (wheel up/down/left/right) on wheel mice.  Not all
       mice support horizontal scrolling.

       The  X Toolkit routines that implement translations do not support event types of Btn6Down
       or Btn7Down.  Because of this, xdvi implements its own parser for  translations	given  in
       mouseTranslations.  This parser is more limited than the parser built in to the X Toolkit.
       The string given in mouseTranslations should not begin with ``#replace'', ``#augment'', or
       ``#override''.	Modifiers  of the form @keysym are not supported, and the event type must
       be of the form BtnDown or BtnnDown, where n is a positive integer without leading  zeroes.
       Also, some limitations apply to the action field.

       do-href()

       do-href-newwindow()
	      Usually, if a binding specifies more then one action, all actions are executed in a
	      sequence. The hyperlink bindings do-href() and do-href-newwindow() are  special  in
	      that they are used as an alternative to other actions that might follow them if the
	      mouse is currently located on a hyperlink.  In this case, none of the other actions
	      will be executed; otherwise, only the other actions are executed.
	      The action do-href() jumps to the link target in the current xdvi window (eventual-
	      ly switching to another page), and do-href-newwindow() opens a new instance of xdvi
	      for  the	link target.  In both cases, the location of the target is indicated by a
	      small arrow drawn in the same color as a visited link in the  left  corner  of  the
	      window.

       magnifier(n x m)

       magnifier(*n)
	      This  action  will  pop up a ``magnifying glass'' which shows the unshrunk image of
	      the region around the mouse pointer.  The magnifier disappears when the mouse  but-
	      ton  is  released.  Moving the mouse cursor while holding the button down will move
	      the magnifier.
	      Different mouse buttons produce different sized windows, as indicated  by  the  the
	      argument	of  the  magnifier()  action. Its argument is either a string of the form
	      widthxheight, as in the -mgsn command-line option, or one of the strings *1 through
	      *5, referring to the value specified by the corresponding -mgsn option.

       drag(+)

       drag(|)

       drag(-)
	      Drags the page with the mouse. This action should have one parameter, the character
	      ``|'', ``-'', or ``+'', indicating vertical dragging only, horizontal dragging  on-
	      ly, or dragging in all directions.

       source-special()
	      This  action starts a ``reverse search'', opening the editor at the location in the
	      TeX file corresponding to the pointer location in the DVI file.  See the section on
	      SOURCE SPECIALS, below, for more information on this.

       wheel()
	      This action can be used to scroll the image with a wheel mouse, where it is usually
	      bound to mouse button 4 (wheel up) or 5 (wheel down).  The action takes one parame-
	      ter,  giving the distance to scroll the image.  If the parameter contains a decimal
	      point, the distance is given in wheel units; otherwise, pixels.  A  negative  value
	      scrolls up, a positive value scrolls down.

       hwheel()
	      This  action can be used to scroll the image horizontally with a wheel mouse, where
	      it is usually bound to mouse button 6 (wheel left) or 7 (wheel right).  The  action
	      takes  one  parameter,  giving  the distance to scroll the image.  If the parameter
	      contains a decimal point, the distance is given in wheel units; otherwise,  pixels.
	      A  negative  value scrolls left, a positive value scrolls right.	Not all mice sup-
	      port horizontal scrolling; this is mostly for touchpads, trackpads, etc.

       text-selection()
	      This action allows you to mark a rectangular region of text in the DVI  file.   The
	      text  is	put  into the X selection buffer and can be pasted into other applictions
	      (e.g. text editors). This works similar to the Plain text option in the  Save  dia-
	      log; see the discussion there for more information on encoding issues.

       ruler()
	      This  action  creates a cross-shaped ruler. Moving the mouse and holding the button
	      down drags the ruler and lets you measure distances on the page.	See  the  section
	      Ruler Mode for more information on this.

UNBOUND ACTIONS
       The  following actions are not bound to a key by default, but are available for customiza-
       tion.

       quit-confirm()
	      Pops up a confirmation window to quit xdvi. To bind it to the `q'  key  instead  of
	      the default `quit()' action, put the following into your ~/.Xdefaults file:

	      xdvi.mainTranslations: #override\
	      <Key>q: quit-confirm()\n

       down-or-next()
	      Similar  to  unpause-or-next():  Moves  down two-thirds of a window-full, or to the
	      next page if already at the bottom of the page.

       shrink-to-dpi()
	      This action takes one (required) argument.  It sets the shrink factor to an integer
	      so  as  to  approximate  the use of fonts with the corresponding number of dots per
	      inch.  If xdvi is using fonts scaled for p dots  per  inch,  and	the  argument  to
	      shrink-to-dpi  is n, then the corresponding shrink factor is the ratio p/n, rounded
	      to the nearest integer.

CUSTOMIZATION
       Key and mouse button assignments can be changed by setting the  mainTranslations  resource
       to  a  string  of translations as defined in the documentation for the X toolkit.  The ac-
       tions should take the form of action names listed in the KEYSTROKES and MOUSE ACTIONS sec-
       tions.

       An  exception to this are the Motif keys osfPageUp (PgUp), osfPageDown (PgDown), osfBegin-
       Line (Home) and osfEndLine (End) which are currently not customizable in  the  Motif  ver-
       sion.

       Key  actions  will usually be without arguments; if they are passed an argument, it repre-
       sents the optional number or `prefix argument' typed prior to the action.

       Some key actions may take special arguments, as follows: The argument of goto-page may  be
       the  letter  `e', indicating the action of going to the end of the document.  The argument
       of set-shrink-factor may be the letter `a', indicating that the shrink  factor  should  be
       set  to	the smallest value such that the page will fit in the window, or one of the signs
       `+' or `-', indicating that the shrink factor should be increased  or  decreased,  respec-
       tively.	 Finally, actions that would perform a toggle, such as set-keep-flag, may receive
       an argument `t', indicating that the action should toggle regardless of the current prefix
       argument.

       Mouse  actions  should  refer only to ButtonPress events (e.g., <Btn1Down>:magnifier(*1)).
       The corresponding motion and release events will be handled internally.	A key action  may
       be bound to a mouse event, but not vice versa.

       Usually	the  string  of translations should begin with ``#override'', indicating that the
       default key and mouse button assignments should not be discarded.

       When keys or mouse buttons involving modifiers (such as Ctrl or Shift) are customized  to-
       gether with their non-modified equivalents, the modified keys should come first, for exam-
       ple:

	    xdvi.mainTranslations: #override \
	    Shift<Key>s: select-dvi-file()\n\
	    Ctrl<Key>s: save()\n\
	    <Key>s: find()\n

       Because xdvi needs to capture pointer motion events, and because the  X	Toolkit  transla-
       tions  mechanism cannot accommodate both motion events and double-click events at the same
       time, it is not possible to specify double-click actions in xdvi customizations.  For  in-
       formation on this and other aspects of translations, see the X Toolkit Intrinsics documen-
       tation.

       There is no command-line option to set the mainTranslations resource, since changing  this
       resource on the command line would be cumbersome.  To set the resource for testing purpos-
       es, use the -xrm command-line option provided by the X toolkit.	For  example,  xdvi  -xrm
       'XDvi.mainTranslations:	#override  "z":quit()'	...  or xdvi -xrm 'XDvi.mainTranslations:
       #override <Key>z:quit()' ...  will cause the key `z' to quit xdvi.

       Some resources are provided to allow customization of the geometry of the Xaw command but-
       tons.   Again,  they  are not changeable via command-line options, other than via the -xrm
       option.	All of these resources take integer values.

       buttonSideSpacing
	      The number of pixels to be placed on either side of the buttons.	The default value
	      is 6.

       buttonTopSpacing
	      The number of pixels between the top button and the top of the window.  The default
	      value is 50.

       buttonBetweenSpacing
	      The number of pixels between the buttons.  The default value is 20.

       buttonBetweenExtra
	      The number of pixels of additional space to be inserted if  the  buttonTranslations
	      resource string contains an extra newline character.  The default value is 50.

       buttonBorderWidth
	      The border width of the button windows.  The default value is 1.

PAGE LIST
       The  scrollable page list on the right of the main window allows you to jump directly to a
       page in the DVI file.

       Mouse-1
	      Jumps to the page the mouse is located on.

       Mouse-2
	      [toggle-mark()] Toggle the mark of the current page. The	marks  are  used  by  the
	      `Print' and `Save to file' dialogs to select only marked pages from the DVI file.

       When  the  mouse  pointer is inside the page list, the mouse wheel switches to the next or
       previous page.

SCROLLBARS
       The scrollbars (if present) behave in the standard way:	pushing Button 2 in  a	scrollbar
       moves the top or left edge of the scrollbar to that point and optionally drags it; pushing
       Button 1 moves the image up or right by an amount equal to the distance	from  the  button
       press  to  the upper left-hand corner of the window; pushing Button 3 moves the image down
       or left by the same amount.

       The scrollbars can be removed via the -expertmode flag/keystroke (which see).

MAGNIFIER
       By default, the mouse buttons 1 to 5 will pop up a ``magnifying glass'' that shows an  un-
       shrunken image of the page (i.e. an image at the resolution determined by the option/X re-
       source pixels or mfmode) at varying sizes. When the magnifier is moved,	small  ruler-like
       tick  marks are displayed at the edges of the magnifier (unless the X resource delayRulers
       is set to false, in which case the tick marks will always be displayed).  The unit of  the
       marks  is determined by the X resource tickUnits (mm by default). This unit can be changed
       at runtime via the action switch-magnifier-units(), by default bound to the keystroke  `t'
       (see  the description of that key, and of switch-magnifier-units() for more details on the
       units available).
       The length of the tick marks can be changed via the X resource tickLength (4 by	default).
       A zero or negative value suppresses the tick marks.

PAGE HISTORY
       Xdvi  keeps  a  history	of  viewed pages, and you can move through the history and delete
       items using the keys [ (pagehistory-back()), ] (pagehistory-forward()), Ctr-[  (pagehisto-
       ry-delete-backward()) and Ctr-] (pagehistory-delete-forward()).

       When one of the history commands is used, the page history is displayed in the status line
       at the bottom of the window, with the current list item marked by square brackets `[', `]'
       and a left and right context of at most 10 items. File boundaries are marked by `#'.

       The size of the history can be customized with the X resource pageHistorySize (the default
       size is 1000 items). If the size is set to 0, the history commands are disabled.

HYPERLINKS
       The actions do-href() and do-href-newwindow() (by default bound to Mouse-1 and Mouse-2  if
       the  pointer  is  currently located on a hyperlink) can be used to open the link target in
       the same window (do-href()) or in a new window (do-href-newwindow()).

       If the link target is not a file on the local disk, xdvi tries to launch a web browser (as
       specified  by  the  -browser  command line option, the BROWSER environment variable or the
       wwwBrowser X resource, in this order) to retrieve the document. See the description of the
       BROWSER environment variable, below, for an example setting.

       If  the	file is a local file, xdvi tries to determine if it is a DVI file. If it is, xdvi
       will try to display the file; otherwise it will try to determine  the  MIME  type  of  the
       file, and from that an application suitable for opening the file.  This is done by parsing
       the files specified by the environment variable EXTENSIONMAPS for a  mapping  of  filename
       extensions  to  MIME  types, and the files determined by the environment variable MAILCAPS
       for a mapping of MIME types to application programs.  See the descriptions of these  vari-
       ables  in  the section ENVIRONMENT, below, for a more detailed description and the default
       values of these variables. If no suitable files are found, a set of built-in default  MIME
       types and applications is used.

       Xdvi  currently	uses  no  heuristics apart from the filename suffix to determine the mime
       type of a file. If a filename has no suffix, the value of  the  resource  noMimeSuffix  is
       used  (by default application/x-unknown).  If the suffix doesn't match any of the suffixes
       in mime.types, the value of the resource unknownMimeSuffix is used  (by	default  applica-
       tion/x-unknown).   If the mailcap entries do not list a viewer for a given mime type, xdvi
       will show a warning popup. If you want to avoid this warning, and for example want to  al-
       ways  use the netscape browser for unknown MIME types, you could add the following line to
       your ~/.mailcap file:

	   application/xdvi-unknown; \
	       netscape -raise -remote 'openURL(%s,new-window)'

STRING SEARCH
       The keystroke Ctrl-f or the menu entry File > Find ...  (or the `Binoculars' symbol in the
       toolbar, for Motif) opens a dialog window to search for a text string or a regular expres-
       sion in the DVI file.  The keystroke Ctrl-g jumps to the next  match  (like  pressing  the
       `Find' button in the search window).

       By  default,  the matches are highlighted in inverted color.  If the display isn't running
       in TrueColor, or if the X resource matchHighlightInverted is set to false or the  command-
       line option -nomatchinverted is used, xdvi will instead draw a rectangle in highlight col-
       or (see the -hl option) around the match.

       If a match crosses a page boundary, only the part on the first page is highlighted.   Xdvi
       will  scan up to 2 adjacent pages to match strings crossing page boundaries; but note that
       header or footer lines, or intervening float pages will be treated as parts of the scanned
       text. Such text will usually cause multi-page matching to fail.

       This  emphasizes the fact that searching in the formatted text (the DVI output) works dif-
       ferently from searching in the source text: Searching in the DVI file makes it  easier  to
       skip  formatting  instructions,	and makes it possible to search for e.g.  hyphenation and
       equation numbers; but sometimes the formatting results can also get in the  way,  e.g.  in
       the case of footnotes. In these cases it's better to search in the TeX source instead. The
       use of source specials will make switching between the xdvi display and	the  editor  with
       the TeX source easier; see the section SOURCE SPECIALS below for more information on this.

       The  text  extracted  from  the DVI file is in encoded in UTF-8 (you can view that text by
       saving the file in UTF-8 format via the File > Save as ...  menu item).	If xdvi has  been
       compiled  with  locale, nl_langinfo() and iconv support, the search term is converted from
       the character set specified by the current locale into UTF-8. (See the output of locale -a
       for  a  list of locale settings available on your system).  If nl_langinfo() is not avail-
       able, but iconv is, you can specify the input encoding for iconv via the X  resource  tex-
       tEncoding  (see the output of iconv -l for a list of valid encodings). If iconv support is
       not available, only the encodings ISO-8859-1 and UTF-8  are  supported  (these  names  are
       case-insensitive).

       Ideographic  characters from CJKV fonts are treated specially: All white space (spaces and
       newlines) before and after such characters is ignored in the search string and in the  DVI
       file.

       To  match  a  newline  character, use \n in the search string; to match the string \n, use
       \\n.

       If the checkbox Regular Expression is activated, the string is treated as  a  regular  ex-
       pression in extended POSIX syntax, with the following properties:

	 - a? matches a zero or one times.

	 - a* matches a zero or more times.

	 - a+  matches	a  one	or more times.	Note that * and + are greedy, i.e. they match the
	   longest possible substring.

	 - The pattern . matches any character except for newline. To also match a  newline,  use
	   `(.|\n)'.

	 - a{n} matches a exactly n times.

	 - a{n,m} matches a at least n and no more than m times.

	 - a|b matches a or b. Brackets can be used for grouping, e.g.: (a|b)|c.

	 - The	string	matched  by  the nth group can be referenced by \n, e.g. \1 refers to the
	   first match.

	 - The characters ^ and $ match the beginning and the end of a line, respectively.

	 - [abc] matches any of the letters a, b, c, and [a-z] matches all characters from  a  to
	   z.

	 - Each  item  in  a  regular expression can also be one of the following POSIX character
	   classes:
	   [[:alnum:]] [[:alpha:]] [[:blank:]] [[:cntrl:]] [[:digit:]]
	   [[:graph:]] [[:lower:]] [[:print:]] [[:space:]] [[:upper:]]

	   These can be negated by inserting a ^ symbol after the first bracket: [^[:alpha:]]

	   For more details on POSIX regular expressions, see e.g. the IEEE Std  1003.1  standard
	   definition available online from:

	   http://www.opengroup.org/onlinepubs/007904975/basedefs/xbd_chap09.html

	 - As a non-standard extension, the following Perl-like abbreviations can be used instead
	   of the POSIX classes:

	   Symbol   Meaning			  POSIX Class

	       \w   an alphanumeric character	  [[:alnum:]]
	       \W   a non-alphanumeric character  [^[:alnum:]]
	       \d   a digit character		  [[:digit:]]
	       \D   a non-digit character	  [^[:digit:]]
	       \s   a whitespace character	  [[:space:]]
	       \S   a non-whitespace character	  [^[:space:]]

	 - The following characters are special symbols; they need to be escaped with \ in  order
	   to match them literally:  ( ) [ ] . * ? + ^ $ \.

	 - Matches of length zero are silently skipped.

       The dialog also provides checkboxes to:

	 - search backwards;

	 - match  in a case-sensitive manner (the default is to ignore case, i.e. a search string
	   Test will match both the strings test and TEST in the DVI file);

	 - ignore line breaks and hyphens: This removes all hyphens at the ends of lines and  the
	   following  newline  characters, and replaces all remaining newline characters by white
	   spaces. So hyphenated words will appear as one word to the search, and  a  search  for
	   two words with a space in between will also match the words if they are separated by a
	   linebreak.
	   Note that the hyphen removal may cause unwanted side effects for compound  words  con-
	   taining hyphens that are wrapped after the hyphen, and that replacing the newlines af-
	   fects the interpretation of regular expressions as follows: The .  pattern  will  also
	   match  newlines,  and ^ and $ won't match begin and end of lines any more. (Since cur-
	   rently there is no option for turning off the greediness of * and +, turning  on  this
	   option will usually result in matches that are longer than desired.)

       The current checkbox settings are saved in the ~/.xdvirc file.

PRINT DIALOG
       The print dialog window allows you to print all pages, marked pages (click or drag Mouse-2
       in the page list to mark them), or a range of pages. Note that the page numbers always re-
       fer to physical pages, so if you're using the option `use TeX pages', you may want to dis-
       able it to make it easier to determine the correct page numbers (or avoid this problem al-
       together by marking the pages to be printed).

       The value of the Printer text filed is passed to dvips via the -o!  mechanism, as a single
       argument after the `!'. Any arguments listed in the Dvips options field are  segmented  at
       whitespaces and passed as separate arguments to dvips.  If you e.g. want to print the file
       2-up, you should enter the following string into the Printer field:

		psnup -2 -q | lpr -Plp

       There are several resources for customizing the behaviour and the default entries  of  the
       print dialog:

       dvipsPrinterString

       dvipsOptionsString
	      These  can be used to provide default entries for the Printer and the Dvips options
	      text fields, respectively. If no paper size is specified in the DVI file (via  e.g.
	      \usepackage[dvips]{geometry}  -  this  is the preferred method), the input field is
	      initialized with the current value of the command  line  option/X  resource  paper.
	      E.g.,  the  option  -paper  a4r is translated into the dvips options -t a4 -t land-
	      scape.  Note that no check is performed whether dvips  actually  understands  these
	      options  (it  will ignore them if it can't); currently not all options used by xdvi
	      are also covered by dvips.

       dvipsHangTime

       dvipsFailHangTime
	      These specify the time (in milliseconds) that the  printing  progress  window  will
	      stay  open  after  the  dvips process has terminated. The value of dvipsHangTime is
	      used if the process terminates successfully; dvipsFailHangTime is used if it termi-
	      nates  with  an  error. The default values are 1.5 and 5 seconds, respectively.  If
	      both values are negative, the window will stay open until it is closed by the user.

SAVE DIALOG
       This dialog allows you to save all or selected/marked pages in the current DVI  file.  You
       can save in one of the following formats:

	 - Postscript  (uses  dvips  to convert the DVI file to a Postscript file, just like when
	   printing to a Postscript file).

	 - PDF (first uses dvips to convert the DVI file to a Postscript file, then  uses  ps2pdf
	   to convert the Postscript file to PDF).

	 - Plain  text in ISO-8859-1 or UTF-8 encoding. The latter will preserve more of the spe-
	   cial LaTeX characters e.g. from mathematical mode. Note however that e.g. only few  of
	   LaTeX's  mathematical  symbols can be rendered correctly as text; so this funcionality
	   works best for plain text documents.  If a character cannot be displayed  in  the  se-
	   lected  charset, it is replaced by `\' followed by the hexadecimal character code.  If
	   a character is not recognized at all, it is replaced by `?'.

       The programs for Postscript and PDF conversion can be customized via the command line  op-
       tions  or X resources -dvipspath/.dvipsPath and -ps2pdfpath/.ps2pdfPath, respectively; see
       the explanation of these options above for more details.

MODES
       The keystroke Ctrl-m [switch-mode()] switches  between  three  different  mouse	bindings,
       which can also be activated via the Modes menu (in Motif, this is a submenu of the Options
       menu called Mouse Mode).  The default mode at startup can be customized via the X resource
       mouseMode  or  the  command-line option -mousemode.  The default startup mode is Magnifier
       Mode.

       Note: The modes are implemented by changing the magnifier()  action.  Switching	the  mode
       will  not  work if Mouse-1 has been customized to an action sequence that does not contain
       the magnifier() action.

       Magnifier Mode
	      In this mode, the mouse buttons 1 to 5 pop up a ``magnifying glass'' that shows  an
	      unshrunken image of the page (i.e. an image at the resolution determined by the op-
	      tion/X resource pixels or mfmode) at varying sizes. When the  magnifier  is  moved,
	      small ruler-like tick marks are displayed at the edges of the magnifier (unless the
	      X resource delayRulers is set to false, in which case the  tick  marks  are  always
	      displayed).  The unit of the marks is determined by the X resource tickUnits (mm by
	      default). This unit can be changed at  runtime  via  the	action	switch-magnifier-
	      units(),	by  default  bound to the keystroke `t' (see the description of that key,
	      and of switch-magnifier-units() for more details on the units available).
	      The length of the tick marks can be changed via the X resource tickLength (4 by de-
	      fault). A zero or negative value suppresses the tick marks.

       Text Selection Mode
	      This  mode  allows  you  to  select a rectangular region of text in the DVI file by
	      holding down Mouse-1 and moving the mouse. The text is put into the X  primary  se-
	      lection so that it can be pasted into other X applications with Mouse-2 as usual.
	      If xdvi has been compiled with locale, nl_langinfo() and iconv support, the select-
	      ed text is converted into the character set of the current locale (see  the  output
	      of  locale -a for a list of locale settings available on your system).  If nl_lang-
	      info() is not available, but iconv is, you can specify the input encoding for iconv
	      via the X resource textEncoding (see the output of iconv -l for a list of valid en-
	      codings). If iconv support is not available,  only  the  encodings  ISO-8859-1  and
	      UTF-8 are supported (these names are case-insensitive).
	      Note that UTF-8 is the only encoding that can render all characters (e.g. mathemat-
	      ical symbols) of a DVI file. If ISO-8859-1 is active,  characters  that  cannot  be
	      displayed are replaced by `\' followed by the hexadecimal character code.  For oth-
	      er encodings, such characters may trigger iconv error messages.  If a character  is
	      not recognized at all, it is replaced by `?'.
	      To  extract  larger  portions of text, you can alternatively save selected pages or
	      the entire file in text format via the File > Save as ...  menu.

       Ruler Mode
	      This mode provides a simple way of measuring distances on the page.
	      When this mode is activated, the mouse cursor changes into  a  thin  cross,  and	a
	      larger,  cross-shaped  ruler is drawn in the highlight color at the mouse location.
	      The ruler doesn't have units attached to it; instead, the current distance  between
	      the ruler and the mouse cursor is continuously printed to the statusline.
	      When  activating Ruler Mode, the ruler is at first attached to the mouse and can be
	      moved around. It can then be positioned at a fixed place by clicking Mouse-1.   Af-
	      ter  that,  the  mouse cursor can be moved to measure the horizontal (dx), vertical
	      (dy) and direct (shortest) (dr) distance between the ruler  center  point  and  the
	      mouse.
	      Clicking Mouse-1 again will move the ruler to the current mouse position, and hold-
	      ing down Mouse-1 will drag the ruler around.
	      In Ruler Mode, the following special keybindings	extend	or  replace  the  default
	      bindings:

	      o      [ruler-snap-origin()] Snap the ruler back to the origin coordinate (0,0).

	      t      [overrides  switch-magnifier-units()]  Toggle  between  various ruler units,
		     which can be specified by the X resource tickUnits (`mm' by default).

	      P      [overrides declare-page-number()] Print the  distances  shown  in	the  sta-
		     tusline to standard output.

TOOLBAR (Motif only)
       The  Motif  toolbar can also be customized. The XPM file used for the toolbar icons can be
       specified via the resource toolbarPixmapFile, which should contain a filename that can  be
       found  in  one  of XFILESEARCHPATH or XDVIINPUTS (see the section FILE SEARCHING below for
       more information on these variables).  Xdvi will try to split this pixmap horizontally in-
       to  n pieces, where each piece is as wide as the pixmap is high and is treated as an image
       for toolbar button n.  This means that each icon should be a square, and that  the  entire
       pixmap should have width n x h if h is the height of the pixmap.

       The  resource  toolbarTranslations  can	be used to map icons/buttons to specific actions.
       The resource should contain a string separated by newline characters, similar to  the  re-
       sources	mainTranslations  and  menuTranslations.  Every line must contain either a spacer
       definition, or an icon definition:

       A spacer definition is a string SPACER(n), where n is the number  of  pixels  inserted  as
       separator to the following button.

       An icon definition is a colon-separated list containing the following elements:

	 - the index of an icon in the pixmap file (starting from zero);

	 - a long tooltip string, displayed in the status area;

	 - a short tooltip string, displayed as popup;

	 - a sequence of actions to be performed when the corresponding toolbar button is pushed.

       To illustrate this, the default value of toolbarTranslations looks as follows:

	    xdvi.toolbarTranslations: \
	       SPACER(5)\n\
	       0:Open a new document   (Key\\: Ctrl-f):\
		    Open file:select-dvi-file()\n\
	       SPACER(10)\n\
	       1:Reread this document	(Key\\: R):\
		    Reread file:reread-dvi-file()\n\
	       SPACER(10)\n\
	       2:Go to the first page of this document	 (Key\\: 1g):\
		    Go to first page:goto-page(1)\n\
	       3:Go to the previous page of this document   (Key\\: p):\
		    Go to previous page:back-page(1)\n\
	       4:Go to the next page of this document	(Key\\: n):\
		    Go to next page:forward-page(1)\n\
	       5:Go to the last page of this document	(Key\\: g):\
		    Go to last page:goto-page()\n\
	       SPACER(10)\n\
	       6:Enlarge the display   (Key\\: Ctrl-+):Zoom in:\
		    set-shrink-factor(+)\n\
	       7:Shrink the display   (Key\\: Ctrl--):Zoom out:\
		    set-shrink-factor(-)\n\
	       SPACER(10)\n\
	       8:Jump back to the previous hyperlink   (Key\\: B):\
		    Back hyperlink:htex-back()\n\
	       SPACER(10)\n\
	       10:Print this document:Print:print()\n\
	       SPACER(10)\n\
	       11:Toggle marks for odd pages   (Key\\: 1m):\
		    Toggle odd:toggle-mark(1)\n\
	       12:Toggle marks for even pages	(Key\\: 2m):\
		    Toggle even:toggle-mark(2)\n\
	       13:Toggle mark for current page	 (Key\\: 2m):\
		    Toggle current:toggle-mark()\n\
	       14:Unmark all pages   (Key\\: 0m):\
		    Unmark all:toggle-mark(0)\n\
	       SPACER(10)\n\
	       18:Display fonts darker	 (Key\\: Alt-Ctrl-+):\
		    Fonts darker:change-density(5)\n\
	       19:Display fonts lighter   (Key\\: Alt-Ctrl--):\
		    Fonts lighter:change-density(-5)\n

       When  the  mouse remains over a toolbar button for a certain period, a `tooltip' window is
       shown, describing what the button does using the short tooltip string from the  above  re-
       source. At the same time, the long tooltip string is displayed in the statusline.  The ap-
       pearance and behaviour of these tooltips can be customized via the following resources:

       tipShell.background
	      Background color of the tooltip window.

       tipShell.fontSet
	      Font used for the tooltip.

       tipShell.waitPeriod
	      The time (in milliseconds) the mouse pointer needs to be over the button before the
	      tooltip is shown. Set it to a negative value to suppress the tooltips altogether.

GREYSCALING AND COLORMAPS
       The  greyscale anti-aliasing feature in xdvi will not work at its best if the display does
       not have enough colors available.  This can happen if other applications are using most of
       the  colormap (even if they are iconified).  If this occurs, then xdvi will print an error
       message and turn on the -copy option.  This will result in overstrike characters appearing
       wrong;  it  may	also  result in poor display quality if the number of available colors is
       very small.

       Typically this problem occurs on displays that allocate eight bits  of  video  memory  per
       pixel.	To  see how many bits per pixel your display uses, type xwininfo in an xterm win-
       dow, and then click the mouse on the root window when asked.  The  ``Depth:''  entry  will
       tell you how many bits are allocated per pixel.

       Displays  using	at  least 15 bits per pixel are typically TrueColor visuals, which do not
       have this problem, since their colormap is permanently allocated and available to all  ap-
       plications.   (The  visual  class is also displayed by xwininfo.)  For more information on
       visual classes see the documentation for the X Window System.

       To alleviate this problem, therefore, one may (a) run with more bits per pixel  (this  may
       require	adding more video memory or replacing the video card), (b) shut down other appli-
       cations that may be using much of the colormap and then restart xdvi, or (c) run xdvi with
       the -install option.

       One  application which is often the cause of this problem is Netscape.  In this case there
       are two more alternatives to remedying the situation.  One can run  ``netscape  -install''
       to  cause  Netscape  to	install  a  private colormap.  This can cause colors to change in
       bizarre ways when the mouse is moved to a different window.  Or, one  can  run  ``netscape
       -ncols  220''  to limit Netscape to a smaller number of colors.	A smaller number will en-
       sure that other applications have more colors available, but will degrade the color quali-
       ty in the Netscape window.

HANDLING OF POSTSCRIPT FIGURES
       Xdvi can display Encapsulated PostScript (EPS) files included in the dvi file.  Such files
       are first searched for in the directory where the dvi  file  is,  and  then  using  normal
       Kpathsea  rules.   There is an exception to this, however:  if the file name begins with a
       backtick (`), then the remaining characters in the file name give a shell  command  (often
       zcat) which is executed; its standard output is then sent to be interpreted as PostScript.
       Since the execution of arbitrary shell commands with the user's permissions is a huge  se-
       curity  risk, evaluation of these backtick commands is disabled by default. It needs to be
       activated via the -allowshell command-line option.  NOTE: You should never use this option
       when  viewing  documents  that  you didn't compile yourself. The backtick specials are not
       needed for uncompressing gzipped Postscript files, since xdvi can do that on  the  fly  if
       the filename ends with .eps.gz or .eps.Z (and if the first bytes of the file indicate that
       the file is indeed compressed).	This is both safer and more flexible  than  the  backtick
       approach, since the default file searching rules will apply to such filenames too.

T1LIB
       Using  T1Lib,  a  library  written  by  Rainer Menzner (see ftp://sunsite.unc.edu/pub/Lin-
       ux/libs/graphics/), xdvi can render Postscript<tm> Type1 fonts directly, without the route
       via  TeX  pixel (pk) fonts. The advantage of this is that only one size of each font needs
       to be stored on disk.  Unless the -not1lib option is used, xdvi will try to  render  every
       font  using  T1Lib.  Only  as a fallback it will invoke an external program (like mktexpk,
       which in turn may invoke utilities like ps2pk or gsftopk) to generate a	pixel  font  from
       the Type1 source. The direct rendering of the Computer Modern fonts should work out-of-the
       box, whereas other Type1 fonts such as the 35 `standard' Postscript<tm> fonts resident  in
       printers  may need to be made accessible for use with xdvi, unless your system administra-
       tor or TeX distribution has already done so (which is the case e.g. for current teTeX sys-
       tems).  The  xdvik  distribution  comes with a utility called t1mapper to make these fonts
       available for xdvi; see the manual page for t1mapper(1) for usage details.

SPECIALS (GENERALLY)
       Any of the specials used by xdvi may be preceded by the characters  ``xdvi:''.	Doing  so
       does  not  change  the  behavior of the special under xdvi, but it tells other dvi drivers
       (such as e.g. dvips) to ignore the special.

SOURCE SPECIALS
       Some TeX implementations or macro packages provide the facility to  automatically  include
       so-called  `source specials' into a DVI file.  These contain the line number, eventually a
       column number, and the filename of the .tex source. This makes it possible to jump from	a
       .dvi  file  to the corresponding place in the .tex source and vice versa (also called `in-
       verse search' - jumping from the DVI file to the  TeX  file  is	also  known  as  `reverse
       search', and jumping from the TeX file to the DVI file as `forward search').

       To  be  usable  with  xdvi, source specials in the dvi file must have one of the following
       formats:

		src:line[ ]filename
		src:line:col[ ]filename
		src:line
		src:line:col
		src::col

       If filename or line are omitted, the most recent values are used.  The first  source  spe-
       cial  on each page must be in one of the first two forms, since defaults are not inherited
       across pages.

       You will need a TeX implementation that provides an appropriate switch (e.g.  -src)  or	a
       macro  package  (such  as  srcltx.sty or srctex.sty, available from CTAN:macros/latex/con-
       trib/supported/srcltx/) to insert such source specials into the DVI file.

       For reverse search, the combination Ctrl-Mouse 1 will make xdvi open an editor (the  value
       of  the -editor command line option) with the file and the line number of the .tex source.
       See the description of the -editor option for more information and example settings.

       For forward search, xdvi has a -sourceposition option that makes xdvi jump to the page  in
       the DVI file corresponding to the given line (or the closest line having a source special)
       of the specified file and highlight the found region. See the description of the  -source-
       position option for more details.

       More  information  on setting up various editors for use with source specials can be found
       at:

	    http://xdvi.sourceforge.net/inverse-search.html

PAPERSIZE SPECIALS
       xdvi accepts specials to set the paper size for the document.  These specials should be of
       the form

		papersize=[*]width,height

       where  width  and  height  give	the width and height of the paper, respectively.  Each of
       these should appear in the form of a decimal number followed by any of the two-letter  ab-
       breviations  for units accepted by TeX (pt, pc, in, bp, cm, mm, dd, cc, or sp).	If an as-
       terisk (*) appears just before the width, then the measurements refer to the document  di-
       mensions  (e.g.,  pt  as opposed to truept).  This allows a macro package to vary the page
       size according to elements of the document; e.g.,

	    \special{xdvi: papersize=*\number\wd\mybox sp,
		     \number\ht\mybox sp}

       Except for the asterisk, this format is compatible with dvips.

       The last papersize special on a page determines the size of that page.	If  there  is  no
       such  special  on a given page, the most recent papersize is used, or, if there are no pa-
       persize specials on any preceding page, then the value of the paper  resource  (or  -paper
       option  on the command line) is used.  Thus the paper size may vary for different pages of
       the dvi file.

       If the paper resource (or -paper command-line option) begins with a plus sign (`+'),  then
       all papersize specials in the dvi file are ignored.

COLOR SPECIALS
       The color specials supported by xdvi are the same as those supported by dvips, except that
       the literal PostScript color specification (as in the AggiePattern example  in  the  dvips
       documentation)  is  not supported.  There are also some restrictions due to the way xdvi's
       drawing	routines are implemented; e.g. the \colorbox and  \fcolorbox  macros  don't  work
       with  xdvi.  See the section LIMITATIONS below for more information on these restrictions.
       Xdvi supports the same list of named colors as dvips does, namely:

       Apricot, Aquamarine, Bittersweet, Black, Blue,  BlueGreen,  BlueViolet,	BrickRed,  Brown,
       BurntOrange,  CadetBlue,  CarnationPink, Cerulean, CornflowerBlue, Cyan, Dandelion, DarkO-
       rchid, Emerald, ForestGreen, Fuchsia, Goldenrod, Gray,  Green,  GreenYellow,  JungleGreen,
       Lavender,  LimeGreen,  Magenta, Mahogany, Maroon, Melon, MidnightBlue, Mulberry, NavyBlue,
       OliveGreen, Orange, OrangeRed, Orchid, Peach, Periwinkle,  PineGreen,  Plum,  ProcessBlue,
       Purple,	RawSienna,  Red,  RedOrange,  RedViolet,  Rhodamine,  RoyalBlue, RoyalPurple, Ru-
       bineRed, Salmon, SeaGreen, Sepia, SkyBlue, SpringGreen, Tan, TealBlue, Thistle, Turquoise,
       Violet, VioletRed, White, WildStrawberry, Yellow, YellowGreen, YellowOrange.

       Note that these names are case sensitive.

       The documentation of the LaTeX color package provides more details on how to use such spe-
       cials with LaTeX; see the dvips documentation for a detailed description of the syntax and
       semantics of the color specials.

SIGNALS
       When xdvi receives a SIGUSR1 signal, it rereads the dvi file.

ENVIRONMENT
       Xdvik  uses  the same environment variables and algorithms for searching for font files as
       TeX and friends.  See the documentation for the Kpathsea library, kpathsea.dvi, for a  de-
       tailed description of these.

       In addition, xdvik accepts the following variables:

       DISPLAY
	      Specifies which graphics display terminal to use.

       KPATHSEA_DEBUG
	      Trace Kpathsea lookups; set it to -1 (= all bits on) for complete tracing.

       EXTENSIONMAPS
	      A  list  of  files  to  be searched for mime types entries (as for Acrobat Reader).
	      Earlier entries in one of these files override later ones.  If this variable is not
	      set, the following default path is used:

	      $HOME/.mime.types:/etc/mime.types:\
		  /usr/etc/mime.types:/usr/local/etc/mime.types

       MAILCAPS
	      A  list  of  files  to be searched for mailcap entries, as defined by RFC 1343. See
	      this RFC or the mailcap(4) manual page for a detailed description  of  the  mailcap
	      file format.  Currently, only the following mailcap features are supported:

	      test=command
		     The  entry is only used if command can be executed via the system() call and
		     if the system() call returns with value 0 (success).  The command string may
		     contain the format string %s, which will be replaced by the file name.

	      needsterminal
		     If  this flag is used, the command will be executed in a new xterm window by
		     prepending ``xterm -e '' to the command string.

	      All other fields in the mailcap entry are ignored by xdvi.  Earlier entries in  one
	      of  these files override later ones.  If the variable is not defined, the following
	      default path is used:

		  $HOME/.mailcap:/etc/mailcap:/usr/etc/mailcap:\
		      /usr/local/etc/mailcap

	      For security reasons, some special characters (i.e.: ( ) ` \ ;) are escaped in  the
	      argument before passing it to system().

       BROWSER
	      Determines  the  web browser used to open external links (i.e., all URLs that don't
	      start with the `file:' scheme and are not relative links in the  local  DVI  file),
	      and  to open links for which no viewer has been specified in the mailcap files. The
	      value of this variable is a colon-separated list of commands. Xdvi will try each of
	      them  in	sequence  until one succeeds (i.e. doesn't immediately return with status
	      0). This allows you to specify your favourite browser at the beginning,  and  fall-
	      back  browsers  at the end. Every occurrence of %s in the string is replaced by the
	      target URL; every occurrence of %% is replaced by a single %.  If no %s is present,
	      the URL string is added as an extra argument.
	      An example setting is:

	      netscape	-raise	-remote  'openURL(%s,new-window)':xterm  -e lynx %s:xterm -e wget
	      %s:lynx %s:wget %s

	      See

	      http://www.catb.org/~esr/BROWSER/

	      for more details on the BROWSER environment variable.

       TMPDIR The directory to use for storing temporary files created when  uncompressing  Post-
	      Script files.

       XEDITOR
	      Determines  the editor command used for source special `reverse search', if neither
	      the -editor command-line option nor the .editor resource are  specified.	 See  the
	      description of the -editor command line option for details on the format.

       VISUAL Determines  an  editor to be opened in an xterm window if neither of -editor, .edi-
	      tor, or XEDITOR is specified.

       EDITOR Determines an editor to be opened in an xterm window if neither of  -editor,  .edi-
	      tor, XEDITOR or VISUAL is specified.

       WWWBROWSER
	      Obsolete; use BROWSER instead.

LIMITATIONS
       xdvi  accepts  many but not all types of PostScript specials accepted by dvips.	For exam-
       ple, it accepts most specials generated by epsf and psfig.  It does not, however,  support
       bop-hook  or  eop-hook,	nor  does it allow PostScript commands to affect the rendering of
       things that are not PostScript (for example, the ``NEAT'' and rotated  ``A''  examples  in
       the  dvips  manual).   These restrictions are due to the design of xdvi; in all likelihood
       they will always remain.

       LaTeX2e rotation specials are currently not supported.

       MetaPost files containing included text are not supported.

       Xdvi's color handling doesn't support the \colorbox and \fcolorbox macros;   this  is  not
       likely to change in the near future. This also means that  e.g. colored tables (as created
       by the colortbl package) may render incorrectly: Text in colors different from the default
       foreground color may not be displayed. When the page is redrawn (e.g. after using the mag-
       nifier), the background color of the cells may overdraw the text.

FILES
       $HOME/.xdvirc
	      A file that holds all settings that the user changed via the  keys,  the	`Options'
	      and  the Xaw `Modes' menu and the dialogs, as X resources. These resources override
	      the settings in $HOME/.Xdefaults.  This file is ignored if the -q option is used or
	      the noInitFile X resource is set.

       xdvi.cfg
	      A configuration file for the T1 font setup which needs to be supplied in the direc-
	      tory determined by the  XDVIINPUTS  environment  variable.   Please  see	the  file
	      http://xdvi.sourceforge.net/README.t1fonts if that file is missing.

SEE ALSO
       X(1),  dvips(1),  mktexpk(1),  ps2pk(1), gsftopk(1), t1mapper(1), mailcap(4), the Kpathsea
       documentation, and the Xdvik home page at http://xdvi.sourceforge.net/.

AUTHORS
       Eric Cooper, CMU, did a version for direct output to a QVSS. Modified for X by Bob  Schei-
       fler,  MIT Laboratory for Computer Science. Modified for X11 by Mark Eichin, MIT SIPB. Ad-
       ditional enhancements by many others.

       The current maintainer of the original xdvi is Paul Vojta, U.C. Berkeley.

       Code for the xdvik variant has been contributed by many people, whose names are	scattered
       across the source files. Xdvik is hosted on CTAN:dviware/xdvik and on SourceForge; for the
       most up-to-date information, please visit:

       http://xdvi.sourceforge.net

       Please report all bugs to the SourceForge bug tracker:

       http://sourceforge.net/tracker/?func=add&group_id=23164&atid=377580

Xdvik 22.85				    2012-04-01					  XDVI(1)
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