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DVIPS(1)										 DVIPS(1)

NAME
       dvips - convert a TeX DVI file to PostScript

SYNOPSIS
       dvips [OPTIONS] file[.dvi]

DESCRIPTION
       THIS MAN PAGE IS OBSOLETE!  See the Texinfo documentation instead.  You can read it either
       in Emacs or with the standalone info program which comes with the GNU texinfo distribution
       as ftp.gnu.org:pub/gnu/texinfo/texinfo*.tar.gz.

       The  program dvips takes a DVI file file[.dvi] produced by TeX (or by some other processor
       such as GFtoDVI) and converts it to PostScript, sending the output to a file  or  directly
       to  a  printer.	The DVI file may be specified without the .dvi extension.  Fonts used may
       either be resident in the printer or defined as bitmaps in PK files, or a `virtual' combi-
       nation  of  both.   If  the  mktexpk program is installed, dvips will automatically invoke
       METAFONT to generate fonts that don't already exist.

       For more information, see the Texinfo manual dvips.texi, which should be  installed  some-
       where on your system, hopefully accessible through the standard Info tree.

OPTIONS
       -a     Conserve	memory	by making three passes over the .dvi file instead of two and only
	      loading those characters actually used.  Generally only useful on machines  with	a
	      very limited amount of memory, like some PCs.

       -A     Print only odd pages (TeX pages, not sequence pages).

       -b num Generate	num  copies of each page, but duplicating the page body rather than using
	      the #numcopies option.  This can be useful in conjunction with a header  file  set-
	      ting \bop-hook to do color separations or other neat tricks.

       -B     Print only even pages (TeX pages, not sequence pages).

       -c num Generate num copies of every page.  Default is 1.  (For collated copies, see the -C
	      option below.)

       -C num Create num copies, but collated (by replicating the data in the  PostScript  file).
	      Slower  than  the  -c option, but easier on the hands, and faster than resubmitting
	      the same PostScript file multiple times.

       -d num Set the debug flags.  This is intended only for emergencies or  for  unusual  fact-
	      finding  expeditions;  it  will work only if dvips has been compiled with the DEBUG
	      option.  If nonzero, prints additional information on standard error.  For  maximum
	      information, you can use `-1'.  See the Dvips Texinfo manual for more details.

       -D num Set  the resolution in dpi (dots per inch) to num.  This affects the choice of bit-
	      map fonts that are loaded and also the positioning of  letters  in  resident  Post-
	      Script  fonts.  Must be between 10 and 10000.  This affects both the horizontal and
	      vertical resolution.  If a high resolution (something greater than 400 dpi, say) is
	      selected, the -Z flag should probably also be used.

       -e num Make  sure  that	each character is placed at most this many pixels from its `true'
	      resolution-independent position on the page. The default value of this parameter is
	      resolution  dependent.   Allowing  individual characters to `drift' from their cor-
	      rectly rounded positions by a few pixels, while regaining the true position at  the
	      beginning of each new word, improves the spacing of letters in words.

       -E     makes  dvips attempt to generate an EPSF file with a tight bounding box.	This only
	      works on one-page files, and it only looks at marks made by characters  and  rules,
	      not  by any included graphics.  In addition, it gets the glyph metrics from the tfm
	      file, so characters that lie outside their enclosing tfm box may	confuse  it.   In
	      addition, the bounding box might be a bit too loose if the character glyph has sig-
	      nificant left or right side bearings.  Nonetheless, this option works well for cre-
	      ating small EPSF files for equations or tables or the like.  (Note, of course, that
	      dvips output is resolution dependent and thus does not make very good  EPSF  files,
	      especially  if  the images are to be scaled; use these EPSF files with a great deal
	      of care.)

       -f     Run as a filter.	Read the .dvi file from standard input and write  the  PostScript
	      to  standard  output.  The standard input must be seekable, so it cannot be a pipe.
	      If you must use a pipe, write a shell script that copies the pipe output to a  tem-
	      porary  file  and  then  points  dvips at this file.  This option also disables the
	      automatic reading of the PRINTER environment variable, and turns off the	automatic
	      sending of control D if it was turned on with the -F option or in the configuration
	      file; use -F after this option if you want both.

       -F     Causes Control-D (ASCII code 4) to be appended as the very last  character  of  the
	      PostScript file.	This is useful when dvips is driving the printer directly instead
	      of working through a spooler, as is common on extremely small  systems.	NOTE!  DO
	      NOT USE THIS OPTION!

       -G     Causes  dvips  to shift non-printing characters to higher-numbered positions.  This
	      may be useful sometimes.

       -h name
	      Prepend file name as an additional header file. (However, if the name is simply `-'
	      suppress	all  header  files  from the output.)  This header file gets added to the
	      PostScript userdict.

       -i     Make each section be a separate file.   Under  certain  circumstances,  dvips  will
	      split  the  document up into `sections' to be processed independently; this is most
	      often done for memory reasons.  Using this option tells dvips to place each section
	      into  a  separate  file; the new file names are created replacing the suffix of the
	      supplied output file name by a three-digit sequence number.  This  option  is  most
	      often  used in conjunction with the -S option which sets the maximum section length
	      in pages.  For instance, some phototypesetters cannot print more	than  ten  or  so
	      consecutive  pages  before running out of steam; these options can be used to auto-
	      matically split a book into ten-page sections, each to its own file.

       -j     Download only needed characters from Type 1 fonts. This is the default in the  cur-
	      rent  release.   Some  debugging	flags trace this operation.  You can also control
	      partial downloading on a per-font basis, via the psfonts.map file.

       -k     Print crop marks.  This option increases the paper size (which should be specified,
	      either  with  a  paper  size  special or with the -T option) by a half inch in each
	      dimension.  It translates each page by a quarter inch and  draws	cross-style  crop
	      marks.   It  is mostly useful with typesetters that can set the page size automati-
	      cally.

       -K     This option causes comments in included PostScript graphics, font files, and  head-
	      ers  to  be removed.  This is sometimes necessary to get around bugs in spoolers or
	      PostScript post-processing programs.  Specifically, the %%Page comments, when  left
	      in, often cause difficulties.  Use of this flag can cause some included graphics to
	      fail, since the PostScript header macros from some software packages read  portions
	      of  the input stream line by line, searching for a particular comment.  This option
	      has been turned off by default because PostScript previewers and spoolers have been
	      getting better.

       -l num The  last  page printed will be the first one numbered num Default is the last page
	      in the document.	If the num is prefixed by an equals sign, then it (and any  argu-
	      ment to the -p option) is treated as a sequence number, rather than a value to com-
	      pare with \count0 values.  Thus, using -l =9 will end with the ninth  page  of  the
	      document, no matter what the pages are actually numbered.

       -m     Specify manual feed for printer.

       -mode mode
	      Use  mode as the Metafont device name for path searching and font generation.  This
	      overrides any value from configuration files.  With the default  paths,  explicitly
	      specifying  the  mode also makes the program assume the fonts are in a subdirectory
	      named mode.

       -M     Turns off the automatic font generation facility.  If any fonts are  missing,  com-
	      mands  to  generate  the fonts are appended to the file missfont.log in the current
	      directory; this file can then be executed and deleted to create the missing fonts.

       -n num At most num pages will be printed. Default is 100000.

       -N     Turns off structured comments; this might be necessary on some systems that try  to
	      interpret  PostScript  comments in weird ways, or on some PostScript printers.  Old
	      versions of TranScript in particular cannot handle modern Encapsulated PostScript.

       -noomega
	      This will disable the use of Omega extensions  when  interpreting  DVI  files.   By
	      default,	the  additional  opcodes  129 and 134 are recognized by dvips as Omega or
	      pTeX extensions and interpreted as requests to set 2-byte characters.

       -noptex
	      This will disable the use of pTeX  extensions  when  interpreting  DVI  files.   By
	      default,	the additional opcodes 130 and 135 are recognized by dvips as pTeX exten-
	      sions and interpreted as requests to set 3-byte characters, and 255 as  request  to
	      change the typesetting direction.

	      The  only  drawback  is  that  the  virtual  font array will (at least temporarily)
	      require 65536 or more positions instead of the default  256  positions,  i.e.,  the
	      memory  requirements  of dvips will be somewhat larger.  If you find this unaccept-
	      able or encounter another problem with the Omega or pTeX extensions, you can switch
	      off  the	pTeX extension by using -noptex, or both by using -noomega (but please do
	      send a bug report if you find such problems - see the bug address  in  the  AUTHORS
	      section below).

       -o name
	      The  output will be sent to file name If no file name is given (i.e., -o is last on
	      the command line), the default name is file.ps  where  the  .dvi	file  was  called
	      file.dvi;  if  this  option  isn't  given, any default in the configuration file is
	      used.  If the first character of the supplied output file name  is  an  exclamation
	      mark,  then  the	remainder  will be used as an argument to popen; thus, specifying
	      !lpr as the output file will automatically  queue  the  file  for  printing.   This
	      option also disables the automatic reading of the PRINTER environment variable, and
	      turns off the automatic sending of control D if it was turned on with the -F option
	      or in the configuration file; use -F after this option if you want both.

       -O offset
	      Move  the  origin  by  a	certain  amount.  The offset is a comma-separated pair of
	      dimensions, such as .1in,-.3cm (in the same syntax used in the papersize	special).
	      The  origin of the page is shifted from the default position (of one inch down, one
	      inch to the right from the upper left corner of the paper) by this amount.

       -p num The first page printed will be the first one numbered num.  Default  is  the  first
	      page  in	the document.  If the num is prefixed by an equals sign, then it (and any
	      argument to the -l option) is treated as a sequence number, rather than a value  to
	      compare  with  \count0 values.  Thus, using -p =3 will start with the third page of
	      the document, no matter what the pages are actually numbered.

       -pp pagelist
	      A comma-separated list of pages and ranges (a-b) may be given, which will be inter-
	      preted  as  \count0 values.  Pages not specified will not be printed.  Multiple -pp
	      options may be specified or all pages and page ranges can be specified with one -pp
	      option.

       -P printername
	      Sets  up the output for the appropriate printer.	This is implemented by reading in
	      config.printername , which can then set the output pipe (as in, !lpr  -Pprintername
	      as  well	as the font paths and any other config.ps defaults for that printer only.
	      Note that config.ps is read before config.printername  In  addition,  another  file
	      called  ~/.dvipsrc  is  searched	for  immediately  after  config.ps;  this file is
	      intended for user defaults.  If no -P command is given,  the  environment  variable
	      PRINTER  is  checked.   If  that variable exists, and a corresponding configuration
	      file exists, that configuration file is read in.

       -q     Run in quiet mode.  Don't chatter about pages converted, etc.; report  nothing  but
	      errors to standard error.

       -r     Stack pages in reverse order.  Normally, page 1 will be printed first.

       -R[0|1|2]
	      Run  securely.  -R2 disables both shell command execution in \special'{} (via back-
	      ticks ` ) and config files (via the E option), and opening of  any  absolute  file-
	      names.   -R1  ,  the  default, forbids shell escapes but allows absolute filenames.
	      -R0 allows both.	The config file option is z

       -s     Causes the entire global output to be enclosed in a save/restore pair.  This causes
	      the  file to not be truly conformant, and is thus not recommended, but is useful if
	      you are driving the printer directly and don't care too much about the  portability
	      of the output.

       -S num Set  the	maximum  number of pages in each `section'.  This option is most commonly
	      used with the -i option; see that documentation above for more information.

       -t papertype
	      This sets the paper type to papertype.  The papertype should be defined in  one  of
	      the  configuration files, along with the appropriate code to select it.  (Currently
	      known types include letter, legal, ledger, a4, a3).  You can also specify -t  land-
	      scape,  which rotates a document by 90 degrees.  To rotate a document whose size is
	      not letter, you can use the -t option twice, once for the page size, and	once  for
	      landscape.   You	should not use any -t option when the DVI file already contains a
	      papersize special, as is done by some LaTeX packages, notably hyperref.sty.

	      The upper left corner of each page in the .dvi file is placed  one  inch	from  the
	      left and one inch from the top.  Use of this option is highly dependent on the con-
	      figuration file.	Note that executing the letter or a4 or other  PostScript  opera-
	      tors  cause  the document to be nonconforming and can cause it not to print on cer-
	      tain printers, so the paper size should not execute such an operator if at all pos-
	      sible.

       -T papersize
	      Set  the	paper  size to the given pair of dimensions.  This option takes its argu-
	      ments in the same style as -O.  It overrides any paper  size  special  in  the  dvi
	      file.

       -u psmapfile
	      Set  psmapfile  to  be  the  file  that  dvips  uses for looking up PostScript font
	      aliases.	If psmapfile begins with a + character, then the rest of the name is used
	      as  the name of the map file, and the map file is appended to the list of map files
	      (instead of replacing the list).	In either case, if psmapfile  has  no  extension,
	      then .map is added at the end.

       -U     Disable  a  PostScript virtual memory saving optimization that stores the character
	      metric information in the same string that is used to store the bitmap information.
	      This  is	only necessary when driving the Xerox 4045 PostScript interpreter.  It is
	      caused by a bug in that interpreter that results in `garbage' on the bottom of each
	      character.  Not recommended unless you must drive this printer.

       -v     Print the dvips version number and exit.

       -V     Download	non-resident PostScript fonts as bitmaps.  This requires use of `gsftopk'
	      or `pstopk' or some other such program(s) in order to generate the required  bitmap
	      fonts; these programs are supplied with dvips.

       -x num Set  the magnification ratio to num/1000.  Overrides the magnification specified in
	      the .dvi file.  Must be between 10 and 100000.  Instead of an integer, num may be a
	      real number for increased precision.

       -X num Set the horizontal resolution in dots per inch to num.

       -y num Set  the	magnification  ratio to num/1000 times the magnification specified in the
	      .dvi file.  See -x above.

       -Y num Set the vertical resolution in dots per inch to num.

       -z     Pass html hyperdvi specials through to the output for  eventual  distillation  into
	      PDF.   This  is not enabled by default to avoid including the header files unneces-
	      sarily, and use of temporary files in creating the output.

       -Z     Causes bitmapped fonts to be compressed before they are downloaded, thereby  reduc-
	      ing  the size of the PostScript font-downloading information.  Especially useful at
	      high resolutions or when very large fonts are used.  Will slow down printing  some-
	      what, especially on early 68000-based PostScript printers.

SEE ALSO
       mf(1), afm2tfm(1), tex(1), latex(1), lpr(1), dvips.texi, http://tug.org/dvips.

ENVIRONMENT
       Dvipsk  uses  the  same environment variables and algorithms for finding font files as TeX
       and its friends do.  See the documentation for the Kpathsea library for details.  (Repeat-
       ing it here is too cumbersome.)

       KPATHSEA_DEBUG: Trace Kpathsea lookups; set to -1 for complete tracing.

       PRINTER: see above.

NOTES
       PostScript is a registered trademark of Adobe Systems Incorporated.

AUTHOR
       Tomas  Rokicki  <rokicki@cs.stanford.edu>;  extended  to virtual fonts by Don Knuth.  Path
       searching and configuration modifications by Karl Berry.

					    4 May 2010					 DVIPS(1)
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