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wodim(1)										 wodim(1)

NAME
       wodim - write data to optical disk media

SYNOPSIS
       wodim [options] track1...trackn

NOTE
       There  may  be  similarities and differences between this program and other disk recording
       application(s). See the CREDITS and AUTHORS sections below to learn about  the  origin  of
       wodim.

DESCRIPTION
       wodim  is  used	to record data or audio Compact Discs on an Orange Book CD-Recorder or to
       write DVD media on a DVD-Recorder.

       The device is the device file or label offered by  the  operating  system  to  access  the
       recorder  with  SCSI  GENERIC (sg) interface. Note that some operating systems may provide
       separate device nodes for block-oriented and sg access. For example, on older  Linux  sys-
       tems,  the  sg  access  was  available  through /dev/sg...  files while the block oriented
       access was done through associated (but not identical)  /dev/hd...   and  /dev/sr...   (or
       /dev/scd...  ) files.

       In  any	case, the user running wodim needs read and write access to the particular device
       file on a Linux system. It is recommended to be root or install the application	as  suid-
       root,  because  certain	versions of Linux (kernel) limit the set of SCSI commands allowed
       for non-root users. Even if usage without root identity is possible in  many  cases,  some
       device  drivers	still  may  fail,  show unexplainable problems and generally the problems
       become harder to debug. The risk for buffer-underruns is also increased. See  the  PROCESS
       SCHEDULING PRIORITY section below for more details.

       There  is an alternative way of specifying the device, using the traditional SCSI descrip-
       tions in form of devicetype:bus/target/lun specification. However,  the	success  of  this
       method is not guaranteed since it requires an adaptation scheme for your architecture, and
       the numbers may vary depending on the hardware-internal numbering or on the order of  hot-
       plug  device  detection.  If your operating system does not provide a sufficient framework
       for keeping this numbers persistent, don't  rely  on  them.  See  -scanbus  and	--devices
       options below for details.

       There  are  emulated  SCSI compatible device systems, using the SCSI protocols transported
       over various hardware/media types. The most known examples is ATAPI ("IDE burners") or USB
       storage	("external  USB  case"). If the pseudo-SCSI b/t/l device address specification is
       used instead of the native one, you need to prepend the "devicetype:" description  to  the
       emulated "bus/target/lun" device address.

       If  a  file  /etc/wodim.conf  exists, the parameter to the dev= option may also be a drive
       name label in that file (see FILES section).

       As a special exception, the device specification can be -1 or just omitted, which  invokes
       automatic  guessing  of	an  appropriate  device for the selected operation. However, this
       guessing is not available everywhere and is not reliable; it is	only  available  for  the
       user's convenience in simple environments.

       In  Track At Once mode, each track corresponds to a single file that contains the prepared
       data for that track.  If the argument is `-', standard input is used for that track.  Only
       one  track  may	be  taken from stdin.  In the other write modes, the direct file to track
       relation may not be implemented.  In -clone mode, a single file contains all data for  the
       whole  disk.   To allow DVD writing on platforms that do not implement large file support,
       wodim concatenates all file arguments to a single track when writing to DVD media.

PROCESS SCHEDULING PRIORITY
       Wodim tries to get higher process priority using  different  methods.  This  is	important
       because	the  burn  process  is usually a realtime task, no long delays should occur while
       transmitting fresh data to the recorder. This is  especially  important	on  systems  with
       insufficient RAM where swapping can create delays of many seconds.

       A  possible  workaround on underpowered systems is the use of the burnfree or similar fea-
       ture, allowing the recorder to resume.

       Root permissions are usually required to get higher process scheduling priority.

       On SVr4 compliant systems, wodim uses the real time class to get  the  highest  scheduling
       priority  that is possible (higher than all kernel processes).  On systems with POSIX real
       time scheduling wodim uses real time scheduling too, but may not be able to gain a  prior-
       ity that is higher than all kernel processes.

       In order to be able to use the SCSI transport subsystem of the OS, run at highest priority
       and lock itself into core wodim either needs to be run as root, needs to be installed suid
       root or must be called via RBACs pfexec mechanism.

GENERAL OPTIONS
       General options must be before any track file name or track option.

       -version
	      Print version information and exit.

       -v     Increment  the level of general verbosity by one.  This is used e.g. to display the
	      progress of the writing process.

       -V     Increment the verbose level in respect of SCSI  command  transport  by  one.   This
	      helps  to  debug	problems  during  the  writing process, that occur in the CD/DVD-
	      Recorder.  If you get incomprehensible error messages you should use this  flag  to
	      get more detailed output.  -VV will show data buffer content in addition.  Using -V
	      or -VV slows down the process and may be the reason for a buffer underrun.

       debug=#, -d
	      Set the misc debug value to # (with debug=#) or increment the misc debug	level  by
	      one  (with  -d). If you specify -dd, this equals to debug=2.  This may help to find
	      problems while opening a driver for libusal as well as with sector sizes and sector
	      types.   Using  -debug  slows  down  the process and may be the reason for a buffer
	      underrun.

       kdebug=#, kd=#
	      Tell the usal-driver to modify the kernel debug value while SCSI commands are  run-
	      ning.

       -silent, -s
	      Do not print out a status report for failed SCSI commands.

       -force Force  to continue on some errors. Be careful when using this option.  wodim imple-
	      ments several checks that prevent you from doing unwanted things like damaging  CD-
	      RW media by improper drives. Many of the sanity checks are disabled when the -force
	      option is used.

	      This option also implements some tricks that will allow  you  to	blank  bad  CD-RW
	      disks.

       -immed Tell    wodim    to    set    the    SCSI    IMMED   flag   in   certain	 commands
	      (load/eject/blank/close_track/close_session).  This can be useful on broken systems
	      with  ATAPI  harddisk  and  CD/DVD writer on the same bus or with SCSI systems that
	      don't use disconnect/reconnect.  These systems will freeze while blanking or fixat-
	      ing  a  CD/DVD  or while a DVD writer is filling up a session to the minimum amount
	      (approx. 800 MB).  Setting the -immed flag will request the command to return imme-
	      diately  while  the operation proceeds in background, making the bus usable for the
	      other devices and avoiding the system freeze.   This  is	an  experimental  feature
	      which  may  work	or  not,  depending on the model of the CD/DVD writer.	A correct
	      solution would be to set up a correct cabling but there seem to be notebooks around
	      that  have  been	set up the wrong way by the manufacturer.  As it is impossible to
	      fix this problem in notebooks, the -immed option has been added.

	      A second experimental feature of the -immed flag is to tell wodim to  try  to  wait
	      short times while writing to the media. This is expected to free the IDE bus if the
	      CD/DVD writer and the data source are connected to the  same  IDE  cable.  In  this
	      case,  the  CD/DVD  writer would otherwise usually block the IDE bus for nearly all
	      the time making it impossible to fetch data from the source drive. See also minbuf=
	      and -v option.

	      Use  both  features  at your own risk.  If it turns out that it would make sense to
	      have a separate option for the wait feature, write to the author and convince him.

       minbuf=value
	      The # minbuf= option allows to define the minimum drive buffer fill ratio  for  the
	      experimental  ATAPI  wait  mode  that is intended to free the IDE bus to allow hard
	      disk and CD/DVD writer to be on the same IDE cable.  As  the  wait  mode	currently
	      only works when the verbose option -v has been specified, wodim implies the verbose
	      option in case the -immed or minbuf= option have been specified.	Valid values  for
	      minbuf= are between 25 and 95 for 25%...95% minimum drive buffer fill ratio.

       -dummy The  CD/DVD-Recorder  will  go  through all steps of the recording process, but the
	      laser is turned off during this procedure.  It is recommended to run several  tests
	      before  actually writing to a Compact Disk or Digital Versatile Disk, if the timing
	      and load response of the system is not known.

       -clone Tells wodim to handle images created by readom -clone.  The -clone may only be used
	      in  conjunction  with  with  the	-raw96r  or with the -raw16 option.  Using -clone
	      together with -raw96r is preferred as it allows to write all subchannel data.   The
	      option  -raw16  should  only  be	used  with drives that do not support to write in
	      -raw96r mode.

       -dao

       -sao   Set SAO (Session At Once) mode which is usually called Disk  At  Once  mode.   This
	      currently  only works with MMC drives that support Session At Once mode.	Note that
	      wodim needs to know the size of each track  in  advance  for  this  mode	(see  the
	      genisoimage -print-size option and the EXAMPLES section for more information).

       -tao   Set  TAO	(Track At Once) writing mode.  This is the default write mode in previous
	      wodim versions.  With most drives, this write mode is required  for  multi  session
	      recording.

       -raw   Set  RAW	writing  mode.	 Using	this option defaults to -raw96r.  Note that wodim
	      needs to know the size of each track in advance for this mode (see the  genisoimage
	      -print-size option and the EXAMPLES section for more information).

       -raw96r
	      Select  Set  RAW	writing mode with 2352 byte sectors plus 96 bytes of raw P-W sub-
	      channel data resulting in a sector size of 2448 bytes.  This is the  preferred  raw
	      writing mode as it gives best control over the CD writing process.  If you find any
	      problems with the layout of a disk or with sub channel content (e.g. wrong times on
	      the  display  when  playing  the CD) and your drive supports to write in -raw96r or
	      -raw16 mode, you should give it a try.  There  are  several  CD  writers	with  bad
	      firmware that result in broken disks when writing in TAO or SAO mode.  Writing data
	      disks in raw mode needs significantly more CPU time than other write modes. If your
	      CPU  is  too  slow,  this may result in buffer underruns.  Note that wodim needs to
	      know the size of each track in advance for this mode (see the  genisoimage  -print-
	      size option and the EXAMPLES section for more information).

       -raw96p
	      Select Set RAW writing mode with 2352 byte sectors plus 96 bytes of packed P-W sub-
	      channel data resulting in a sector size of 2448 bytes.  This is the less	preferred
	      raw  writing  mode  as  only a few recorders support it and some of these recorders
	      have bugs in the firmware implementation.  Don't use this  mode  if  your  recorder
	      supports	-raw96r  or  -raw16.   Writing data disks in raw mode needs significantly
	      more CPU time than other write modes. If your CPU is too slow, this may  result  in
	      buffer  underruns.  Note that wodim needs to know the size of each track in advance
	      for this mode (see the genisoimage -print-size option and the EXAMPLES section  for
	      more information).

       -raw16 Select  Set RAW writing mode with 2352 byte sectors plus 16 bytes of P-Q subchannel
	      data resulting in a sector size of 2368 bytes.  If  a  recorder  does  not  support
	      -raw96r,	this  is  the preferred raw writing mode.  It does not allow to write CD-
	      Text or CD+Graphics but it is the only raw writing mode in cheap	CD  writers.   As
	      these cheap writers in most cases do not support -dao mode.  Don't use this mode if
	      your recorder supports -raw96r.  Writing data disks in raw mode needs significantly
	      more  CPU  time than other write modes. If your CPU is too slow, this may result in
	      buffer underruns.  Note that wodim needs to know the size of each track in  advance
	      for  this mode (see the genisoimage -print-size option and the EXAMPLES section for
	      more information).

       -multi Allow multi session CDs to be made. This flag needs to be present on  all  sessions
	      of  a multi session disk, except you want to create a session that will be the last
	      session on the media.  The fixation will be done in a way that allows  the  CD/DVD-
	      Recorder to append additional sessions later. This is done by generation a TOC with
	      a link to the next program area. The so generated media is not 100%  compatible  to
	      manufactured CDs (except for CDplus).  Use only for recording of multi session CDs.
	      If this option is present, the default track type is CD-ROM XA mode 2  form  1  and
	      the  sector  size  is  2048 bytes.  The XA sector subheaders will be created by the
	      drive.  The Sony drives have no hardware support for CD-ROM XA mode 2 form 1.   You
	      have  to	specify  the -data option in order to create multi session disks on these
	      drives.  As long as wodim does not have a coder  for  converting	data  sectors  to
	      audio  sectors,  you  need to force CD-ROM sectors by including the -data option if
	      you like to record a multisession disk in SAO mode.  Not all drives allow multises-
	      sion CDs in SAO mode.

       -msinfo
	      Retrieve	multi  session	info  in  a form suitable for genisoimage and print it to
	      standard output. See msifile= option for another version.

	      This option makes only sense with a CD that contains at least  one  closed  session
	      and  is  appendable (not finally closed yet).  Some drives create error messages if
	      you try to get the multi session info for a disk that  is  not  suitable	for  this
	      operation.

       msifile=filename
	      Like -msinfo option but also stores the multi session info in a file.

       -toc   Retrieve	and  print  out  the  table of content or PMA of a CD.	With this option,
	      wodim will work with CD-R drives and with CD-ROM drives.

       -atip  Retrieve and print out the ATIP (absolute Time in  Pre-groove)  info  of	a  CD/DVD
	      recordable  or  CD/DVD  re-writable  media.   With  this	option, wodim will try to
	      retrieve the ATIP info. If the actual drive does not support to read the ATIP info,
	      it  may  be  that only a reduced set of information records or even nothing is dis-
	      played. Only a limited number of MMC compliant drives  support  to  read	the  ATIP
	      info.

	      If  wodim is able to retrieve the lead-in start time for the first session, it will
	      try to decode and print the manufacturer info from the media.  DVD media	does  not
	      have  ATIP information but there is equivalent prerecorded information that is read
	      out and printed.

       -fix   The disk will only be fixated (i.e. a TOC for a CD-Reader will be  written).   This
	      may  be  used,  if  for some reason the disk has been written but not fixated. This
	      option currently does not work with old TEAC drives (CD-R50S and CD-R55S).

       -nofix Do not fixate the disk after writing the tracks. This may  be  used  to  create  an
	      audio  disk in steps. An un-fixated disk can usually not be used on a non CD-writer
	      type drive but there are audio CD players that will be able to play such a disk.

       -waiti Wait for input to become available on standard input before trying to open the SCSI
	      driver.  This  allows  wodim  to read its input from a pipe even when writing addi-
	      tional sessions to a multi session disk.	When writing another session to  a  multi
	      session  disk,  genisoimage  needs  to  read the old session from the device before
	      writing output.  This cannot be done if wodim opens the SCSI  driver  at	the  same
	      time.

       -load  Load the media and exit. This only works with a tray loading mechanism but seems to
	      be useful when using the Kodak disk transporter.

       -lock  Load the media, lock the door and exit. This only works with a tray loading  mecha-
	      nism but seems to be useful when using the Kodak disk transporter.

       -eject Eject  disk  after  doing  the work.  Some devices (e.g. Philips) need to eject the
	      medium before creating a new disk. Doing a -dummy test and immediately  creating	a
	      real disk would not work on these devices.

       speed=#
	      Set  the speed factor of the writing process to #.  # is an integer, representing a
	      multiple of the audio speed.  This is about 150 KB/s for CD-ROM, about 172 KB/s for
	      CD-Audio	and  about 1385 kB/s for DVD media.  If no speed option is present, wodim
	      will try to get a drive specific speed value from the file /etc/wodim.conf  and  if
	      it  cannot find one, it will try to get the speed value from the CDR_SPEED environ-
	      ment and later from the CDR_SPEED= entry in /etc/wodim.conf.   If  no  speed  value
	      could be found, wodim uses a drive specific default speed.  The default for all new
	      (MMC compliant) drives is to use the maximum supported by the drive.   If  you  use
	      speed=0  with a MMC compliant drive, wodim will switch to the lowest possible speed
	      for drive and medium.  If you are using an old (non MMC) drive  that  has  problems
	      with speed=2 or speed=4, you should try speed=0.

       blank=type
	      Blank  a	CD-RW  and exit or blank a CD-RW before writing. The blanking type may be
	      one of:

	      help	  Display a list of possible blanking types.

	      all	  Blank the entire disk. This may take a long time.

	      fast	  Minimally blank the disk. This results in erasing the PMA, the TOC  and
			  the pregap.

	      track	  Blank a track.

	      unreserve   Unreserve a reserved track.

	      trtail	  Blank the tail of a track.

	      unclose	  Unclose last session.

	      session	  Blank the last session.
       Not all drives support all blanking types. It may be necessary to use blank=all if a drive
       reports a specified command as being invalid.  If used together with the -force flag, this
       option  may  be	used to blank CD-RW disks that otherwise cannot be blanked. Note that you
       may need to specify blank=all because some drives will not continue with certain types  of
       bad  CD-RW  disks.  Note  also  that wodim does its best if the -force flag is used but it
       finally depends on the drive's firmware whether the blanking  operation	will  succeed  or
       not.

       -format
	      Format  a  CD-RW/DVD-RW/DVD+RW  disc.  Formatting is currently only implemented for
	      DVD+RW media.  A 'maiden' DVD+RW media needs to be formatted before you  may  write
	      to it.  However, as wodim autodetects the need for formatting in this case and auto
	      formats the medium before it starts writing, the -format option is only  needed  if
	      you like to forcibly reformat a DVD+RW medium.

       fs=#   Set  the	FIFO  (ring  buffer) size to #.  You may use the same syntax as in dd(1),
	      sdd(1) or star(1).  The number representing the size is taken in bytes unless  oth-
	      erwise  specified.   If  a number is followed directly by the letter `b', `k', `m',
	      `s' or `f', the size is multiplied by 512, 1024, 1024*1024, 2048 or 2352.   If  the
	      size consists of numbers separated by `x' or `*', multiplication of the two numbers
	      is performed.  Thus fs=10x63k will specify a FIFO size of 630 kBytes.

	      The size specified by the fs= argument includes the shared memory  that  is  needed
	      for  administration.  This  is  at  least  one page of memory.  If no fs= option is
	      present, wodim will try to get the FIFO size value from the  CDR_FIFOSIZE  environ-
	      ment.  The default FIFO size is currently 4 MB.

	      The  FIFO  is  used  to  increase  buffering for the real time writing process.  It
	      allows to run a pipe from genisoimage directly into wodim.  If the FIFO  is  active
	      and  a  pipe  from  genisoimage into wodim is used to create a CD, wodim will abort
	      prior to do any modifications on the disk if  genisoimage  dies  before  it  starts
	      writing.	 The  recommended  FIFO  size  is between 4 and 128 MBytes.  As a rule of
	      thumb, the FIFO size should be at least equal to the size of the internal buffer of
	      the  CD/DVD-Recorder  and no more than half of the physical amount of RAM available
	      in the machine.  If the FIFO size is big enough, the FIFO statistics will  print	a
	      FIFO empty count of zero and the FIFO min fill is not below 20%.	It is not wise to
	      use too much space for the FIFO. If you need more than 8 MB to  write  a	CD  at	a
	      speed  less  than 20x from an image on a local file system on an idle machine, your
	      machine is either underpowered, has hardware problems or is mis-configured.  If you
	      like to write DVDs or CDs at higher speed, it makes sense to use at least 16 MB for
	      the FIFO.

	      On old and small machines, you need to be more careful with the FIFO size.  If your
	      machine  has  less  than	256 MB of physical RAM, you should not set up a FIFO size
	      that is more than 32 MB.	The sun4c architecture (e.g. a Sparcstation-2)	has  only
	      MMU page table entries for 16 MBytes per process. Using more than 14 MBytes for the
	      FIFO may cause the operating system in this case to spend much time  to  constantly
	      reload  the MMU tables. Newer machines from Sun do not have this MMU hardware prob-
	      lem. I have no information on PC-hardware reflecting this problem.

	      Old Linux systems for non x86 platforms have broken definitions for the shared mem-
	      ory size. You need to fix them and rebuild the kernel or manually tell wodim to use
	      a smaller FIFO.

	      If you have buffer underruns or similar problems (like  a  constantly  empty  drive
	      buffer)  and  observe a zero fifo empty count, you have hardware problems that pre-
	      vents the data from flowing fast enough from the kernel memory to  the  drive.  The
	      FIFO size in this case is sufficient, but you should check for a working DMA setup.

       ts=#   Set  the	maximum transfer size for a single SCSI command to #.  The syntax for the
	      ts= option is the same as for wodim fs=# or sdd bs=#.

	      If no ts= option has been specified, wodim defaults to a transfer size of 63 kB. If
	      libusal  gets  lower  values from the operating system, the value is reduced to the
	      maximum value that is possible with the current operating  system.   Sometimes,  it
	      may help to further reduce the transfer size or to enhance it, but note that it may
	      take a long time to find a better value by experimenting with the ts= option.

       dev=target
	      Sets the SCSI target for the CD/DVD-Recorder, see notes above.   A  typical  device
	      specification is dev=6,0 .  A filename or virtual device name can be passed instead
	      of the symbolic SCSI numbers.  The correct device/filename  in  this  case  can  be
	      found  in the system specific manuals of the target operating system.  On a FreeBSD
	      system  without  CAM  support,  you  need  to  use   the	 control   device   (e.g.
	      /dev/rcd0.ctl).	 A   correct   device	specification	in   this   case  may  be
	      dev=/dev/rcd0.ctl:@ .

	      On Linux and Windows 2000/XP, drives are accessible with their  device  (or  drive)
	      names or with the symbolic SCSI numbers (not recommended, mapping is not stable and
	      could be completely removed in the future).

	      If no dev option is present, wodim will try to get the device from  the  CDR_DEVICE
	      environment.

	      If the argument to the dev= option does not contain the characters ',', '/', '@' or
	      ':',  it	is  interpreted  as  an  label	name  that  may  be  found  in	the  file
	      /etc/wodim.conf (see FILES section).

       gracetime=#
	      Set  the	grace time before starting to write to # seconds.  Values below 2 seconds
	      are not recommended to give the kernel or volume management a chance to  learn  the
	      new state.

       timeout=#
	      Set  the default SCSI command timeout value to # seconds.  The default SCSI command
	      timeout is the minimum timeout used for sending SCSI commands.  If a  SCSI  command
	      fails due to a timeout, you may try to raise the default SCSI command timeout above
	      the timeout value of the failed command.	If the	command  runs  correctly  with	a
	      raised  command timeout, please report the better timeout value and the correspond-
	      ing command to the author of the program.  If  no  timeout  option  is  present,	a
	      default timeout of 40 seconds is used.

       driver=name
	      Allows  the  user  to  manually select a driver for the device.  The reason for the
	      existence of the driver=name option is to allow users to use wodim with drives that
	      are  similar  to supported drives but not known directly by wodim.  All drives made
	      after 1997 should be MMC standard compliant and thus supported by one  of  the  MMC
	      drivers.	 It  is most unlikely that wodim is unable to find the right driver auto-
	      matically.  Use this option with extreme care. If a wrong  driver  is  used  for	a
	      device,  the  possibility of creating corrupted disks is high.  The minimum problem
	      related to a wrong driver is that the speed= or -dummy will not work.

	      The following driver names are supported:

	      help   To get a list of possible drivers together with a short description.

	      mmc_cd The generic SCSI-3/mmc CD-ROM driver is auto-selected whenever wodim finds a
		     MMC compliant drive that does not identify itself to support writing at all,
		     or that only identifies to support media or write modes not  implemented  in
		     wodim.

	      mmc_cd_dvd
		     The generic SCSI-3/mmc CD/DVD driver is auto-selected whenever wodim finds a
		     MMC-2 or MMC-3 compliant drive that seems to support more	than  one  medium
		     type  and	the  tray is open or no medium could be found to select the right
		     driver.  This driver tries to close the tray, checks the medium found in the
		     tray and then branches to the driver that matches the current medium.

	      mmc_cdr
		     The  generic  SCSI-3/mmc  CD-R/CD-RW  driver is auto-selected whenever wodim
		     find a MMC compliant drive that only supports to write CDs or a multi system
		     drive that contains a CD as the current medium.

	      mmc_cdr_sony
		     The  generic  SCSI-3/mmc  CD-R/CD-RW  driver is auto-selected whenever wodim
		     would otherwise select the mmc_cdr driver but the device seems to be made by
		     Sony.   The  mmc_cdr_sony	is definitely needed for the Sony CDU 928 as this
		     drive does not completely implement the MMC standard and  some  of  the  MMC
		     SCSI  commands  have  to  be replaced by Sony proprietary commands. It seems
		     that all Sony drives (even newer ones) still implement the Sony  proprietary
		     SCSI  commands so it has not yet become a problem to use this driver for all
		     Sony drives. If you find a newer Sony drive that does  not  work  with  this
		     driver, please report.

	      mmc_mdvd
		     The generic SCSI-3/mmc-2 DVD-R/DVD-RW driver is auto-selected whenever wodim
		     finds a MMC-2 or MMC-3 compliant drive that supports to write  DVDs  and  an
		     appropriate  medium  is  loaded.  Note that for unknown reason, the DVD-Plus
		     alliance does not like that there is a simulation mode for DVD+R and  DVD+RW
		     media  nor  a way to erase DVD+RW media.  DVD+R and DVD+RW only supports one
		     write mode that is somewhere between Track At Once and Packet writing;  this
		     mode is selected in wodim via a the -dao/-sao option.  As DVD+RW media needs
		     to be formatted before its first use, wodim auto-detects  this  media  state
		     and performs a format before it starts to write.

		     Note:  If you have any problems during burning DVDs using wodim, please con-
		     sider growisofs from package dvd+rw-tools, which often works better in these
		     cases.

	      cw_7501
		     The  driver  for  Matsushita/Panasonic  CW-7501  is auto-selected when wodim
		     finds this old pre MMC drive.  wodim supports all write modes for this drive
		     type.

	      kodak_pcd_600
		     The  driver for Kodak PCD-600 is auto-selected when wodim finds this old pre
		     MMC drive which has been the first high speed (6x)  CD  writer  for  a  long
		     time. This drive behaves similar to the Philips CDD-521 drive.

	      philips_cdd521
		     The  driver  for Philips CDD-521 is auto-selected when wodim finds a Philips
		     CDD-521 drive (which is the first CD writer ever made) or one of  the  other
		     drives  that are known to behave similar to this drive.  All Philips CDD-521
		     or similar drives (see other drivers in this list) do not support Session At
		     Once recording.

	      philips_cdd521_old
		     The  driver  for  Philips	old  CDD-521  is auto-selected when wodim finds a
		     Philips CDD-521 with very old firmware which has some known limitations.

	      philips_cdd522
		     The driver for Philips CDD-522 is auto-selected when wodim finds  a  Philips
		     CDD-522  which is the successor of the 521 or one of its variants with Kodak
		     label.  wodim does not support Session At Once recording with these drives.

	      philips_dumb
		     The driver for Philips CDD-521 with pessimistic assumptions is  never  auto-
		     selected.	 It  may  be  used by hand with drives that behave similar to the
		     Philips CDD-521.

	      pioneer_dws114x
		     The driver for Pioneer DW-S114X is auto-selected when wodim finds one of the
		     old non MMC CD writers from Pioneer.

	      plasmon_rf4100
		     The  driver  for Plasmon RF 4100 is auto-selected when wodim finds this spe-
		     cific variant of the Philips CDD-521.

	      ricoh_ro1060c
		     The driver for Ricoh RO-1060C is auto-selected when wodim finds this  drive.
		     There is no real support for this drive yet.

	      ricoh_ro1420c
		     The driver for Ricoh RO-1420C is auto-selected when wodim finds a drive with
		     this specific variant of the Philips CDD-521 command set.

	      scsi2_cd
		     The generic SCSI-2 CD-ROM driver is auto-selected whenever wodim finds a pre
		     MMC drive that does not support writing or a pre MMC writer that is not sup-
		     ported by wodim.

	      sony_cdu924
		     The driver for Sony CDU-924 / CDU-948 is auto-selected whenever wodim  finds
		     one of the old pre MMC CD writers from Sony.

	      teac_cdr50
		     The  driver  for Teac CD-R50S, Teac CD-R55S, JVC XR-W2010, Pinnacle RCD-5020
		     is auto-selected whenever one of the drives is found that is  known  to  the
		     non  MMC  command	set used by TEAC and JVC.  Note that many drives from JVC
		     will not work because they do not correctly implement the documented command
		     set  and  JVC  has  been unwilling to fix or document the bugs.  There is no
		     support for the Session At Once write mode yet.

	      tyuden_ew50
		     The driver for Taiyo Yuden EW-50 is auto-selected when wodim finds  a  drive
		     with this specific variant of the Philips CDD-521 command set.

	      yamaha_cdr100
		     The  driver  for  Yamaha CDR-100 / CDR-102 is auto-selected when wodim finds
		     one of the old pre MMC CD writers from Yamaha.  There is no support for  the
		     Session At Once write mode yet.

	      cdr_simul
		     The simulation CD-R driver allows to run timing and speed tests with parame-
		     ters that match the behavior of CD writers.

	      dvd_simul
		     The simulation DVD-R driver allows to run timing and speed tests with param-
		     eters that match the behavior of DVD writers.

	      There  are  two special driver entries in the list: cdr_simul and dvd_simul.  These
	      driver entries are designed to make timing tests at any speed or timing  tests  for
	      drives  that  do not support the -dummy option.  The simulation drivers implement a
	      drive with a buffer size of 1 MB that can  be  changed  via  the	CDR_SIMUL_BUFSIZE
	      environment  variable.   The  simulation	driver	correctly simulates even a buffer
	      underrun condition.  If the -dummy option is present, the simulation is not aborted
	      in case of a buffer underrun.

       driveropts=option list
	      Set  driver specific options. The options are specified a comma separated list.  To
	      get a list of valid options  use	driveropts=help  together  with  the  -checkdrive
	      option.	If  you  like to set driver options without running a typical wodim task,
	      you need to use the -setdropts option  in  addition,  otherwise  the  command  line
	      parser in wodim will complain.  Currently implemented driver options are:

	      burnfree
		     Turn  the	support for Buffer Underrun Free writing on.  This only works for
		     drives that support Buffer Underrun Free technology, which is  available  on
		     most  drives  manufactured  in  this  millennium.	This may be called: Sanyo
		     BURN-Proof, Ricoh Just-Link, Yamaha Lossless-Link or similar.

		     This option is deprecated and is mentioned here for  documentation  purposes
		     only.  The BURN-Free feature is enabled by default if the drive supports it.
		     However, use of BURN-Free may cause decreased burning quality. Therefore  it
		     can be useful to disable it for certain purposes, eg. when creating a master
		     copy for mass CD production.

	      noburnfree
		     Turn the support for Buffer Underrun Free writing off.

	      varirec=value
		     Turn on the Plextor VariRec writing mode. The mandatory parameter	value  is
		     the  laser  power offset and currently may be selected from -2, -1, 0, 1, 2.
		     In addition, you need to set the write speed to 4 in order to allow  VariRec
		     to work.

	      gigarec=value
		     Manage  the  Plextor  GigaRec writing mode. The mandatory parameter value is
		     the disk capacity ratio compared to normal recording and  currently  may  be
		     selected  from 0.6, 0.7, 0.8, 1.0, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4.	If values < 1.0 are used,
		     then the effect is similar to the Yamaha Audio Master  Q.	R.   feature.  If
		     values > 1.0 are used, then the disk capacity is increased.

		     Not  all  drives  support all GigaRec values.  When a drive uses the GigaRec
		     feature, the write speed is limited to 8x.

	      audiomaster
		     Turn on the Yamaha Audio Master Q. R.  feature which usually  should  result
		     in  high  quality	CDs that have less reading problems in Hi-Fi players.  As
		     this is implemented as a variant of the Session at Once write mode, it  will
		     only  work if you select SAO write mode and there is no need to turn it off.
		     The Audio Master mode will work with a limited speed but may  also  be  used
		     with  data  CDs.  In  Audio  Master mode, the pits on the CD will be written
		     larger then usual so the capacity of the medium is reduced when turning this
		     feature on.  A 74 minute CD will only have a capacity of 63 minutes if Audio
		     Master is active and the capacity of a 80 minute CD will be  reduced  to  68
		     minutes.

	      forcespeed
		     Normally,	modern drives know the highest possible speed for different media
		     and may reduce the speed in order to grant best write quality.   This  tech-
		     nology  may  be  called:  Plextor PowerRec, Ricoh Just-Speed, Yamaha Optimum
		     Write Speed Control or  similar.	Some  drives  (e.g.  Plextor,  Ricoh  and
		     Yamaha)  allow  to  force	the  drive  to use the selected speed even if the
		     medium is so bad that the write quality would be  poor.  This  option  tells
		     such  a  drive  to  force to use the selected speed regardless of the medium
		     quality.

		     Use this option with extreme care and note that the drive should know better
		     which  medium  will  work	at full speed.	The default is to turn forcespeed
		     off, regardless of the defaults of the drive.

	      noforcespeed
		     Turn off the force speed feature.

	      speedread
		     Some ultra high speed drives such as 48x  and  faster  drives  from  Plextor
		     limit the read speed for unknown media to e.g. 40x in order to avoid damaged
		     disks and drives.	Using this option tells the drive to read  any	media  as
		     fast  as  possible.  Be very careful as this may cause the media to break in
		     the drive while reading, resulting in a damaged media and drive!

	      nospeedread
		     Turn off unlimited read speed.

	      singlesession
		     Turn the drive into a single session only drive.  This allows to read defec-
		     tive or non-compliant (illegal) media with extremely non-standard additional
		     (broken/illegal) TOC entries in the TOC from the second or  higher  session.
		     Some  of  these  disks  become usable if only the information from the first
		     session is used.  You need to enable Single Session mode before  you  insert
		     the defective disk!

	      nosinglesession
		     Turn off single session mode. The drive will again behave as usual.

	      hidecdr
		     Hide  the	fact  that a medium might be a recordable medium.  This allows to
		     make CD-Rs look like CD-ROMs and applications believe that the media in  the
		     drive is not a CD-R.

	      nohidecdr
		     Turn off hiding CD-R media.

	      tattooinfo
		     Use  this option together with -checkdrive to retrieve the image size infor-
		     mation for the Yamaha DiskT@2 feature. The images always have a line  length
		     of  3744  pixel.	Line  number  0 (radius 0) is mapped to the center of the
		     disk.  If you know the inner and outer radius you will be able to	create	a
		     pre distorted image that later may appear undistorted on the disk.

	      tattoofile=name
		     Use this option together with -checkdrive to write an image prepared for the
		     Yamaha DiskT@2 feature to the medium.  The file must  be  a  file	with  raw
		     image  B&W  data  (one  byte per pixel) in a size as retrieved by a previous
		     call to tattoofile=name .	If the size of the image equals the maximum  pos-
		     sible  size  (3744  x 320 pixel), wodim will use the first part of the file.
		     This first part then will be written to the leftover space on the CD.

		     Note that the image must be mirrored to be readable from the pick up side of
		     the CD.

       -setdropts
	      Set  the driveropts specified by driveropts=option list, the speed of the drive and
	      the dummy flag and exit.	This allows wodim to set drive specific  parameters  that
	      are  not	directly used by wodim like e.g.  single session mode, hide cdr and simi-
	      lar.  It is needed in case that driveropts=option list  should  be  called  without
	      planning to run a typical wodim task.

       -checkdrive
	      Checks  if  a  driver for the current drive is present and exit.	If the drive is a
	      known drive, wodim uses exit code 0.

       -prcap Print the drive capabilities for SCSI-3/mmc compliant drives as obtained from  mode
	      page 0x2A. Values marked with kB use 1000 bytes as kilo-byte, values marked with KB
	      use 1024 bytes as Kilo-byte.

       -inq   Do an inquiry for the drive, print the inquiry info and exit.

       -scanbus
	      Scan all SCSI devices on all SCSI busses and print the inquiry strings. This option
	      may be used to find SCSI address of the CD/DVD-Recorder on a system. If some device
	      types are invisible, try using dev=ATA: or similar option to give a hint about  the
	      device  type  you  are looking for.  The numbers printed out as labels are computed
	      by: bus * 100 + target.  On platforms and device systems	without  persistent  SCSI
	      number  management  the  results	are  not  reliable.  Use  the .B --devices option
	      instead.

       --devices
	      Look for useable devices using the system  specific  functions,  eg.  probing  with
	      usual  device  nodes  in	/dev/*,  and display the detections using symbolic device
	      names in OS specific syntax.

       -reset Try to reset the SCSI bus where the CD recorder is located. This works not  on  all
	      operating systems.

       -abort Try  to  send  an  abort sequence to the drive.  If you use wodim only, this should
	      never be needed; but other software may leave a drive  in  an  unusable  condition.
	      Calling wodim -reset may be needed if a previous write has been interrupted and the
	      software did not tell the drive that it will not continue to write.

       -overburn
	      Allow wodim to write more than the official size of a medium. This feature is  usu-
	      ally called overburning and depends on the fact that most blank media may hold more
	      space than the official size. As the official size of the lead-out area on the disk
	      is  90  seconds  (6750  sectors) and a disk usually works if there are at least 150
	      sectors of lead out, all media may be overburned by at least 88 seconds (6600  sec-
	      tors).   Most CD recorders only do overburning in SAO or RAW mode. Known exceptions
	      are TEAC CD-R50S, TEAC CD-R55S and the Panasonic CW-7502.  Some drives do not allow
	      to  overburn  as	much as you might like and limit the size of a CD to e.g. 76 min-
	      utes. This problem may be circumvented by writing the CD in RAW mode  because  this
	      way  the drive has no chance to find the size before starting to burn.  There is no
	      guarantee that your drive supports overburning at all.  Make a  test  to	check  if
	      your drive implements the feature.

       -ignsize
	      Ignore  the known size of the medium. This option should be used with extreme care,
	      it exists only for debugging purposes don't use it for other reasons.   It  is  not
	      needed  to  write  disks	with more than the nominal capacity.  This option implies
	      -overburn.

       -useinfo
	      Use *.inf files to overwrite audio options.  If this option  is  used,  the  pregap
	      size  information is read from the *.inf file that is associated with the file that
	      contains the audio data for a track.

	      If used together with the -audio option, wodim may be used to write audio CDs  from
	      a  pipe  from icedax if you call wodim with the *.inf files as track parameter list
	      instead of using audio files.  The audio data is read from stdin in this case.  See
	      EXAMPLES section below.  wodim first verifies that stdin is not connected to a ter-
	      minal and runs some heuristic consistency checks on the *.inf files and  then  sets
	      the track lengths from the information in the *.inf files.

	      If you like to write from stdin, make sure that wodim is called with a large enough
	      FIFO size, reduce the write speed to a value below the read  speed  of  the  source
	      drive and switch the burn-free option for the recording drive on.

       defpregap=#
	      Set  the	default  pre-gap  size for all tracks except track number 1.  This option
	      currently only makes sense with the TEAC drive when  creating  track-at-once  disks
	      without the 2 second silence before each track.
	      This option may go away in future.

       -packet
	      Set Packet writing mode.	This is an experimental interface.

       pktsize=#
	      Set the packet size to #, forces fixed packet mode.  This is an experimental inter-
	      face.

       -noclose
	      Do not close the current track, useful only when in packet writing mode.	 This  is
	      an experimental interface.

       mcn=med_cat_nr
	      Set the Media Catalog Number of the CD to med_cat_nr.

       -text  Write  CD-Text  information  based  on  information taken from a file that contains
	      ascii information for the text strings.  wodim supports CD-Text  information  based
	      on  the  content of the *.inf files created by icedax and CD-Text information based
	      on the content from a CUE sheet file.  If a CUE sheet file  contains  both  (binary
	      CDTEXTFILE  and  text  based SONGWRITER) entries, then the information based on the
	      CDTEXTFILE entry will win.

	      You need to use the -useinfo option in addition in order to tell wodim to read  the
	      *.inf  files or cuefile=filename in order to tell wodim to read a CUE sheet file in
	      addition.  If you like to write your own CD-Text information, edit the *.inf  files
	      or  the  CUE  sheet file with a text editor and change the fields that are relevant
	      for CD-Text.

       textfile=filename
	      Write CD-Text based on information found in the binary file  filename.   This  file
	      must  contain information in a data format defined in the SCSI-3 MMC-2 standard and
	      in the Red Book. The four byte size header that is defined in the SCSI standard  is
	      optional	and  allows to make the recognition of correct data less ambiguous.  This
	      is the best option to be used to copy CD-Text data from existing CDs  that  already
	      carry  CD-Text  information.  To	get data in a format suitable for this option use
	      wodim -vv -toc to extract the information from disk.   If  both,	textfile=filename
	      and  CD-Text  information  from *.inf or *.cue files are present, textfile=filename
	      will overwrite the other information.

       cuefile=filename
	      Take all recording related information from a CDRWIN compliant CUE sheet file.   No
	      track  files  are  allowed  when this option is present and the option -dao is cur-
	      rently needed in addition.

TRACK OPTIONS
       Track options may be mixed with track file names.

       isrc=ISRC_number
	      Set the International Standard Recording Number for the next track to ISRC_number.

       index=list
	      Sets an index list for the next track.  In index list is a comma separated list  of
	      numbers that are counting from index 1. The first entry in this list must contain a
	      0, the following numbers must be an ascending list of  numbers  (counting  in  1/75
	      seconds)	that  represent  the  start  of  the  indices. An index list in the form:
	      0,7500,15000 sets index 1 to the start of the track, index 2 100 seconds	from  the
	      start of the track and index 3 200 seconds from the start of the track.

       -audio If this flag is present, all subsequent tracks are written in CD-DA (similar to Red
	      Book) audio format.  The file with data for  this  tracks  should  contain  stereo,
	      16-bit digital audio with 44100 samples/s.  The byte order should be the following:
	      MSB left, LSB left, MSB right, LSB right, MSB left and so on. The track should be a
	      multiple	of  2352  bytes.  It  is not possible to put the master image of an audio
	      track on a raw disk because data will be read in multiple of 2352 bytes during  the
	      recording process.

	      If  a  filename ends in .au or .wav the file is considered to be a structured audio
	      data file.  wodim assumes that the file in this case is a Sun audio file or  a  Mi-
	      crosoft  .WAV  file and extracts the audio data from the files by skipping over the
	      non-audio header information.  In all other cases, wodim will only  work	correctly
	      if  the  audio data stream does not have any header.  Because many structured audio
	      files do not have an integral number of blocks (1/75th second)  in  length,  it  is
	      often  necessary	to  specify the -pad option as well.  wodim recognizes that audio
	      data in a .WAV file is stored in Intel (little-endian) byte order, and  will  auto-
	      matically  byte-swap  the  data if the CD recorder requires big-endian data.  wodim
	      will reject any audio file that does not match the Red Book requirements of  16-bit
	      stereo samples in PCM coding at 44100 samples/second.

	      Using  other  structured	audio data formats as input to wodim will usually work if
	      the structure of the data is the structure described above (raw pcm  data  in  big-
	      endian byte order).  However, if the data format includes a header, you will hear a
	      click at the start of a track.

	      If neither -data nor -audio have been specified, wodim defaults to -audio  for  all
	      filenames that end in .au or .wav and to -data for all other files.

       -swab  If  this	flag  is  present,  audio  data is assumed to be in byte-swapped (little-
	      endian) order.  Some types of CD-Writers e.g. Yamaha, Sony and the  new  SCSI-3/mmc
	      drives require audio data to be presented in little-endian order, while other writ-
	      ers require audio data to be presented in the big-endian (network) byte order  nor-
	      mally  used by the SCSI protocol.  wodim knows if a CD-Recorder needs audio data in
	      big- or little-endian order, and corrects the byte order	of  the  data  stream  to
	      match  the needs of the recorder.  You only need the -swab flag if your data stream
	      is in Intel (little-endian) byte order.

	      Note that the verbose output of wodim will show you if  swapping	is  necessary  to
	      make  the byte order of the input data fit the required byte order of the recorder.
	      wodim will not show you if the -swab flag was actually present for a track.

       -data  If this flag is present, all subsequent tracks are written in CD-ROM mode 1 (Yellow
	      Book)  format. The data size is a multiple of 2048 bytes.  The file with track data
	      should contain an ISO-9660 or Rock Ridge filesystem image (see genisoimage for more
	      details). If the track data is an ufs filesystem image, fragment size should be set
	      to 2 KB or more to allow CD-drives with 2 KB sector size to be used for reading.

	      -data is the default, if no other flag is present and the file does not  appear  to
	      be of one of the well known audio file types.

	      If  neither  -data nor -audio have been specified, wodim defaults to -audio for all
	      filenames that end in .au or .wav and to -data for all other files.

       -mode2 If this flag is present, all subsequent tracks are written in CD-ROM mode 2 format.
	      The data size is a multiple of 2336 bytes.

       -xa    If this flag is present, all subsequent tracks are written in CD-ROM XA mode 2 form
	      1 format. The data size is a multiple of 2048 bytes.  The  XA  sector  sub  headers
	      will be created by the drive.  With this option, the write mode is the same as with
	      the -multi option.

       -xa1   If this flag is present, all subsequent tracks are written in CD-ROM XA mode 2 form
	      1 format. The data size is a multiple of 2056 bytes.  The XA sector sub headers are
	      part of the user data and have to be supplied by the application that prepares  the
	      data to be written.

       -xa2   If this flag is present, all subsequent tracks are written in CD-ROM XA mode 2 form
	      2 format. The data is a multiple of 2324 bytes.  The XA sector sub headers will  be
	      created by the drive.

       -xamix If  this	flag is present, all subsequent tracks are written in a way that allows a
	      mix of CD-ROM XA mode 2 form 1/2 format. The data size is a multiple of 2332 bytes.
	      The  XA sector sub headers are part of the user data and have to be supplied by the
	      application that prepares the data to be written.   The  CRC  and  the  P/Q  parity
	      ECC/EDC  information  (depending	on  the  sector  type) have to be supplied by the
	      application that prepares the data to be written.

       -cdi   If this flag is present, the TOC type for the disk is set to CDI.  This only  makes
	      sense with XA disks.

       -isosize
	      Use  the	ISO-9660  file system size as the size of the next track.  This option is
	      needed if you want wodim to directly read the image of a track from a raw disk par-
	      tition  or from a TAO master CD. In the first case the option -isosize is needed to
	      limit the size of the CD to the size of the ISO filesystem.  In the second case the
	      option -isosize is needed to prevent wodim from reading the two run out blocks that
	      are appended by each CD-recorder in track at once mode. These two  run  out  blocks
	      cannot be read and would cause a buffer underrun that would cause a defective copy.
	      Do not use this option on files created by genisoimage and in case wodim reads  the
	      track data from stdin.  In the first case, you would prevent wodim from writing the
	      amount of padding that has been appended by genisoimage and in the latter case,  it
	      will not work because stdin is not seekable.

	      If  -isosize  is	used  for  a track, wodim will automatically add padding for this
	      track as if the -pad option has been used but the amount of  padding  may  be  less
	      than  the padding written by genisoimage.  Note that if you use -isosize on a track
	      that contains Sparc boot information, the boot information will be lost.

	      Note also that this option cannot be used to determine the size of a file system if
	      the multi session option is present.

       -pad   If the track is a data track, 15 sectors of zeroed data will be added to the end of
	      this and each subsequent data track.  In this case, the -pad option  is  superseded
	      by  the padsize= option. It will remain however as a shorthand for padsize=15s.  If
	      the -pad option refers to an audio track, wodim will pad the audio  data	to  be	a
	      multiple of 2352 bytes.  The audio data padding is done with binary zeroes which is
	      equal to absolute silence.

	      -pad remains valid until disabled by -nopad.

       padsize=#
	      Set the amount of data to be appended as padding to the next track to  #.   Opposed
	      to  the  behavior  of  the -pad option, the value for padsize= is reset to zero for
	      each new track.  wodim assumes a sector size of 2048 bytes for the padsize= option,
	      independent  from  the  real  sector size and independent from the write mode.  The
	      megabytes mentioned in the verbose mode output however are counting the output sec-
	      tor  size  which is e.g. 2448 bytes when writing in RAW/RAW96 mode.  See fs= option
	      for possible arguments.  To pad the equivalent of 20 minutes on a CD, you may write
	      padsize=20x60x75s.   Use	this option if your CD-drive is not able to read the last
	      sectors of a track or if you want to be able to read the CD on a Linux system  with
	      the  ISO-9660  filesystem read ahead bug.  If an empty file is used for track data,
	      this option may be used to create a disk that is entirely made  of  padding.   This
	      may  e.g.  be  used  to  find  out how much overburning is possible with a specific
	      media.

       -nopad Do not pad the following tracks - the default.

       -shorttrack
	      Allow all subsequent tracks to violate the Red Book  track  length  standard  which
	      requires a minimum track length of 4 seconds.  This option is only useful when used
	      in SAO or RAW mode.  Not all drives support this feature. The drive must accept the
	      resulting CUE sheet or support RAW writing.

       -noshorttrack
	      Re-enforce the Red Book track length standard. Tracks must be at least 4 seconds.

       pregap=#
	      Set  the	 pre-gap size for the next track.  This option currently only makes sense
	      with the TEAC drive when creating track-at-once disks without the 2 second  silence
	      before each track.
	      This option may go away in future.

       -preemp
	      If  this flag is present, all TOC entries for subsequent audio tracks will indicate
	      that the audio data has been sampled with 50/15 microsec pre-emphasis.   The  data,
	      however is not modified during the process of transferring from file to disk.  This
	      option has no effect on data tracks.

       -nopreemp
	      If this flag is present, all TOC entries for subsequent audio tracks will  indicate
	      that the audio data has been mastered with linear data - this is the default.

       -copy  If this flag is present, all TOC entries for subsequent audio tracks of the result-
	      ing CD will indicate that the audio data has permission to be copied without limit.
	      This option has no effect on data tracks.

       -nocopy
	      If this flag is present, all TOC entries for subsequent audio tracks of the result-
	      ing CD will indicate that the audio data has permission to be copied only once  for
	      personal use - this is the default.

       -scms  If this flag is present, all TOC entries for subsequent audio tracks of the result-
	      ing CD will indicate that the audio data has no permission to be copied anymore.

       tsize=#
	      If the master image for the next track has been stored on  a  raw  disk,	use  this
	      option  to  specify the valid amount of data on this disk. If the image of the next
	      track is stored in a regular file, the size of that file is taken to determine  the
	      length  of  this track.  If the track contains an ISO 9660 filesystem image use the
	      -isosize option to determine the length of that filesystem image.
	      In Disk at Once mode and with some drives that use the TEAC programming  interface,
	      even  in	Track  at  Once  mode,	wodim needs to know the size of each track before
	      starting to write the disk.  wodim now checks this and aborts  before  starting  to
	      write.  If this happens you will need to run genisoimage -print-size before and use
	      the output (with `s' appended) as an argument to the tsize= option of  wodim  (e.g.
	      tsize=250000s).
	      See fs= option for possible arguments.

EXAMPLES
       For  all  examples  below, it will be assumed that the CD/DVD-Recorder is connected to the
       primary SCSI bus of the machine. The SCSI target id is set to 2.

       To record a pure CD-ROM at double speed, using data from the file cdimage.raw:

	   wodim -v speed=2 dev=2,0 cdimage.raw

       To create an image for a ISO 9660 filesystem with Rock Ridge extensions:

	   genisoimage -R -o cdimage.raw /home/joerg/master/tree

       To check the resulting file before writing to CD on Solaris:

	   mount -r -F fbk -o type=hsfs /dev/fbk0:cdimage.raw /mnt

       On Linux:

	   mount cdimage.raw -r -t iso9660 -o loop /mnt

       Go on with:
	   ls -lR /mnt
	   umount /mnt

       If the overall speed of the system is sufficient and the structure of  the  filesystem  is
       not too complex, wodim will run without creating an image of the ISO 9660 filesystem. Sim-
       ply run the pipeline:

	   genisoimage -R /master/tree | wodim -v fs=6m speed=2 dev=2,0 -

       The recommended minimum FIFO size for running this pipeline is 4 MBytes.  As  the  default
       FIFO  size  is  4  MB, the fs= option needs only be present if you want to use a different
       FIFO size.  If your system is loaded, you should run genisoimage in the	real  time  class
       too.  To raise the priority of genisoimage replace the command

	   genisoimage -R /master/tree
       by
	   priocntl -e -c RT -p 59 genisoimage -R /master/tree

       on Solaris and by

	   nice --18 genisoimage -R /master/tree

       on systems that don't have UNIX International compliant real-time scheduling.

       wodim  runs at priority 59 on Solaris, you should run genisoimage at no more than priority
       58. On other systems, you should run genisoimage at no less than nice --18.

       Creating a CD-ROM without file system image on disk has been tested  on	a  Sparcstation-2
       with  a	Yamaha	CDR-400. It did work up to quad speed when the machine was not loaded.	A
       faster machine may be able to handle quad speed also in the loaded case.

       To record a pure CD-DA (audio) at single speed, with each track contained in a file  named
       track01.cdaudio, track02.cdaudio, etc:

	   wodim -v speed=1 dev=/dev/cdrw -audio track*.cdaudio

       To  check if it will be ok to use double speed for the example above.  Use the dummy write
       option:

	   wodim -v -dummy speed=2 dev=/dev/cdrw -audio track*.cdaudio

       To record a mixed-mode CD with an ISO 9660 filesystem from cdimage.raw on the first track,
       the other tracks being audio tracks from the files track01.cdaudio, track02.cdaudio, etc:

	   wodim -v dev=2,0 cdimage.raw -audio track*.cdaudio

       To handle drives that need to know the size of a track before starting to write, first run

	   genisoimage -R -q -print-size /master/tree

       and then run

	   genisoimage -R /master/tree | wodim speed=2 dev=2,0 tsize=XXXs -

       where XXX is replaced by the output of the previous run of genisoimage.

       To copy an audio CD in the most accurate way, first run

	   icedax dev=/dev/cdrom -vall cddb=0 -B -Owav

       and then run

	   wodim dev=/dev/cdrw -v -dao -useinfo -text  *.wav

       This  will  try to copy track indices and to read CD-Text information from disk.  If there
       is no CD-Text information, icedax will try to get the information from freedb.org instead.

       To copy an audio CD from a pipe (without intermediate files), first run

	   icedax dev=1,0 -vall cddb=0 -info-only

       and then run

	   icedax dev=1,0 -no-infofile -B -Oraw - | \
	   wodim dev=2,0 -v -dao -audio -useinfo -text *.inf

       This will get all information (including track size info) from the *.inf  files	and  then
       read the audio data from stdin.

       If  you	like to write from stdin, make sure that wodim is called with a large enough FIFO
       size (e.g.  fs=128m), reduce the write speed to a value below the read speed of the source
       drive  (e.g.  speed=12), and get a CD/DVD drive with BURN-Free feature if it is not avail-
       able yet.

       To set drive options without writing a CD (e.g. to switch a drive to single session mode),
       run

	   wodim dev=1,0 -setdropts driveropts=singlesession

       If you like to do this when no CD is in the drive, call

	   wodim dev=1,0 -force -setdropts driveropts=singlesession

       To copy a CD in clone mode, first read the master CD using:

	   readom dev=b,t,l -clone f=somefile

       or (in case the CD contains many sectors that are unreadable by intention) by calling:

	   readom dev=1,0 -clone -nocorr f=somefile

       will create the files somefile and somefile.toc.  Then write the CD using:

	   wodim dev=1,0 -raw96r -clone -v somefile

ENVIRONMENT
       CDR_DEVICE
	      This  may  either hold a device identifier that is suitable to the open call of the
	      SCSI transport library or a label in the file /etc/wodim.conf.

       CDR_SPEED
	      Sets the default speed value for writing (see also speed= option).

       CDR_FIFOSIZE
	      Sets the default size of the FIFO (see also fs=# option).

       CDR_FORCERAWSPEED
	      If this environment variable is set, wodim will allow you to write at the full  RAW
	      encoding	speed  a  single CPU supports.	This will create high potential of buffer
	      underruns. Use with care.

       CDR_FORCESPEED
	      If this environment variable is set, wodim will allow you to write at the full  DMA
	      speed the system supports.  There is no DMA reserve for reading the data that is to
	      be written from disk.  This will create high potential  of  buffer  underruns.  Use
	      with care.

       RSH    If  the  RSH  environment is present, the remote connection will not be created via
	      rcmd(3) but by calling the program pointed to by RSH.  Use  e.g.	 RSH=/usr/bin/ssh
	      to create a secure shell connection.

	      Note  that  this	forces wodim to create a pipe to the rsh(1) program and disallows
	      wodim to directly access the network socket to the remote server.   This	makes  it
	      impossible  to set up performance parameters and slows down the connection compared
	      to a root initiated rcmd(3) connection.

       RSCSI  If the RSCSI environment is present, the remote SCSI server will not be the program
	      /opt/schily/sbin/rscsi  but  the program pointed to by RSCSI.  Note that the remote
	      SCSI server program name will be ignored if you log in using an  account	that  has
	      been created with a remote SCSI server program as login shell.

FILES
       /etc/wodim.conf
	      Default  values can be set for the following options in /etc/wodim.conf.	For exam-
	      ple: CDR_FIFOSIZE=8m or CDR_SPEED=2

	      CDR_DEVICE
		     This may either hold a device identifier that is suitable to the  open  call
		     of  the  SCSI  transport library or a label in the file /etc/wodim.conf that
		     allows to identify a specific drive on the system.

	      CDR_SPEED
		     Sets the default speed value for writing (see also speed= option).

	      CDR_FIFOSIZE
		     Sets the default size of the FIFO (see also fs=# option).

	      CDR_MAXFIFOSIZE
		     Sets the maximum size of the FIFO (see also fs=# option).

	      Any other keyword (label) is an identifier (symbolic name) for a specific drive
		     on the system.  Such an identifier may not contain the characters ',',  '/',
		     '@' or ':'.

		     Each  line  that  follows	a  label  contains a whitespace separated list of
		     items.  Currently, four items are recognized: the drive's target  specifica-
		     tion, the default speed that should be used for this drive, the default FIFO
		     size that should be used for this drive and drive specific options. The val-
		     ues  for speed and fifosize may be set to -1 to tell wodim to use the global
		     defaults.	target can be -1 to use  the  auto-guessing  of  the  drive  (see
		     above).

		     The  value  for  driveropts may be omitted or set to "" if no driveropts are
		     used.  A typical line may look this way:

		     plex760= 0,5,0 12	 50m  varirec=1

		     pioneer= /dev/hdd	 -1   -1

		     This tells wodim that a drive named plex760 is at scsibus 0, target 5, lun 0
		     and should be used with speed 12 and a FIFO size of 50 MB. It also uses some
		     device specific parameter.  A second drive may is accessible via the  device
		     file /dev/hdd and uses the default speed and the default FIFO size.

SEE ALSO
       icedax(1), readom(1), genisoimage(1), ssh(1).

NOTES
       On  Solaris  you  need to stop the volume management if you like to use the USCSI fallback
       SCSI transport code. Even things like wodim -scanbus will not work if the  volume  manage-
       ment is running.

       Disks  made  in Track At Once mode are not suitable as a master for direct mass production
       by CD manufacturers.  You will need the disk at once option to record such disks.   Never-
       theless	the disks made in Track At Once will normally be read in all CD players. Some old
       audio CD players however may produce a two second click between two audio tracks.

       The minimal size of a track is 4 seconds or 300 sectors. If you write smaller tracks,  the
       CD-Recorder  will  add dummy blocks. This is not an error, even though the SCSI-error mes-
       sage looks this way.

       The Yamaha CDR-400 and all new SCSI-3/mmc conforming drives are supported  in  single  and
       multi-session.

       You  should run several tests in all supported speeds of your drive with the -dummy option
       turned on if you are using wodim on an  unknown	system.  Writing  a  CD  is  a	real-time
       process.   NFS,	CIFS  and  other network file systems won't always deliver constantly the
       needed data rates.  If you want to use wodim with CD-images that  are  located  on  a  NFS
       mounted	filesystem,  be  sure that the FIFO size is big enough.  If you want to make sure
       that buffer underruns are not caused by your source disk, you may use the command

	   wodim -dummy dev=2,0 padsize=600m /dev/null

       to create a disk that is entirely made of dummy data.

       There are also cases where you either need to be root or  install  wodim  executable  with
       suid-root  permissions.	First,	if  you are using a device manufactured before 1999 which
       requires a non-MMC driver, you should run wodim in dummy mode before writing data. If  you
       find a problem doing this, please report it to the cdrkit maintainers (see below).

       Second,	certain  functionality may be unusable because of Linux's SCSI command filtering.
       When using wodim for anything except of pure  data  writing,  you  should  also	test  the
       process in dummy mode and report trouble to the contact address below.

       If  you	still want to run wodim with root permissions, you can set the permissions of the
       executable to suid-root. See the additional notes of your system/program  distribution  or
       README.suidroot which is part of the cdrkit source.

       You  should  not connect old drives that do not support disconnect/reconnect to either the
       SCSI bus that is connected to the CD-Recorder or the source disk.

       A Compact Disc can have no more than 99 tracks.

       When creating a disc with both audio and data tracks, the data should be on track 1 other-
       wise  you should create a CDplus disk which is a multi session disk with the first session
       containing the audio tracks and the following session containing the data track.

       Many operating systems are not able to read more than a single data track, or need special
       software to do so.

       If   you  have  more  information  or  SCSI  command  manuals  for  currently  unsupported
       CD/DVD/BR/HD-DVD-Recorders, please contact the cdrkit maintainers (see below).

       Many CD recorders have bugs and often require a firmware update to work correctly. If  you
       experience  problems  which  cannot be solved or explained by the notes above, please look
       for instructions on the homepage of the particular manufacturer.

       Some bugs will force you to power cycle the device or to reboot the machine.

       The FIFO percent output is computed just after a block of data has  been  written  to  the
       CD/DVD-Recorder.  For this reason, there will never be 100% FIFO fill ratio while the FIFO
       is in streaming mode.

DIAGNOSTICS
       You have 4 seconds to abort wodim start after you see the message:

       Starting to write CD at speed %d in %s mode for %s session.  In most  shells  you  can  do
       that by pressing Ctrl-C.

       A typical error message for a SCSI command looks like:

	      wodim: I/O error. test unit ready: scsi sendcmd: no error
	      CDB:  00 20 00 00 00 00
	      status: 0x2 (CHECK CONDITION)
	      Sense Bytes: 70 00 05 00 00 00 00 0A 00 00 00 00 25 00 00 00 00 00
	      Sense Key: 0x5 Illegal Request, Segment 0
	      Sense Code: 0x25 Qual 0x00 (logical unit not supported) Fru 0x0
	      Sense flags: Blk 0 (not valid)
	      cmd finished after 0.002s timeout 40s

       The  first  line gives information about the transport of the command.  The text after the
       first colon gives the error text for the system call from the view of the kernel. It  usu-
       ally  is:  I/O error unless other problems happen. The next words contain a short descrip-
       tion for the SCSI command that fails. The rest of the line tells you  if  there	were  any
       problems  for  the  transport of the command over the SCSI bus.	fatal error means that it
       was not possible to transport the command (i.e. no device present at  the  requested  SCSI
       address).

       The second line prints the SCSI command descriptor block for the failed command.

       The  third  line gives information on the SCSI status code returned by the command, if the
       transport of the command succeeds.  This is error information from the SCSI device.

       The fourth line is a hex dump of the auto request sense information for the command.

       The fifth line is the error text for the sense key if available, followed by  the  segment
       number  that  is only valid if the command was a copy command. If the error message is not
       directly related to the current command, the text deferred error is appended.

       The sixth line is the error text for the sense code and the sense qualifier if  available.
       If  the type of the device is known, the sense data is decoded from tables in scsierrs.c .
       The text is followed by the error value for a field replaceable unit.

       The seventh line prints the block number that is related to the failed  command	and  text
       for several error flags. The block number may not be valid.

       The  eight  line reports the timeout set up for this command and the time that the command
       really needed to complete.

       The following message is not an error:

	      Track 01: Total bytes read/written: 2048/2048 (1 sectors).
	      wodim: I/O error. flush cache: scsi sendcmd: no error
	      CDB:  35 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
	      status: 0x2 (CHECK CONDITION)
	      Sense Bytes: F0 00 05 80 00 00 27 0A 00 00 00 00 B5 00 00 00 00 00
	      Sense Key: 0x5 Illegal Request, Segment 0
	      Sense Code: 0xB5 Qual 0x00 (dummy data blocks added) Fru 0x0
	      Sense flags: Blk -2147483609 (valid)
	      cmd finished after 0.002s timeout 40s

       It simply notifies, that a track that is smaller than the minimum size has  been  expanded
       to 300 sectors.

BUGS
       netscsid does not work properly and is generally unmaintained. It is probably not compati-
       ble with rscsi from cdrtools either. Good bugfixes are welcome, talk to	Cdrkit	maintain-
       ers.

       cuefile	support  is very limited, only one file is allowed. For volunteers, see TODO file
       in the source.

       Specifying an audio file multiple times causes corruption of the second track (effectively
       no data plus minimum padding).

       Some  of  the  bugs may be fixed in Joerg Schilling's cdrtools. See there for details, URL
       attached below.

CREDITS
       Joerg Schilling (schilling@fokus.fhg.de)
		      For writing cdrecord and libscg which represent the most parts  of  wodim's
		      code.

       Bill Swartz    (Bill_Swartz@twolf.com)
		      For helping me with the TEAC driver support

       Aaron Newsome  (aaron.d.newsome@wdc.com)
		      For letting me develop Sony support on his drive

       Eric Youngdale (eric@andante.jic.com)
		      For supplying mkisofs

       Gadi Oxman     (gadio@netvision.net.il)
		      For tips on the ATAPI standard

       Finn Arne Gangstad  (finnag@guardian.no)
		      For the first FIFO implementation.

       Dave Platt     (dplatt@feghoot.ml.org)
		      For creating the experimental packet writing support, the first implementa-
		      tion of CD-RW blanking support, the first .wav file decoder and  many  nice
		      discussions on cdrecord.

       Chris P. Ross (cross@eng.us.uu.net)
		      For the first implementation of a BSDI SCSI transport.

       Grant R. Guenther   (grant@torque.net)
		      For creating the first parallel port transport implementation for Linux.

       Kenneth D. Merry (ken@kdm.org)
		      for  providing  the  CAM	port  for  FreeBSD  together  with  Michael Smith
		      (msmith@freebsd.org)

       Heiko Eiszfeldt (heiko@hexco.de)
		      for making libedc_ecc available (needed to write RAW data sectors).

MAILING LISTS
       If you want to actively take part on the development of wodim, you may join the	developer
       mailing list via this URL:

       https://alioth.debian.org/mail/?group_id=31006

       The mail address of the list is: debburn-devel@lists.alioth.debian.org

AUTHORS
       wodim is currently maintained as part of the cdrkit project by its developers. Most of the
       code and this manual page was originally written by:

       Joerg Schilling
       Seestr. 110
       D-13353 Berlin
       Germany

       This application is derived from "cdrecord" as included in the cdrtools package	[1]  cre-
       ated  by  Joerg Schilling, who deserves most of the credit for its success. However, he is
       not involved into the development of this spinoff and  therefore  he  shall  not  be  held
       responsible for any problems caused by it. Do not refer to this application as "cdrecord",
       do not try to get support for wodim by contacting the original authors.

       Additional information can be found on:
       https://alioth.debian.org/projects/debburn/

       If you have support questions, send them to

       debburn-devel@lists.alioth.debian.org

       If you have definitely found a bug, send a mail to this list or to

       submit@bugs.debian.org

       writing at least a short description into the Subject and "Package: cdrkit" in  the  first
       line of the mail body.

SOURCES
       [1] Cdrtools 2.01.01a08 from May 2006, http://cdrecord.berlios.de

					   Version 2.0					 wodim(1)
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