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TEX(1)											   TEX(1)

NAME
       tex, virtex, initex - text formatting and typesetting

SYNOPSIS
       tex [options] [&format] [file|\commands]

DESCRIPTION
       Run  the  TeX  typesetter on file, usually creating file.dvi.  If the file argument has no
       extension, ".tex" will be appended to it.  Instead of a filename, a set	of  TeX  commands
       can be given, the first of which must start with a backslash.  With a &format argument TeX
       uses a different set of precompiled commands, contained in format.fmt; it is usually  bet-
       ter to use the -fmt format option instead.

       TeX  formats the interspersed text and commands contained in the named files and outputs a
       typesetter independent file (called DVI, which is short for  DeVice  Independent).   TeX's
       capabilities  and  language  are described in The TeX for nroffbook.  TeX is normally used
       with a large body of precompiled macros, and there are several  specific  formatting  sys-
       tems, such as LaTeX, which require the support of several macro files.

       This  version  of  TeX looks at its command line to see what name it was called under.  If
       they exist, then both initex and virtex are symbolic links to the  tex  executable.   When
       called  as  initex  (or when the -ini option is given) it can be used to precompile macros
       into a .fmt file.  When called as virtex it will use the plain format.  When called  under
       any  other  name,  TeX  will use that name as the name of the format to use.  For example,
       when called as tex the tex format is used, which is identical to the  plain  format.   The
       commands  defined by the plain format are documented in The TeX for nroffbook.  Other for-
       mats that are often available include latex and amstex.

       The non-option command line arguments to the TeX program are passed to  it  as  the  first
       input  line.   (But it is often easier to type extended arguments as the first input line,
       since UNIX shells tend to gobble up or misinterpret TeX's  favorite  symbols,  like  back-
       slashes,  unless  you quote them.)  As described in The TeX for nroffbook, that first line
       should begin with a filename, a \controlsequence, or a &formatname.

       The normal usage is to say
       tex paper
       to start processing paper.tex.  The name paper will be the ``jobname'',	and  is  used  in
       forming output filenames.  If TeX doesn't get a filename in the first line, the jobname is
       texput.	When looking for a file, TeX looks for the name  with  and  without  the  default
       extension  (.tex)  appended, unless the name already contains that extension.  If paper is
       the ``jobname'', a log of error messages, with rather more detail than normally appears on
       the screen, will appear in paper.log, and the output file will be in paper.dvi.

       This  version  of TeX can look in the first line of the file paper.tex to see if it begins
       with the magic sequence %&.  If the first line begins with  %&format  -translate-file tcx-
       name  then  TeX	will  use  the	named format and translation table tcxname to process the
       source file.  Either the format name or the -translate-file specification may be  omitted,
       but  not both.  This overrides the format selection based on the name by which the program
       is invoked.  The -parse-first-line option or the parse_first_line  configuration  variable
       controls whether this behaviour is enabled.

       The  e  response to TeX's error prompt causes the system default editor to start up at the
       current line of the current file.  The environment variable TEXEDIT can be used to  change
       the editor used.  It may contain a string with "%s" indicating where the filename goes and
       "%d" indicating where the decimal line number (if  any)	goes.	For  example,  a  TEXEDIT
       string for emacs can be set with the sh command
       TEXEDIT="emacs +%d %s"; export TEXEDIT

       A  convenient  file in the library is null.tex, containing nothing.  When TeX can't find a
       file it thinks you want to input, it keeps asking you  for  another  filename;  responding
       `null'  gets  you  out of the loop if you don't want to input anything.	You can also type
       your EOF character (usually control-D).

OPTIONS
       This version of TeX understands the following command line options.

       -enc   Enable the encTeX extensions.  This option is only effective  in	combination  with
	      -ini.   For  documentation  of  the encTeX extensions see http://www.olsak.net/enc-
	      tex.html.

       -file-line-error
	      Print error messages in the form file:line:error which is similar to the	way  many
	      compilers format them.

       -no-file-line-error
	      Disable printing error messages in the file:line:error style.

       -file-line-error-style
	      This is the old name of the -file-line-error option.

       -fmt format
	      Use  format  as the name of the format to be used, instead of the name by which TeX
	      was called or a %& line.

       -halt-on-error
	      Exit with an error code when an error is encountered during processing.

       -help  Print help message and exit.

       -ini   Start in INI mode, which is used to dump formats.  The INI mode  can  be	used  for
	      typesetting,  but  no  format  is preloaded, and basic initializations like setting
	      catcodes may be required.

       -interaction mode
	      Sets the	interaction  mode.   The  mode	can  be  either  batchmode,  nonstopmode,
	      scrollmode,  and	errorstopmode.	The meaning of these modes is the same as that of
	      the corresponding \commands.

       -ipc   Send DVI output to a socket as well as the usual output file.  Whether this  option
	      is available is the choice of the installer.

       -ipc-start
	      As  -ipc,  and  starts the server at the other end as well.  Whether this option is
	      available is the choice of the installer.

       -jobname name
	      Use name for the job name, instead of deriving it from the name of the input file.

       -kpathsea-debug bitmask
	      Sets path searching debugging flags according to the  bitmask.   See  the  Kpathsea
	      manual for details.

       -mktex fmt
	      Enable mktexfmt, where fmt must be either tex or tfm.

       -mltex Enable MLTeX extensions.	Only effective in combination with -ini.

       -no-mktex fmt
	      Disable mktexfmt, where fmt must be either tex or tfm.

       -output-comment string
	      Use string for the DVI file comment instead of the date.

       -output-directory directory
	      Write  output  files  in directory instead of the current directory.  Look up input
	      files in directory first, then along the normal search path.  See also  description
	      of the TEXMFOUTPUT environment variable.

       -parse-first-line
	      If the first line of the main input file begins with %& parse it to look for a dump
	      name or a -translate-file option.

       -no-parse-first-line
	      Disable parsing of the first line of the main input file.

       -progname name
	      Pretend to be program name.  This affects both  the  format  used  and  the  search
	      paths.

       -recorder
	      Enable  the  filename  recorder.	This leaves a trace of the files opened for input
	      and output in a file with extension .fls.

       -shell-escape
	      Enable the \write18{command} construct.  The command  can  be  any  shell  command.
	      This construct is normally disallowed for security reasons.

       -no-shell-escape
	      Disable  the  \write18{command}  construct,  even if it is enabled in the texmf.cnf
	      file.

       -src-specials
	      Insert source specials into the DVI file.

       -src-specials where
	      Insert source specials in certain places of the DVI file.  where is  a  comma-sepa-
	      rated value list: cr, display, hbox, math, par, parent, or vbox.

       -translate-file tcxname
	      Use  the	tcxname  translation table to set the mapping of input characters and re-
	      mapping of output characters.

       -default-translate-file tcxname
	      Like -translate-file except that a %& line can overrule this setting.

       -version
	      Print version information and exit.

ENVIRONMENT
       See the Kpathsearch library documentation (the `Path  specifications'  node)  for  precise
       details	of  how the environment variables are used.  The kpsewhich utility can be used to
       query the values of the variables.

       One caveat: In most TeX formats, you cannot use ~ in a filename you give directly to  TeX,
       because	~  is  an active character, and hence is expanded, not taken as part of the file-
       name.  Other programs, such as Metafont, do not have this problem.

       TEXMFOUTPUT
	      Normally, TeX puts its output files in the current directory.  If any  output  file
	      cannot be opened there, it tries to open it in the directory specified in the envi-
	      ronment variable TEXMFOUTPUT.  There is no default value for  that  variable.   For
	      example,	if  you say tex paper and the current directory is not writable, if TEXM-
	      FOUTPUT  has  the  value	/tmp,  TeX  attempts  to   create   /tmp/paper.log   (and
	      /tmp/paper.dvi,  if any output is produced.)  TEXMFOUTPUT is also checked for input
	      files, as TeX often generates files that need to be subsequently read;  for  input,
	      no  suffixes  (such  as  ``.tex'')  are  added by default, the input name is simply
	      checked as given.

       TEXINPUTS
	      Search path for \input and \openin files.  This probably start with ``.'', so  that
	      user files are found before system files.  An empty path component will be replaced
	      with the paths defined in the  texmf.cnf	file.	For  example,  set  TEXINPUTS  to
	      ".:/home/user/tex:"  to prepend the current directory and ``/home/user/tex'' to the
	      standard search path.

       TEXFORMATS
	      Search path for format files.

       TEXPOOL
	      search path for tex internal strings.

       TEXEDIT
	      Command template for switching to editor.  The default, usually vi, is set when TeX
	      is compiled.

       TFMFONTS
	      Search path for font metric (.tfm) files.

FILES
       The location of the files mentioned below varies from system to system.	Use the kpsewhich
       utility to find their locations.

       texmf.cnf
	      Configuration file.  This contains definitions of search paths  as  well	as  other
	      configuration parameters like parse_first_line.

       tex.pool
	      Text file containing TeX's internal strings.

       texfonts.map
	      Filename mapping definitions.

       *.tfm  Metric files for TeX's fonts.

       *.fmt  Predigested TeX format (.fmt) files.

       $TEXMFMAIN/tex/plain/base/plain.tex
	      The basic macro package described in the TeX for nroffbook.

NOTES
       This  manual page is not meant to be exhaustive.  The complete documentation for this ver-
       sion of TeX can be found in the info manual Web2C: A TeX implementation.

BUGS
       This version of TeX implements a number of optional extensions.	In fact,  many	of  these
       extensions  conflict  to a greater or lesser extent with the definition of TeX.	When such
       extensions are enabled, the banner printed when	TeX  starts  is  changed  to  print  TeXk
       instead of TeX.

       This  version  of  TeX fails to trap arithmetic overflow when dimensions are added or sub-
       tracted.  Cases where this occurs are rare, but when it does the generated DVI  file  will
       be invalid.

SEE ALSO
       mf(1),
       Donald E. Knuth, The TeX for nroffbook, Addison-Wesley, 1986, ISBN 0-201-13447-0.
       Leslie  Lamport,  LaTeX	-  A  Document	Preparation  System,  Addison-Wesley,  1985, ISBN
       0-201-15790-X.
       K. Berry, Eplain: Expanded plain TeX, ftp://ftp.cs.umb.edu/pub/tex/eplain/doc.
       Michael Spivak, The Joy	of  TeX  for  nroff,  2nd  edition,  Addison-Wesley,  1990,  ISBN
       0-8218-2997-1.
       TUGboat (the journal of the TeX Users Group).

TRIVIA
       TeX,  pronounced  properly,  rhymes with ``blecchhh.''  The proper spelling in typewriter-
       like fonts is ``TeX'' and not ``TEX'' or ``tex.''

AUTHORS
       TeX was designed by Donald E. Knuth, who implemented it using his Web  system  for  Pascal
       programs.   It  was  ported to Unix at Stanford by Howard Trickey, and at Cornell by Pavel
       Curtis.	The version now offered with the Unix TeX distribution is that generated  by  the
       Web to C system (web2c), originally written by Tomas Rokicki and Tim Morgan.

       The encTeX extensions were written by Petr Olsak.

Web2C 2012				   1 March 2011 				   TEX(1)
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