tree - list contents of directories in a tree-like format.
tree [-acdfghilnpqrstuvxACDFQNSUX] [-L level [-R]] [-H baseHREF] [-T title] [-o filename]
[--nolinks] [-P pattern] [-I pattern] [--inodes] [--device] [--noreport] [--dirsfirst]
[--version] [--help] [--filelimit #] [--si] [--prune] [--du] [--timefmt format] [directory
Tree is a recursive directory listing program that produces a depth indented listing of
files, which is colorized ala dircolors if the LS_COLORS environment variable is set and
output is to tty. With no arguments, tree lists the files in the current directory. When
directory arguments are given, tree lists all the files and/or directories found in the
given directories each in turn. Upon completion of listing all files/directories found,
tree returns the total number of files and/or directories listed.
By default, when a symbolic link is encountered, the path that the symbolic link refers to
is printed after the name of the link in the format:
name -> real-path
If the `-l' option is given and the symbolic link refers to an actual directory, then tree
will follow the path of the symbolic link as if it were a real directory.
Tree understands the following command line switches:
-a All files are printed. By default tree does not print hidden files (those begin-
ning with a dot `.'). In no event does tree print the file system constructs `.'
(current directory) and `..' (previous directory).
-d List directories only.
-l Follows symbolic links if they point to directories, as if they were directories.
Symbolic links that will result in recursion are avoided when detected.
-f Prints the full path prefix for each file.
-x Stay on the current file-system only. Ala find -xdev.
Max display depth of the directory tree.
-R Recursively cross down the tree each level directories (see -L option), and at each
of them execute tree again adding `-o 00Tree.html' as a new option.
List only those files that match the wild-card pattern. Note: you must use the -a
option to also consider those files beginning with a dot `.' for matching. Valid
wildcard operators are `*' (any zero or more characters), `?' (any single charac-
ter), `[...]' (any single character listed between brackets (optional - (dash) for
character range may be used: ex: [A-Z]), and `[^...]' (any single character not
listed in brackets) and `|' separates alternate patterns.
Do not list those files that match the wild-card pattern.
Makes tree prune empty directories from the output, useful when used in conjunction
with -P or -I. See BUGS AND NOTES below for more information on this option.
Omits printing of the file and directory report at the end of the tree listing.
Set the character set to use when outputting HTML and for line drawing.
Do not descend directories that contain more than # entries.
Prints (implies -D) and formats the date according to the format string which uses
the strftime(3) syntax.
Send output to filename.
-q Print non-printable characters in filenames as question marks instead of the
-N Print non-printable characters as is instead of as escaped octal numbers.
-Q Quote the names of files in double quotes.
-p Print the file type and permissions for each file (as per ls -l).
-u Print the username, or UID # if no username is available, of the file.
-g Print the group name, or GID # if no group name is available, of the file.
-s Print the size of each file in bytes along with the name.
-h Print the size of each file but in a more human readable way, e.g. appending a size
letter for kilobytes (K), megabytes (M), gigabytes (G), terabytes (T), petabytes
(P) and exabytes (E).
--si Like -h but use SI units (powers of 1000) instead.
--du For each directory report its size as the accumulation of sizes of all its files
and sub-directories (and their files, and so on). The total amount of used space
is also given in the final report (like the 'du -c' command.) This option requires
tree to read the entire directory tree before emitting it, see BUGS AND NOTES
below. Implies -s.
-D Print the date of the last modification time or if -c is used, the last status
change time for the file listed.
-F Append a `/' for directories, a `=' for socket files, a `*' for executable files, a
`>' for doors (Solaris) and a `|' for FIFO's, as per ls -F
Prints the inode number of the file or directory
Prints the device number to which the file or directory belongs
-v Sort the output by version.
-r Sort the output in reverse alphabetic order.
-t Sort the output by last modification time instead of alphabetically.
-c Sort the output by last status change instead of alphabetically. Modifies the -D
option (if used) to print the last status change instead of modification time.
-U Do not sort. Lists files in directory order. Disables --dirsfirst.
List directories before files. This is a meta-sort that alters the above sorts.
This option is disabled when -U is used.
-i Makes tree not print the indentation lines, useful when used in conjunction with
the -f option.
-A Turn on ANSI line graphics hack when printing the indentation lines.
-S Turn on ASCII line graphics (useful when using Linux console mode fonts). This
option is now equivalent to `--charset=IBM437' and may eventually be depreciated.
-n Turn colorization off always, over-ridden by the -C option.
-C Turn colorization on always, using built-in color defaults if the LS_COLORS envi-
ronment variable is not set. Useful to colorize output to a pipe.
-X Turn on XML output. Outputs the directory tree as an XML formatted file.
Turn on HTML output, including HTTP references. Useful for ftp sites. baseHREF
gives the base ftp location when using HTML output. That is, the local directory
may be `/local/ftp/pub', but it must be referenced as `ftp://hostname.organiza-
tion.domain/pub' (baseHREF should be `ftp://hostname.organization.domain'). Hint:
don't use ANSI lines with this option, and don't give more than one directory in
the directory list. If you wish to use colors via CCS style-sheet, use the -C
option in addition to this option to force color output.
Sets the title and H1 header string in HTML output mode.
Turns off hyperlinks in HTML output.
--help Outputs a verbose usage listing.
Outputs the version of tree.
/etc/DIR_COLORS System color database.
~/.dircolors Users color database.
LS_COLORS Color information created by dircolors
TREE_COLORS Uses this for color information over LS_COLORS if it is set.
TREE_CHARSET Character set for tree to use in HTML mode.
LC_CTYPE Locale for filename output.
LC_TIME Locale for timefmt output, see strftime(3).
TZ Timezone for timefmt output, see strftime(3).
Steve Baker (firstname.lastname@example.org)
HTML output hacked by Francesc Rocher (email@example.com)
Charsets and OS/2 support by Kyosuke Tokoro (NBG01720@nifty.ne.jp)
BUGS AND NOTES
Tree does not prune "empty" directories when the -P and -I options are used by default.
Use the --prune option.
The -h and --si options round to the nearest whole number unlike the ls implementations
which rounds up always.
Pruning files and directories with the -I, -P and --filelimit options will lead to incor-
rect file/directory count reports.
The --prune and --du options cause tree to accumulate the entire tree in memory before
emitting it. For large directory trees this can cause a significant delay in output and
the use of large amounts of memory.
The timefmt expansion buffer is limited to a ridiculously large 255 characters. Output of
time strings longer than this will be undefined, but are guaranteed to not exceed 255
XML trees are not colored, which is a bit of a shame.
dircolors(1), ls(1), find(1), du(1), strftime(3)
Tree 1.6.0 TREE(1)