Unix/Linux Go Back    


CentOS 7.0 - man page for genisoimage (centos section 1)

Linux & Unix Commands - Search Man Pages
Man Page or Keyword Search:   man
Select Man Page Set:       apropos Keyword Search (sections above)


GENISOIMAGE(1)									   GENISOIMAGE(1)

NAME
       genisoimage - create ISO9660/Joliet/HFS filesystem with optional Rock Ridge attributes

SYNOPSIS
       genisoimage [options] [-o filename] pathspec [pathspec ...]

DESCRIPTION
       genisoimage is a pre-mastering program to generate ISO9660/Joliet/HFS hybrid filesystems.

       genisoimage is capable of generating the System Use Sharing Protocol records (SUSP) speci-
       fied by the Rock Ridge Interchange Protocol.  This is used to further describe  the  files
       in the ISO9660 filesystem to a Unix host, and provides information such as long filenames,
       UID/GID, POSIX permissions, symbolic links, and block and character device files.

       If Joliet or HFS hybrid command line options are specified, genisoimage	will  create  the
       additional  filesystem metadata needed for Joliet or HFS.  Otherwise genisoimage will gen-
       erate a pure ISO9660 filesystem.

       genisoimage can generate a true (or shared) HFS hybrid filesystem. The same files are seen
       as  HFS files when accessed from a Macintosh and as ISO9660 files when accessed from other
       machines. HFS stands for Hierarchical File System and is the  native  filesystem  used  on
       Macintosh computers.

       As an alternative, genisoimage can generate the Apple Extensions to ISO9660 for each file.
       These extensions provide each file with	CREATOR,  TYPE	and  certain  Finder  flags  when
       accessed from a Macintosh. See the HFS MACINTOSH FILE FORMATS section below.

       genisoimage takes a snapshot of a given directory tree, and generates a binary image which
       will correspond to an ISO9660 and/or HFS filesystem when written to a block device.

       Each file written to the ISO9660 filesystem must have a filename in the 8.3 format (up  to
       8  characters,  period,	up to 3 characters, all uppercase), even if Rock Ridge is in use.
       This filename is used on systems that are not able to make use of the  Rock  Ridge  exten-
       sions  (such  as  MS-DOS),  and each filename in each directory must be different from the
       other filenames in the same directory.  genisoimage generally tries to form correct  names
       by  forcing  the  Unix  filename  to  uppercase and truncating as required, but often this
       yields unsatisfactory results when the truncated names are not  all  unique.   genisoimage
       assigns	weightings  to	each  filename,  and if two names that are otherwise the same are
       found, the name with the lower priority is renamed to include a 3-digit number (guaranteed
       to  be  unique).   For example, the two files foo.bar and foo.bar.~1~ could be rendered as
       FOO.BAR;1 and FOO000.BAR;1.

       When used with various HFS options, genisoimage will attempt to recognise files stored  in
       a  number  of Apple/Unix file formats and will copy the data and resource forks as well as
       any relevant Finder information. See the HFS MACINTOSH FILE FORMATS section below for more
       about formats genisoimage supports.

       Note that genisoimage is not designed to communicate with the writer directly.  Most writ-
       ers have proprietary command sets which vary from one manufacturer  to  another,  and  you
       need  a	specialized  tool to actually burn the disc.  wodim is one such tool.  The latest
       version of wodim is available from http://www.cdrkit.org/.

       pathspec is the path of the directory tree to be copied into the ISO9660 filesystem.  Mul-
       tiple  paths  can  be  specified, and genisoimage will merge the files found in all of the
       specified path components to form the filesystem image.

       If the option -graft-points has been specified, it is  possible	to  graft  the	paths  at
       points  other  than  the  root directory, and it is possible to graft files or directories
       onto the cdrom image with names different than what they have in  the  source  filesystem.
       This  is  easiest to illustrate with a couple of examples.  Let's start by assuming that a
       local file ../old.lis exists, and you wish to include it in the cdrom image.

	      foo/bar/=../old.lis

       will include old.lis in the cdrom image at /foo/bar/old.lis, while

	      foo/bar/xxx=../old.lis

       will include old.lis in the cdrom image at /foo/bar/xxx.  The same sort of syntax  can  be
       used with directories as well.  genisoimage will create any directories required such that
       the graft points exist on the cdrom image -- the directories do not need to appear in  one
       of the paths.  By default, any directories that are created on the fly like this will have
       permissions 0555 and appear to be owned by the person running genisoimage.   If	you  wish
       other  permissions  or  owners of the intermediate directories, see -uid, -gid, -dir-mode,
       -file-mode and -new-dir-mode.

       genisoimage will also run on Windows machines when compiled with Cygnus' cygwin (available
       from  http://www.cygwin.com/).	Therefore most references in this man page to Unix can be
       replaced with Win32.

OPTIONS
       Several options can be specified as defaults in a .genisoimagerc  configuration	file,  as
       well as on the command line.  If a parameter is specified in both places, the setting from
       the command line is used.  For details on the format and possible locations of this  file,
       see genisoimagerc(5).

       -abstract file
	      Specifies  the abstract filename.  There is space for 37 characters.  Equivalent to
	      ABST in the .genisoimagerc file.

       -A application_id

       -appid application_id
	      Specifies a text string that will be written into the volume header.   This  should
	      describe	the application that will be on the disc.  There is space for 128 charac-
	      ters.  Equivalent to APPI in the .genisoimagerc file.

       -allow-limited-size
	      When processing files larger than  2GiB  which  cannot  be  easily  represented  in
	      ISO9660,	add  them with a shrunk visible file size to ISO9660 and with the correct
	      visible file size to the UDF system. The result is an inconsistent  filesystem  and
	      users need to make sure that they really use UDF rather than ISO9660 driver to read
	      a such disk. Implies enabling -udf.

       -allow-leading-dots

       -ldots Allow ISO9660 filenames to begin with a period.  Usually, a leading dot is replaced
	      with an underscore in order to maintain MS-DOS compatibility.
	      This  violates  the  ISO9660 standard, but it happens to work on many systems.  Use
	      with caution.

       -allow-lowercase
	      This options allows lowercase characters to appear in ISO9660 filenames.
	      This violates the ISO9660 standard, but it happens to work on  some  systems.   Use
	      with caution.

       -allow-multidot
	      This  options  allows  more than one dot to appear in ISO9660 filenames.	A leading
	      dot is not affected by this option, it may be allowed separately using -allow-lead-
	      ing-dots.
	      This  violates  the  ISO9660 standard, but it happens to work on many systems.  Use
	      with caution.

       -biblio file
	      Specifies the bibliographic filename.  There is space for 37  characters.   Equiva-
	      lent to BIBL in the .genisoimagerc file.

       -cache-inodes

       -no-cache-inodes
	      Enable or disable caching inode and device numbers to find hard links to files.  If
	      genisoimage finds a hard link (a file with multiple names), the file will  also  be
	      hard-linked  on  the CD, so the file contents only appear once.  This helps to save
	      space.   -cache-inodes   is   default   on   Unix-like   operating   systems,   but
	      -no-cache-inodes is default on some other systems such as Cygwin, because it is not
	      safe to assume that inode numbers are unique on those systems.  (Some  versions  of
	      Cygwin  create fake inode numbers using a weak hashing algorithm, which may produce
	      duplicates.)  If two files have the same inode number but are not hard links to the
	      same  file,  genisoimage -cache-inodes will not behave correctly.  -no-cache-inodes
	      is safe in all situations, but in that case genisoimage cannot detect  hard  links,
	      so the resulting CD image may be larger than necessary.

       -alpha-boot alpha_boot_image
	      Specifies  the  path  and  filename  of  the  boot  image to be used when making an
	      Alpha/SRM bootable CD. The pathname must be relative to the source  path	specified
	      to genisoimage.

       -hppa-bootloader hppa_bootloader_image
	      Specifies  the  path  and filename of the boot image to be used when making an HPPA
	      bootable CD. The pathname  must  be  relative  to  the  source  path  specified  to
	      genisoimage.  Other options are required, at the very least a kernel filename and a
	      boot command line.  See the HPPA NOTES section below for more information.

       -hppa-cmdline hppa_boot_command_line
	      Specifies the command line to be passed to the  HPPA  boot  loader  when	making	a
	      bootable	CD.  Separate  the parameters with spaces or commas. More options must be
	      passed to genisoimage, at the very least a kernel  filename  and	the  boot  loader
	      filename.  See the HPPA NOTES section below for more information.

       -hppa-kernel-32 hppa_kernel_32

       -hppa-kernel-64 hppa_kernel_64
	      Specifies  the  path  and  filename of the 32-bit and/or 64-bit kernel images to be
	      used when making an HPPA bootable CD. The pathnames must be relative to the  source
	      path  specified  to genisoimage.	Other options are required, at the very least the
	      boot loader filename and the boot command line.  See the HPPA NOTES  section  below
	      for more information.

       -hppa-ramdisk hppa_ramdisk_image
	      Specifies the path and filename of the ramdisk image to be used when making an HPPA
	      bootable CD. The pathname  must  be  relative  to  the  source  path  specified  to
	      genisoimage.   This parameter is optional.  Other options are required, at the very
	      least a kernel filename and the boot command line. See the HPPA NOTES section below
	      for more information.

       -mips-boot mips_boot_image
	      Specifies  the  path  and  filename  of  the  boot  image to be used when making an
	      SGI/big-endian MIPS bootable CD. The pathname must be relative to the  source  path
	      specified  to genisoimage.  This option may be specified several times, to store up
	      to 15 boot images.

       -mipsel-boot mipsel_boot_image
	      Specifies the path and filename of the  boot  image  to  be  used  when  making  an
	      DEC/little-endian  MIPS  bootable  CD.  The pathname must be relative to the source
	      path specified to genisoimage.

       -B img_sun4,img_sun4c,img_sun4m,img_sun4d,img_sun4e

       -sparc-boot img_sun4,img_sun4c,img_sun4m,img_sun4d,img_sun4e
	      Specifies a comma-separated list of boot images that are needed to make a  bootable
	      CD  for  SPARC systems.  Partition 0 is used for the ISO9660 image, the first image
	      file is mapped to partition 1.  The comma-separated list may have up to  7  fields,
	      including  empty	fields.   This	option	is required to make a bootable CD for Sun
	      SPARC systems.  If -B or -sparc-boot has been specified, the first  sector  of  the
	      resulting  image	will  contain a Sun disk label. This disk label specifies slice 0
	      for the ISO9660 image and slices 1 to 7 for the boot images that have  been  speci-
	      fied  with this option. Byte offsets 512 to 8191 within each of the additional boot
	      images must contain a primary boot that works for the appropriate  SPARC	architec-
	      ture. The rest of each of the images usually contains a UFS filesystem used for the
	      primary kernel boot stage.

	      The implemented boot method is the one found with SunOS 4.x and  SunOS  5.x.   How-
	      ever, it does not depend on SunOS internals but only on properties of the Open Boot
	      prom, so it should be usable for any OS for SPARC systems.   For	more  information
	      also see the NOTES section below.

	      If  the special filename ...  is used, the actual and all following boot partitions
	      are mapped to the previous partition. If genisoimage is called with -G image -B ...
	      all  boot partitions are mapped to the partition that contains the ISO9660 filesys-
	      tem image and the generic boot image that is located in the first 16 sectors of the
	      disc is used for all architectures.

       -G generic_boot_image
	      Specifies  the path and filename of the generic boot image to be used when making a
	      generic bootable CD.  The boot image will be placed on the first 16 sectors of  the
	      CD,  before the ISO9660 primary volume descriptor.  If this option is used together
	      with -sparc-boot, the Sun disk label will  overlay  the  first  512  bytes  of  the
	      generic boot image.

       -b eltorito_boot_image

       -eltorito-boot eltorito_boot_image
	      Specifies  the  path  and  filename  of the boot image to be used when making an El
	      Torito bootable CD for x86 PCs. The pathname must be relative to	the  source  path
	      specified  to  genisoimage.   This option is required to make an El Torito bootable
	      CD.  The boot image must be exactly 1200 kB, 1440 kB or 2880  kB,  and  genisoimage
	      will  use  this size when creating the output ISO9660 filesystem.  The PC BIOS will
	      use the image to emulate a floppy disk, so the first 512-byte sector should contain
	      PC  boot code.  This will work, for example, if the boot image is a LILO-based boot
	      floppy.

	      If the  boot  image  is  not  an	image  of  a  floppy,  you  need  to  add  either
	      -hard-disk-boot  or  -no-emul-boot.  If the system should not boot off the emulated
	      disk, use -no-boot.

	      If -sort has not been specified, the boot images are sorted with low priority  (+2)
	      to the beginning of the medium.  If you don't like this, you need to specify a sort
	      weight of 0 for the boot images.

       -eltorito-alt-boot
	      Start with a new set of El Torito boot parameters.  Up to 63 El Torito boot entries
	      may be stored on a single CD.

       -hard-disk-boot
	      Specifies  that the boot image used to create El Torito bootable CDs is a hard disk
	      image. The image must begin with a master boot record that contains a single parti-
	      tion.

       -no-emul-boot
	      Specifies that the boot image used to create El Torito bootable CDs is a "no emula-
	      tion" image. The system will load and execute this  image  without  performing  any
	      disk emulation.

       -no-boot
	      Specifies  that the created El Torito CD should be marked as not bootable. The sys-
	      tem will provide an emulated drive for the image, but will boot off a standard boot
	      device.

       -boot-load-seg segment_address
	      Specifies  the  load  segment  address of the boot image for no-emulation El Torito
	      CDs.

       -boot-load-size load_sectors
	      Specifies the number of "virtual" (512-byte) sectors to load in no-emulation  mode.
	      The default is to load the entire boot file.  Some BIOSes may have problems if this
	      is not a multiple of 4.

       -boot-info-table
	      Specifies that a 56-byte table with  information	of  the  CD-ROM  layout  will  be
	      patched in at offset 8 in the boot file.	If this option is given, the boot file is
	      modified in the source filesystem, so make a copy of this file if it cannot be eas-
	      ily  regenerated!   See  the EL TORITO BOOT INFO TABLE section for a description of
	      this table.

       -C last_sess_start,next_sess_start

       -cdrecord-params last_sess_start,next_sess_start
	      This option is needed to create a CD Extra or the image of a second  session  or	a
	      higher-level  session for a multisession disc.  -C takes two numbers separated by a
	      comma. The first is the first sector in the last session of the disc that should be
	      appended	to.   The second number is the starting sector number of the new session.
	      The correct numbers may be retrieved by calling wodim -msinfo ...  If -C is used in
	      conjunction with -M, genisoimage will create a filesystem image that is intended to
	      be a continuation of the previous session.  If -C is used without  -M,  genisoimage
	      will  create a filesystem image that is intended to be used for a second session on
	      a CD Extra. This is a multisession CD that holds audio data in  the  first  session
	      and an ISO9660 filesystem in the second session.

       -c boot_catalog

       -eltorito-catalog boot_catalog
	      Specifies  the  path  and filename of the boot catalog, which is required for an El
	      Torito bootable CD. The pathname must be relative to the source path  specified  to
	      genisoimage.   This  file  will be inserted into the output tree and not created in
	      the source filesystem, so be sure the specified filename does not conflict with  an
	      existing file, or it will be excluded. Usually a name like boot.catalog is chosen.

	      If  -sort has not been specified, the boot catalog sorted with low priority (+1) to
	      the beginning of the medium.  If you don't like this, you need to  specify  a  sort
	      weight of 0 for the boot catalog.

       -check-oldnames
	      Check  all  filenames imported from the old session for compliance with the ISO9660
	      file naming rules.  Without this option, only names longer than 31  characters  are
	      checked, as these files are a serious violation of the ISO9660 standard.

       -check-session file
	      Check  all  old sessions for compliance with actual genisoimage ISO9660 file naming
	      rules.  This is a high-level option that combines -M file -C  0,0  -check-oldnames.
	      For the parameter file, see the description of -M.

       -checksum_algorithm_iso alg1,alg2,...
	      Specify the checksum types desired for the output image.

       -checksum_algorithm_template alg1,alg2,...
	      Specify the checksum types desired for the output jigdo template.

       -copyright file
	      Specifies  copyright information, typically a filename on the disc.  There is space
	      for 37 characters.  Equivalent to COPY in the .genisoimagerc file.

       -d

       -omit-period
	      Do not append a period to files that do not have one.
	      This violates the ISO9660 standard, but it happens to work on  many  systems.   Use
	      with caution.

       -D

       -disable-deep-relocation
	      Do  not use deep directory relocation, and instead just pack them in the way we see
	      them.
	      If ISO9660:1999 has not been selected, this violates the ISO9660 standard,  but  it
	      happens to work on many systems.	Use with caution.

       -debug Set debug flag.

       -dir-mode mode
	      Overrides  the mode of directories used to create the image to mode, specified as 4
	      digits of permission bits as in chmod(1).  This option automatically  enables  Rock
	      Ridge extensions.

       -dvd-video
	      Generate a DVD-Video compliant UDF filesystem. This is done by sorting the order of
	      the content of the appropriate files and by adding padding  between  the	files  if
	      needed.  Note that the sorting only works if the DVD-Video filenames include upper-
	      case characters only.

	      Note that in order to get a DVD-Video compliant filesystem image, you need to  pre-
	      pare a DVD-Video compliant directory tree.  This requires a directory VIDEO_TS (all
	      caps) in the root directory of the resulting DVD,  and  usually  another	directory
	      AUDIO_TS.   VIDEO_TS needs to include all needed files (filenames must be all caps)
	      for a compliant DVD-Video filesystem.

       -e efi_boot_file

       -efi-boot efi_boot_file
	      Set EFI boot image name.

       -f

       -follow-links
	      Follow symbolic links when generating the filesystem.  When this option is  not  in
	      use,  symbolic  links  will  be entered using Rock Ridge if enabled, otherwise they
	      will be ignored.

       -file-mode mode
	      Overrides the mode of regular files used to create the image to mode, specified  as
	      4 digits of permission bits as in chmod(1).  This option automatically enables Rock
	      Ridge extensions.

       -gid gid
	      Overrides the group ID read from the source files to the value of gid.   Specifying
	      this option automatically enables Rock Ridge extensions.

       -gui   Switch  the  behaviour  for a GUI. This currently makes the output more verbose but
	      may have other effects in the future.

       -graft-points
	      Allow use of graft points for filenames. If this option is used, all filenames  are
	      checked  for  graft  points.  The  filename is divided at the first unescaped equal
	      sign. All occurrences of `\' and	`='  characters  must  be  escaped  with  `\'  if
	      -graft-points has been specified.

       -hide glob
	      Hide  any  files	matching  glob,  a shell wildcard pattern, from being seen in the
	      ISO9660 or Rock Ridge directory.	glob may match any part of the filename or  path.
	      If  glob	matches  a  directory, the contents of that directory will be hidden.  In
	      order to match a directory name, make sure the pathname does not include a trailing
	      `/'  character.	All the hidden files will still be written to the output CD image
	      file.  See also -hide-joliet, and README.hide.  This option may  be  used  multiple
	      times.

       -hide-list file
	      A file containing a list of shell wildcards to be hidden.  See -hide.

       -hidden glob
	      Add  the	hidden	(existence) ISO9660 directory attribute for files and directories
	      matching glob, a shell wildcard pattern.	This attribute	will  prevent  the  files
	      from  being  shown by some MS-DOS and Windows commands.  glob may match any part of
	      the filename or path.  In order to match a directory name, make sure  the  pathname
	      does not include a trailing `/' character.  This option may be used multiple times.

       -hidden-list file
	      A file containing a list of shell wildcards to get the hidden attribute.	See -hid-
	      den.

       -hide-joliet glob
	      Hide files and directories matching glob, a shell wildcard pattern, from being seen
	      in the Joliet directory.	glob may match any part of the filename or path.  If glob
	      matches a directory, the contents of that directory will be hidden.   In	order  to
	      match  a	directory  name,  make	sure the pathname does not include a trailing `/'
	      character.  All the hidden files will still be written to the output CD image file.
	      This  option is usually used with -hide.	See also README.hide.  This option may be
	      used multiple times.

       -hide-joliet-list file
	      A file containing a list of shell wildcards to be hidden from the Joliet tree.  See
	      -hide-joliet.

       -hide-joliet-trans-tbl
	      Hide  the  TRANS.TBL  files  from  the Joliet tree.  These files usually don't make
	      sense in the Joliet world as they list the real name and the ISO9660 name which may
	      both be different from the Joliet name.

       -hide-rr-moved
	      Rename  the directory RR_MOVED to .rr_moved in the Rock Ridge tree.  It seems to be
	      impossible to completely hide the RR_MOVED directory  from  the  Rock  Ridge  tree.
	      This  option  only  makes the visible tree less confusing for people who don't know
	      what this directory is for.  If you need to have no RR_MOVED directory at all,  you
	      should use -D.  Note that if -D has been specified, the resulting filesystem is not
	      ISO9660 level-1 compliant and will not be readable on MS-DOS.  See also  the  NOTES
	      section.

       -input-charset charset
	      Input  charset  that defines the characters used in local filenames.  To get a list
	      of valid charset names, call genisoimage -input-charset help.  To get  a	1:1  map-
	      ping,  you may use default as charset name. The default initial values are cp437 on
	      DOS-based systems and iso8859-1 on all other systems.  See the CHARACTER SETS  sec-
	      tion below for more details.

       -output-charset charset
	      Output  charset  that  defines the characters that will be used in Rock Ridge file-
	      names.  Defaults to the input charset.  See CHARACTER SETS section below	for  more
	      details.

       -iso-level level
	      Set the ISO9660 conformance level. Valid numbers are 1 to 4.

	      With level 1, files may only consist of one section and filenames are restricted to
	      8.3 characters.

	      With level 2, files may only consist of one section.

	      With level 3, no restrictions (other than ISO-9660:1988) do apply.

	      With all ISO9660 levels from 1 to 3, all filenames are restricted to uppercase let-
	      ters,  numbers  and underscores (_). Filenames are limited to 31 characters, direc-
	      tory nesting is limited to 8 levels, and pathnames are limited to 255 characters.

	      Level 4 officially does not exist but genisoimage maps it to  ISO-9660:1999,  which
	      is ISO9660 version 2.

	      With  level 4, an enhanced volume descriptor with version number and file structure
	      version number set to 2 is emitted.  Directory nesting is not limited to 8  levels,
	      there  is  no  need for a file to contain a dot and the dot has no special meaning,
	      filenames do not have version numbers, and filenames can be up  to  207  characters
	      long, or 197 characters if Rock Ridge is used.

	      When  creating  Version  2 images, genisoimage emits an enhanced volume descriptor,
	      similar but not identical to a primary volume descriptor. Be  careful  not  to  use
	      broken  software	to make ISO9660 images bootable by assuming a second PVD copy and
	      patching this putative PVD copy into an El Torito VD.

       -J     Generate Joliet directory records in addition to regular ISO9660	filenames.   This
	      is  primarily  useful  when  the	discs are to be used on Windows machines.  Joliet
	      filenames are specified in Unicode and each path component can be up to 64  Unicode
	      characters  long.  Note that Joliet is not a standard -- only Microsoft Windows and
	      Linux systems can read Joliet extensions.  For greater portability, consider  using
	      both Joliet and Rock Ridge extensions.

       -joliet-long
	      Allow  Joliet  filenames	to  be up to 103 Unicode characters, instead of 64.  This
	      breaks the Joliet specification, but appears to work. Use with caution.

       -jcharset charset
	      A combination of -J -input-charset charset.  See the CHARACTER SETS  section  below
	      for more details.

       -l

       -full-iso9660-filenames
	      Allow full 31-character filenames.  Normally the ISO9660 filename will be in an 8.3
	      format which is compatible with MS-DOS, even though  the	ISO9660  standard  allows
	      filenames  of  up to 31 characters.  If you use this option, the disc may be diffi-
	      cult to use on a MS-DOS system, but will work on most other systems.  Use with cau-
	      tion.

       -L     Outdated option; use -allow-leading-dots instead.

       -jigdo-jigdo jigdo_file
	      Produce  a  jigdo  .jigdo  metadata  file as well as the filesystem image.  See the
	      JIGDO NOTES section below for more information.

       -jigdo-template template_file
	      Produce a jigdo .template file as well as the  filesystem  image.   See  the  JIGDO
	      NOTES section below for more information.

       -jigdo-min-file-size size
	      Specify  the  minimum size for a file to be listed in the .jigdo file. Default (and
	      minimum allowed) is 1KB. See the JIGDO NOTES section below for more information.

       -jigdo-force-md5 path
	      Specify a file pattern where files must be contained in the externally-supplied MD5
	      list as supplied by -md5-list.  See the JIGDO NOTES section below for more informa-
	      tion.

       -jigdo-exclude path
	      Specify a file pattern where files will not be listed in the .jigdo file.  See  the
	      JIGDO NOTES section below for more information.

       -jigdo-map path
	      Specify  a  pattern  mapping for the jigdo file (e.g.  Debian=/mirror/debian).  See
	      the JIGDO NOTES section below for more information.

       -md5-list md5_file
	      Specify a file containing the MD5sums, sizes and	pathnames  of  the  files  to  be
	      included	in  the  .jigdo file. See the JIGDO NOTES section below for more informa-
	      tion.

       -jigdo-template-compress algorithm
	      Specify a compression algorithm to use for template date. gzip and bzip2	are  cur-
	      rently  supported,  and  gzip is the default. See the JIGDO NOTES section below for
	      more information.

       -log-file log_file
	      Redirect all error, warning and informational messages to log_file instead  of  the
	      standard error.

       -m glob
	      Exclude  files  matching	glob, a shell wildcard pattern, from being written to CD-
	      ROM.  glob may match either the filename component  or  the  full  pathname.   This
	      option may be used multiple times.  For example:

		   genisoimage -o rom -m '*.o' -m core -m foobar

	      would  exclude  all  files ending in `.o', or called core or foobar from the image.
	      Note that if you had a directory called foobar, it  too  (and  of  course  all  its
	      descendants) would be excluded.

       -exclude-list file
	      A file containing a list of shell wildcards to be excluded.  See -m.

       -max-iso9660-filenames
	      Allow  ISO9660 filenames to be up to 37 characters long.	This option enables -N as
	      the extra name space is taken from the space reserved for file version numbers.
	      This violates the ISO9660 standard,  but	it  happens  to  work  on  many  systems.
	      Although	a  conforming  application needs to provide a buffer space of at least 37
	      characters, discs created with this option may cause a buffer overflow in the read-
	      ing operating system. Use with extreme care.

       -M path

       -M device

       -dev device
	      Specifies  path  to existing ISO9660 image to be merged. The alternate form takes a
	      SCSI device specifier that uses the same syntax as the  dev=  parameter  of  wodim.
	      The output of genisoimage will be a new session which should get written to the end
	      of the image specified in -M.  Typically this requires multisession capability  for
	      the  CD recorder used to write the image.  This option may only be used in conjunc-
	      tion with -C.

       -N

       -omit-version-number
	      Omit version numbers from ISO9660 filenames.
	      This violates the ISO9660 standard, but no one really uses the version numbers any-
	      way.  Use with caution.

       -new-dir-mode mode
	      Specify  the  mode,  a 4-digit number as used in chmod(1), to use when creating new
	      directories in the filesystem image.  The default is 0555.

       -nobak

       -no-bak
	      Exclude backup files files on the ISO9660 filesystem; that is, filenames that  con-
	      tain  the  characters  `~' or `#' or end in .bak.  These are typically backup files
	      for Unix text editors.

       -force-rr
	      Do not use the automatic Rock Ridge attributes recognition for  previous	sessions.
	      This can work around problems with images created by, e.g., NERO Burning ROM.

       -no-rr Do  not  use  the  Rock  Ridge attributes from previous sessions.  This may help to
	      avoid problems when genisoimage finds illegal Rock Ridge signatures on an old  ses-
	      sion.

       -no-split-symlink-components
	      Don't split the symlink components, but begin a new Continuation Area (CE) instead.
	      This may waste some space, but the SunOS 4.1.4 cdrom driver has a  bug  in  reading
	      split symlink components.

	      It is questionable whether this option is useful nowadays.

       -no-split-symlink-fields
	      Don't  split  the  symlink  fields, but begin a new Continuation Area (CE) instead.
	      This may waste some space, but the SunOS 4.1.4 and Solaris 2.5.1 cdrom driver  have
	      a bug in reading split symlink fields (a `/' can be dropped).

	      It is questionable whether this option is useful nowadays.

       -o filename
	      Specify  the  output file for the the ISO9660 filesystem image.  This can be a disk
	      file, a tape drive, or it can correspond directly to the device name of the optical
	      disc writer.  If not specified, stdout is used.  Note that the output can also be a
	      block device for a regular disk partition, in which case the ISO9660 filesystem can
	      be mounted normally to verify that it was generated correctly.

       -pad   Pad  the end of the whole image by 150 sectors (300 kB).	This option is enabled by
	      default.	If used in combination with -B, padding is inserted between  the  ISO9660
	      partition  and  the boot partitions, such that the first boot partition starts on a
	      sector number that is a multiple of 16.

	      The padding is needed as many operating systems (e.g. Linux)  implement  read-ahead
	      bugs  in	their  filesystem I/O. These bugs result in read errors on files that are
	      located near the end of a track, particularly if the disc is written  in	Track  At
	      Once mode, or where a CD audio track follows the data track.

       -no-pad
	      Do  not pad the end by 150 sectors (300 kB) and do not make the the boot partitions
	      start on a multiple of 16 sectors.

       -path-list file
	      A file containing a list of pathspec directories and filenames to be added  to  the
	      ISO9660  filesystem.  This list of pathspecs are processed after any that appear on
	      the command line. If the argument is -, the list is read from the standard input.

       -P     Outdated option; use -publisher instead.

       -publisher publisher_id
	      Specifies a text string that will be written into the volume header.   This  should
	      describe the publisher of the CD-ROM, usually with a mailing address and phone num-
	      ber.  There is space for 128 characters.	Equivalent to PUBL in the  .genisoimagerc
	      file.

       -p preparer_id

       -preparer preparer_id
	      Specifies  a  text string that will be written into the volume header.  This should
	      describe the preparer of the CD-ROM, usually with a mailing address and phone  num-
	      ber.   There is space for 128 characters.  Equivalent to PREP in the .genisoimagerc
	      file.

       -print-size
	      Print estimated filesystem size in multiples of the sector size  (2048  bytes)  and
	      exit.  This  option  is needed for Disk At Once mode and with some CD-R drives when
	      piping directly into wodim, cases where  wodim  needs  to  know  the  size  of  the
	      filesystem image in advance.  Old versions of mkisofs wrote this information (among
	      other information) to stderr.  As this turns out to be hard to  parse,  the  number
	      without any other information is now printed on stdout too.  If you like to write a
	      simple shell script, redirect stderr and catch the number from stdout.  This may be
	      done with:

		   cdblocks=` genisoimage -print-size -quiet ... `
		   genisoimage ... | wodim ... tsize=${cdblocks}s -

       -quiet This makes genisoimage even less verbose.  No progress output will be provided.

       -R

       -rock  Generate	SUSP and RR records using the Rock Ridge protocol to further describe the
	      files on the ISO9660 filesystem.

       -r

       -rational-rock
	      This is like the -R option, but file ownership and modes are  set  to  more  useful
	      values.	The  uid and gid are set to zero, because they are usually only useful on
	      the author's system, and not useful to the client.  All the file read bits are  set
	      true,  so  that  files and directories are globally readable on the client.  If any
	      execute bit is set for a file, set all of the execute bits, so that executables are
	      globally	executable  on the client.  If any search bit is set for a directory, set
	      all of the search bits, so that directories are globally searchable on the  client.
	      All write bits are cleared, because the filesystem will be mounted read-only in any
	      case.  If any of the special mode bits are set, clear them, because file locks  are
	      not  useful  on a read-only filesystem, and set-id bits are not desirable for uid 0
	      or gid 0.  When used on Win32, the execute bit is set  on  all  files.  This  is	a
	      result  of  the  lack  of  file permissions on Win32 and the Cygwin POSIX emulation
	      layer.  See also -uid, -gid, -dir-mode, -file-mode and -new-dir-mode.

       -relaxed-filenames
	      Allows ISO9660 filenames to include all 7-bit  ASCII  characters	except	lowercase
	      letters.
	      This  violates  the  ISO9660 standard, but it happens to work on many systems.  Use
	      with caution.

       -root dir
	      Moves all files and directories into dir in the image. This is essentially the same
	      as  using -graft-points and adding dir in front of every pathspec, but is easier to
	      use.  dir may actually be several levels deep. It is created with the same  permis-
	      sions as other graft points.

       -old-root dir
	      This  option  is	necessary  when writing a multisession image and the previous (or
	      even older) session was written with -root dir.  Using a directory name  not  found
	      in  the  previous  session causes genisoimage to abort with an error.  Without this
	      option, genisoimage would not be able to find unmodified files and would be  forced
	      to  write their data into the image once more.  -root and -old-root are meant to be
	      used together to do incremental backups.	 The  initial  session	would  e.g.  use:
	      genisoimage  -root  backup_1  dirs.   The  next incremental backup with genisoimage
	      -root backup_2 -old-root backup_1 dirs would take another snapshot of these  direc-
	      tories.  The first snapshot would be found in backup_1, the second one in backup_2,
	      but only modified or new files need to be written into the second session.  Without
	      these  options,  new  files would be added and old ones would be preserved. But old
	      ones would be overwritten if the file was modified. Recovering the files by copying
	      the  whole directory back from CD would also restore files that were deleted inten-
	      tionally. Accessing several older versions of a file requires support by the  oper-
	      ating system to choose which sessions are to be mounted.

       -s sector type

       -sectype sector type
	      Set output sector type to e.g. data/xa1/raw.
	       .TP  -sort  sort_file Sort file locations on the media. Sorting is controlled by a
	      file that contains pairs of filenames and sorting offset weighting.  If the weight-
	      ing  is  higher,	the file will be located closer to the beginning of the media, if
	      the weighting is lower, the file will be located closer to the end  of  the  media.
	      There  must be only one space or tabs character between the filename and the weight
	      and the weight must be the last characters on a line.  The  filename  is	taken  to
	      include all the characters up to, but not including the last space or tab character
	      on a line. This is to allow for space characters to be in, or at the end of a file-
	      name.   This  option  does  not  sort the order of the filenames that appear in the
	      ISO9660 directory. It sorts the order in which the file data is written to  the  CD
	      image,  which  is  useful  in  order  to	optimize  the  data  layout  on a CD. See
	      README.sort for more details.

       -sparc-boot img_sun4,img_sun4c,img_sun4m,img_sun4d,img_sun4e
	      See -B above.

       -sparc-label label
	      Set the Sun disk label name for the Sun disk label that  is  created  with  -sparc-
	      boot.

       -split-output
	      Split  the  output image into several files of approximately 1 GB each.  This helps
	      to create DVD-sized ISO9660 images on operating systems without large file support.
	      wodim  will concatenate more than one file into a single track if writing to a DVD.
	      To make -split-output work, -o filename must be  specified.  The	resulting  output
	      images will be named: filename_00, filename_01, filename_02....

       -stream-media-size #
	      Select streaming operation and set the media size to # sectors.  This allows you to
	      pipe the output of the tar(1) program into genisoimage and  to  create  an  ISO9660
	      filesystem  without  the	need of an intermediate tar archive file.  If this option
	      has been specified, genisoimage reads from stdin and creates a file with	the  name
	      STREAM.IMG.   The  maximum size of the file (with padding) is 200 sectors less than
	      the specified media size. If -no-pad has been specified, the file size is  50  sec-
	      tors  less than the specified media size.  If the file is smaller, genisoimage will
	      write padding. This may take awhile.

	      The option -stream-media-size creates simple ISO9660 filesystems only and  may  not
	      used together with multisession or hybrid filesystem options.

       -stream-file-name name
	      Reserved for future use.

       -sunx86-boot UFS_img,,,AUX1_img
	      Specifies  a  comma-separated  list  of filesystem images that are needed to make a
	      bootable CD for Solaris x86 systems.

	      Note that partition 1 is used for the ISO9660 image and that  partition  2  is  the
	      whole  disk,  so partition 1 and 2 may not be used by external partition data.  The
	      first image file is mapped to partition 0.  There may be empty fields in the comma-
	      separated  list, and list entries for partition 1 and 2 must be empty.  The maximum
	      number of supported partitions is 8 (although the Solaris x86 partition table could
	      support  up to 16 partitions), so it is impossible to specify more than 6 partition
	      images.  This option is required to make a bootable CD for Solaris x86 systems.

	      If -sunx86-boot has been specified, the first sector of the  resulting  image  will
	      contain  a  PC  fdisk label with a Solaris type 0x82 fdisk partition that starts at
	      offset 512 and spans the whole CD.  In addition, for the Solaris	type  0x82  fdisk
	      partition, there is a SVr4 disk label at offset 1024 in the first sector of the CD.
	      This disk label specifies slice 0 for the first (usually UFS type) filesystem image
	      that  is	used to boot the PC and slice 1 for the ISO9660 image.	Slice 2 spans the
	      whole CD slice 3 ... slice 7 may be used for additional filesystem images that have
	      been specified with this option.

	      A  Solaris  x86 boot CD uses a 1024 byte sized primary boot that uses the El-Torito
	      no-emulation boot mode and a secondary generic boot that is in  CD  sectors  1..15.
	      For this reason, both -b bootimage -no-emul-boot and -G genboot must be specified.

       -sunx86-label label
	      Set  the	SVr4  disk  label  name  for  the  SVr4  disk  label that is created with
	      -sunx86-boot.

       -sysid ID
	      Specifies the system ID.	There is space for 32 characters.  Equivalent to SYSI  in
	      the .genisoimagerc file.

       -T

       -translation-table
	      Generate	a  file  TRANS.TBL  in each directory on the CD-ROM, which can be used on
	      non-Rock Ridge-capable systems to help establish the correct filenames.	There  is
	      also information present in the file that indicates the major and minor numbers for
	      block and character devices, and each symlink has the name of the link file given.

       -table-name table_name
	      Alternative translation table filename (see above). Implies -T.  If you are  creat-
	      ing a multisession image you must use the same name as in the previous session.

       -ucs-level level
	      Set Unicode conformance level in the Joliet SVD. The default level is 3.	It may be
	      set to 1..3 using this option.

       -udf   Include UDF filesystem support in the generated filesystem image.  UDF  support  is
	      currently  in  alpha  status and for this reason, it is not possible to create UDF-
	      only images.  UDF data structures are currently coupled to the  Joliet  structures,
	      so  there  are  many  pitfalls with the current implementation. There is no UID/GID
	      support, there is no POSIX permission support, there is no  support  for	symlinks.
	      Note  that  UDF  wastes the space from sector ~20 to sector 256 at the beginning of
	      the disc in addition to the space needed for real UDF data structures.

       -uid uid
	      Overrides the uid read from the source files to the value of uid.  Specifying  this
	      option automatically enables Rock Ridge extensions.

       -use-fileversion
	      The option -use-fileversion allows genisoimage to use file version numbers from the
	      filesystem.  If the option is not specified, genisoimage creates a  version  number
	      of  1  for  all  files.	File  versions are strings in the range ;1 to ;32767 This
	      option is the default on VMS.

       -U

       -untranslated-filenames
	      Allows  "untranslated"  filenames,  completely  violating  the  ISO9660	standards
	      described  above.   Enables  the	following  flags:  -d  -l  -N -allow-leading-dots
	      -relaxed-filenames -allow-lowercase -allow-multidot -no-iso-translate.  Allows more
	      than  one  `.' character in the filename, as well as mixed-case filenames.  This is
	      useful on HP-UX, where the built-in cdfs filesystem does not recognize  any  exten-
	      sions. Use with extreme caution.

       -no-iso-translate
	      Do  not  translate  the  characters `#' and `~' which are invalid for ISO9660 file-
	      names.  Although invalid, these characters are often used by Microsoft systems.
	      This violates the ISO9660 standard, but it happens to work on  many  systems.   Use
	      with caution.

       -V volid
	      Specifies the volume ID (volume name or label) to be written into the master block.
	      There is space for 32 characters.  Equivalent to VOLI in the  .genisoimagerc  file.
	      The  volume  ID  is  used as the mount point by the Solaris volume manager and as a
	      label assigned to a disc on various other platforms such as Windows and  Apple  Mac
	      OS.

       -volset ID
	      Specifies  the  volume  set  ID.	There is space for 128 characters.  Equivalent to
	      VOLS in the .genisoimagerc file.

       -volset-size #
	      Sets the volume set size to #.  The volume set size is the number of CDs	that  are
	      in  a CD volume set.  A volume set is a collection of one or more volumes, on which
	      a set of files is recorded.

	      Volume Sets are not intended to be used to create a set numbered CDs that are  part
	      of e.g. a Operation System installation set of CDs.  Volume Sets are rather used to
	      record a big directory tree that would not fit on a single volume.  Each volume  of
	      a  Volume  Set  contains	a  description	of all the directories and files that are
	      recorded on the volumes where the sequence numbers are less than, or equal to,  the
	      assigned Volume Set Size of the current volume.

	      genisoimage currently does not support a -volset-size that is larger than 1.

	      The  option  -volset-size  must  be  specified before -volset-seqno on each command
	      line.

       -volset-seqno #
	      Sets the volume set sequence number to #.  The volume set sequence  number  is  the
	      index number of the current CD in a CD set.  The option -volset-size must be speci-
	      fied before -volset-seqno on each command line.

       -v

       -verbose
	      Verbose execution. If given twice on the command line, extra debug information will
	      be printed.

       -x glob
	      Identical to -m glob.

       -XA    Generate XA directory attruibutes.

       -xa    Generate rationalized XA directory attruibutes.

       -z

       -transparent-compression
	      Generate	special RRIP records for transparently compressed files.  This is only of
	      use and interest for hosts that support transparent decompression,  such	as  Linux
	      2.4.14 or later.	You must specify -R or -r to enable Rock Ridge, and generate com-
	      pressed files using the mkzftree utility before  running	genisoimage.   Note  that
	      transparent compression is a nonstandard Rock Ridge extension.  The resulting disks
	      are only transparently readable if used on Linux.  On other operating  systems  you
	      will need to call mkzftree by hand to decompress the files.

HFS OPTIONS
       -hfs   Create an ISO9660/HFS hybrid CD. This option should be used in conjunction with the
	      -map, -magic and/or the various double dash options given below.

       -apple Create an ISO9660 CD with Apple's extensions. Similar  to  -hfs,	except	that  the
	      Apple  Extensions  to  ISO9660  are added instead of creating an HFS hybrid volume.
	      Former genisoimage versions did include Rock Ridge attributes by default if  -apple
	      was  specified.  This versions of genisoimage does not do this anymore. If you like
	      to have Rock Ridge attributes, you need to specify this separately.

       -map mapping_file
	      Use the mapping_file to set the CREATOR and TYPE information for a  file	based  on
	      the  filename's  extension.  A filename is mapped only if it is not one of the know
	      Apple/Unix file formats. See the HFS CREATOR/TYPE section below.

       -magic magic_file
	      The CREATOR and TYPE information is set by using a file's magic number (usually the
	      first few bytes of a file). The magic_file is only used if a file is not one of the
	      known Apple/Unix file formats, or the filename extension has not been mapped  using
	      -map.  See the HFS CREATOR/TYPE section below for more details.

       -hfs-creator creator
	      Set  the	default  CREATOR for all files. Must be exactly 4 characters. See the HFS
	      CREATOR/TYPE section below for more details.

       -hfs-type type
	      Set the default TYPE for all files. Must be exactly 4 characters. See the HFS  CRE-
	      ATOR/TYPE section below for more details.

       -probe Search  the  contents  of files for all the known Apple/Unix file formats.  See the
	      HFS MACINTOSH FILE FORMATS section below for more about  these  formats.	 However,
	      the only way to check for MacBinary and AppleSingle files is to open and read them,
	      so this option may increase processing time. It is better to use one or more double
	      dash options given below if the Apple/Unix formats in use are known.

       -no-desktop
	      Do not create (empty) Desktop files. New HFS Desktop files will be created when the
	      CD is used on a Macintosh (and stored in the System  Folder).   By  default,  empty
	      Desktop files are added to the HFS volume.

       -mac-name
	      Use  the	HFS filename as the starting point for the ISO9660, Joliet and Rock Ridge
	      filenames. See the HFS MACINTOSH FILENAMES section below for more information.

       -boot-hfs-file driver_file
	      Installs the driver_file that may make the CD bootable on a Macintosh. See the  HFS
	      BOOT DRIVER section below. (Alpha).

       -part  Generate	an  HFS partition table. By default, no partition table is generated, but
	      some older Macintosh CD-ROM drivers need an HFS partition table on the CD-ROM to be
	      able to recognize a hybrid CD-ROM.

       -auto AutoStart_file
	      Make the HFS CD use the QuickTime 2.0 Autostart feature to launch an application or
	      document. The given filename must be the name of a document or application  located
	      at the top level of the CD. The filename must be less than 12 characters. (Alpha).

       -cluster-size size
	      Set  the	size  in  bytes  of the cluster or allocation units of PC Exchange files.
	      Implies --exchange.  See the HFS MACINTOSH FILE FORMATS section below.

       -hide-hfs glob
	      Hide glob, a shell wildcard pattern, from the HFS volume.  The  file  or	directory
	      will  still  exist in the ISO9660 and/or Joliet directory.  glob may match any part
	      of the filename.	Multiple globs may be excluded.  Example:

		   genisoimage -o rom -hfs -hide-hfs '*.o' -hide-hfs foobar

	      would exclude all files ending in `.o' or called foobar from the HFS  volume.  Note
	      that  if	you  had a directory called foobar, it too (and of course all its descen-
	      dants) would be excluded.  The glob can also be a path name relative to the  source
	      directories given on the command line. Example:

		   genisoimage -o rom -hfs -hide-hfs src/html src

	      would  exclude  just the file or directory called html from the src directory.  Any
	      other file or directory called html in the tree will not be  excluded.   Should  be
	      used with -hide and/or -hide-joliet.  In order to match a directory name, make sure
	      the pattern does not include a trailing `/' character.  See  README.hide	for  more
	      details.

       -hide-hfs-list file
	      Specify a file containing a list of wildcard patterns to be hidden as in -hide-hfs.

       -hfs-volid hfs_volid
	      Volume name for the HFS partition. This is the name that is assigned to the disc on
	      a Macintosh and replaces the volid used with -V.

       -icon-position
	      Use the icon position information, if it exists, from  the  Apple/Unix  file.   The
	      icons will appear in the same position as they would on a Macintosh desktop. Folder
	      location and size on screen, its scroll positions,  folder  View	(view  as  Icons,
	      Small Icons, etc.) are also preserved.  (Alpha).

       -root-info file
	      Set  the	location, size on screen, scroll positions, folder View etc. for the root
	      folder of an HFS volume. See README.rootinfo for more information.  (Alpha)

       -prep-boot file
	      PReP boot image file. Up to 4 are allowed. See README.prep_boot for  more  informa-
	      tion.  (Alpha)

       -chrp-boot
	      Add CHRP boot header.

       -input-hfs-charset charset
	      Input  charset  that  defines  the  characters used in HFS filenames when used with
	      -mac-name.  The default charset is cp10000 (Mac Roman).  See the CHARACTER SETS and
	      HFS MACINTOSH FILENAMES sections below for more details.

       -output-hfs-charset charset
	      Output  charset that defines the characters that will be used in the HFS filenames.
	      Defaults to the input charset. See  the  CHARACTER  SETS	section  below	for  more
	      details.

       -hfs-unlock
	      By  default,  genisoimage  will  create  an HFS volume that is locked.  This option
	      leaves the volume unlocked so that other applications (e.g.  hfsutils)  can  modify
	      the volume. See the HFS PROBLEMS/LIMITATIONS section below for warnings about using
	      this option.

       -hfs-bless folder_name
	      "Bless" the given directory (folder). This is usually the System Folder and is used
	      in creating HFS bootable CDs. The name of the directory must be the whole path name
	      as genisoimage sees it.  E.g., if the given pathspec is ./cddata and  the  required
	      folder  is  called  System  Folder,  the whole path name is "/cddata/System Folder"
	      (remember to use quotes if the name contains spaces).

       -hfs-parms parameters
	      Override certain parameters used to create the HFS filesystem. Unlikely to be  used
	      in normal circumstances.	See the libhfs_iso/hybrid.h source file for details.

       --cap  Look  for  AUFS  CAP  Macintosh files. Search for CAP Apple/Unix file formats only.
	      Searching for the other possible Apple/Unix file formats is disabled, unless  other
	      double dash options are given.

       --netatalk
	      Look for NETATALK Macintosh files

       --double
	      Look for AppleDouble Macintosh files

       --ethershare
	      Look for Helios EtherShare Macintosh files

       --ushare
	      Look for IPT UShare Macintosh files

       --exchange
	      Look for PC Exchange Macintosh files

       --sgi  Look for SGI Macintosh files

       --xinet
	      Look for XINET Macintosh files

       --macbin
	      Look for MacBinary Macintosh files

       --single
	      Look for AppleSingle Macintosh files

       --dave Look for Thursby Software Systems DAVE Macintosh files

       --sfm  Look for Microsoft's Services for Macintosh files (NT only) (Alpha)

       --osx-double
	      Look for Mac OS X AppleDouble Macintosh files

       --osx-hfs
	      Look for Mac OS X HFS Macintosh files

CHARACTER SETS
       genisoimage  processes  filenames in a POSIX-compliant way as strings of 8-bit characters.
       To represent all codings for all languages, 8-bit characters are not sufficient.   Unicode
       or  ISO-10646  define  character codings that need at least 21 bits to represent all known
       languages. They may be represented with UTF-32, UTF-16 or UTF-8	coding.   UTF-32  uses	a
       plain 32-bit coding but seems to be uncommon.  UTF-16 is used by Microsoft with Win32 with
       the disadvantage that 16-bit characters are not compliant with the POSIX filesystem inter-
       face.

       Modern  Unix  operating systems may use UTF-8 coding for filenames.  Each 32-bit character
       is represented by one or more 8-bit characters.	If a character	is  coded  in  ISO-8859-1
       (used in Central Europe and North America) is maps 1:1 to a UTF-32 or UTF-16 coded Unicode
       character.  If a character is coded in 7-Bit ASCII (used in USA and other  countries  with
       limited	character  set) is maps 1:1 to a UTF-32, UTF-16 or UTF-8 coded Unicode character.
       Character codes that cannot be represented as a single byte in UTF-8 (if the  value  is	>
       0x7F) use escape sequences that map to more than one 8-bit character.

       If  all	operating  systems used UTF-8, genisoimage would not need to recode characters in
       filenames.  Unfortunately, Apple uses completely nonstandard codings and Microsoft uses	a
       Unicode coding that is not compatible with the POSIX filename interface.

       For  all non-UTF-8-coded operating systems, the actual character that each byte represents
       depends on the character set or codepage (the name used by Microsoft) used  by  the  local
       operating  system  -- the characters in a character set will reflect the region or natural
       language set by the user.

       Usually character codes 0x00-0x1f are control characters, codes 0x20-0x7f  are  the  7-bit
       ASCII characters and (on PCs and Macs) 0x80-0xff are used for other characters.

       As there are a lot more than 256 characters/symbols in use, only a small subset are repre-
       sented in a character set. Therefore the same character code  may  represent  a	different
       character in different character sets. So a filename generated, say in central Europe, may
       not display the same character when viewed on a machine in, say eastern Europe.

       To make matters more complicated, different operating systems use different character sets
       for  the  region  or language. For example, the character code for `e' (small e with acute
       accent) may be character code 0x82 on a PC, code 0x8e on a Macintosh, code 0xe9 on a  Unix
       system in western Europe, and code 0x000e9 in Unicode.

       As  long  as  not all operating systems and applications use the same character set as the
       basis for filenames, it may be necessary to specify which character set your filenames use
       in and which character set the filenames should appear on the CD.

       There are four options to specify the character sets you want to use:

       -input-charset
	      Defines  the local character set you are using on your host machine.  Any character
	      set conversions that take place will use this character set as the starting  point.
	      The default input character sets are cp437 on MS-DOS-based systems and iso8859-1 on
	      all other systems.  If -J is given, the Unicode equivalents of the input	character
	      set  will be used in the Joliet directory.  -jcharset is the same as -input-charset
	      -J.

       -output-charset
	      Defines the character set that will be used with for the Rock Ridge  names  on  the
	      CD.  Defaults to the input character set.

       -input-hfs-charset
	      Defines  the HFS character set used for HFS filenames decoded from any of the vari-
	      ous Apple/Unix file formats. Only useful when used with  -mac-name.   See  the  HFS
	      MACINTOSH FILENAMES for more information. Defaults to cp10000 (Mac Roman).

       -output-hfs-charset
	      Defines the HFS character set used to create HFS filenames from the input character
	      set in use. In  most  cases  this  will  be  from  the  character  set  given  with
	      -input-charset.  Defaults to the input HFS character set.

       There  are  a  number  of  character  sets built in to genisoimage.  To get a listing, use
       -input-charset help.  This list doesn't include	the  charset  derived  from  the  current
       locale, if genisoimage is built with iconv support.

       Additional  character  sets  can be read from file for any of the character set options by
       giving a filename as the argument to the options. The given file will only be read if  its
       name does not match one of the built-in character sets.

       The  format  of	the  character	set files is the same as the mapping files available from
       http://www.unicode.org/Public/MAPPINGS.	This format is:

	      Column #1 is the input byte code (in hex as 0xXX)
	      Column #2 is the Unicode (in hex as 0xXXXX)
	      The rest of the line is ignored.

       Any blank line, line without two (or more) columns in the above format or  comments  lines
       (starting  with	the # character) are ignored without any warnings. Any missing input code
       is mapped to Unicode character 0x0000.

       Note that, while UTF-8 is supported, other Unicode  encodings  such  as	UCS-2/UTF-16  and
       UCS-4/UTF-32 are not, as POSIX operating systems cannot handle them natively.

       A 1:1 character set mapping can be defined by using the keyword default as the argument to
       any of the character set options. This is the behaviour of old versions of mkisofs.

       The ISO9660 filenames generated from the input filenames are not converted from the  input
       character set. The ISO9660 character set is a very limited subset of the ASCII characters,
       so any conversion would be pointless.

       Any character that genisoimage cannot convert will be replaced with a `_' character.

HFS CREATOR/TYPE
       A Macintosh file has two properties associated with it which define which application cre-
       ated  the file, the CREATOR and what data the file contains, the TYPE.  Both are (exactly)
       4 letter strings. Usually this allows a Macintosh user  to  double-click  on  a	file  and
       launch the correct application etc. The CREATOR and TYPE of a particular file can be found
       by using something like ResEdit (or similar) on a Macintosh.

       The CREATOR and TYPE information is stored in all the various  Apple/Unix  encoded  files.
       For  other  files  it is possible to base the CREATOR and TYPE on the filename's extension
       using a mapping file (with -map) and/or using the magic number (usually a signature in the
       first few bytes) of a file (with -magic).  If both these options are given, their order on
       the command line is significant.  If -map is given first, a filename  extension	match  is
       attempted  before  a magic number match. However, if -magic is given first, a magic number
       match is attempted before a filename extension match.

       If a mapping or magic file is not used, or no match is found, the default CREATOR and TYPE
       for  all  regular  files  can  be set by using entries in the .genisoimagerc file or using
       -hfs-creator and/or -hfs-type, otherwise the default CREATOR and TYPE are Unix and TEXT.

       The format of the mapping file is the same afpfile format as used by aufs.  This file  has
       five columns for the extension, file translation, CREATOR, TYPE and Comment.  Lines start-
       ing with the `#' character are comment lines and are ignored. An  example  file	would  be
       like:

       # Example filename mapping file
       #
       # EXTN	XLate	CREATOR   TYPE	   Comment
       .tif	Raw	'8BIM'	  'TIFF'   "Photoshop TIFF image"
       .hqx	Ascii	'BnHq'	  'TEXT'   "BinHex file"
       .doc	Raw	'MSWD'	  'WDBN'   "Word file"
       .mov	Raw	'TVOD'	  'MooV'   "QuickTime Movie"
       *	Ascii	'ttxt'	  'TEXT'   "Text file"

       Where:

	      The first column EXTN defines the Unix filename extension to be mapped. The default
	      mapping for any filename extension that doesn't match is defined with the `*' char-
	      acter.

	      The  Xlate  column defines the type of text translation between the Unix and Macin-
	      tosh file it is ignored by genisoimage, but is kept to be compatible with  aufs(1).
	      Although	genisoimage  does  not alter the contents of a file, if a binary file has
	      its TYPE set as TEXT, it may be read incorrectly on a Macintosh. Therefore a better
	      choice for the default TYPE may be ????.

	      The  CREATOR  and  TYPE  keywords  must be 4 characters long and enclosed in single
	      quotes.

	      The comment field is enclosed in double quotes -- it is ignored by genisoimage, but
	      is kept to be compatible with aufs.

       The  format of the magic file is almost identical to the magic(5) file used by the file(1)
       command.

       This file has four tab-separated columns for the byte  offset,  type,  test  and  message.
       Lines  starting	with the `#' character are comment lines and are ignored. An example file
       would be like:

       # Example magic file
       #
       # off   type	 test	    message
       0       string	 GIF8	    8BIM GIFf  GIF image
       0       beshort	 0xffd8     8BIM JPEG  image data
       0       string	 SIT!	    SIT! SIT!  StuffIt Archive
       0       string	 \037\235   LZIV ZIVU  standard Unix compress
       0       string	 \037\213   GNUz ZIVU  gzip compressed data
       0       string	 %!	    ASPS TEXT  Postscript
       0       string	 \004%!     ASPS TEXT  PC Postscript with a ^D to start
       4       string	 moov	    txtt MooV  QuickTime movie file (moov)
       4       string	 mdat	    txtt MooV  QuickTime movie file (mdat)

       The format of the file is described in magic(5).  The only difference  here  is	that  for
       each  entry  in the magic file, the message for the initial offset must be be 4 characters
       for the CREATOR followed by 4 characters for the TYPE -- white space is	optional  between
       them.  Any other characters on this line are ignored.  Continuation lines (starting with a
       `>') are also ignored, i.e., only the initial offset lines are used.

       Using -magic may significantly increase processing time as each file  has  to  opened  and
       read to find its magic number.

       In  summary,  for  all  files,  the  default CREATOR is Unix and the default TYPE is TEXT.
       These can be changed by using entries in the .genisoimagerc file or by using  -hfs-creator
       and/or -hfs-type.

       If  the	a  file  is  in  one  of  the  known  Apple/Unix formats (and the format has been
       selected), the CREATOR and TYPE are taken from the values stored in the Apple/Unix file.

       Other files can have their CREATOR and TYPE set from their filename extension (with -map),
       or  their  magic  number (with -magic).	If the default match is used in the mapping file,
       these values override the default CREATOR and TYPE.

       A full CREATOR/TYPE database can be found at http://www.angelfire.com/il/szekely/.

HFS MACINTOSH FILE FORMATS
       Macintosh files have two parts called the Data and Resource fork.  Either  may  be  empty.
       Unix  (and  many  other OSs) can only cope with files having one part (or fork). To add to
       this, Macintosh files have a number of attributes associated with  them	--  probably  the
       most  important	are  the  TYPE and CREATOR.  Again, Unix has no concept of these types of
       attributes.

       E.g., a Macintosh file may be a JPEG image where the image is stored in the Data fork  and
       a desktop thumbnail stored in the Resource fork. It is usually the information in the data
       fork that is useful across platforms.

       Therefore to store a Macintosh file on a Unix filesystem, a way has to be  found  to  cope
       with  the  two  forks and the extra attributes (which are referred to as the Finder info).
       Unfortunately, it seems that every software package that stores Macintosh  files  on  Unix
       has chosen a completely different storage method.

       The Apple/Unix formats that genisoimage (partially) supports are:

       CAP AUFS format
	      Data fork stored in a file. Resource fork in subdirectory .resource with same file-
	      name as data fork. Finder info in subdirectory .finderinfo with same filename.

       AppleDouble/Netatalk
	      Data fork stored in a file. Resource fork stored in a file with same name  prefixed
	      with  `%'. Finder info also stored in same `%' file. Netatalk uses the same format,
	      but the resource fork/Finder info stored in  subdirectory  .AppleDouble  with  same
	      filename as data fork.

       AppleSingle
	      Data  structures	similar to above, except both forks and Finder info are stored in
	      one file.

       Helios EtherShare
	      Data fork stored in a file.  Resource fork and Finder info together in subdirectory
	      .rsrc with same filename as data fork.

       IPT UShare
	      Like the EtherShare format, but the Finder info is stored slightly differently.

       MacBinary
	      Both forks and Finder info stored in one file.

       Apple PC Exchange
	      Used by Macintoshes to store Apple files on DOS (FAT) disks.  Data fork stored in a
	      file. Resource fork in subdirectory resource.frk (or RESOURCE.FRK).  Finder info as
	      one  record  in file finder.dat (or FINDER.DAT).	Separate finder.dat for each data
	      fork directory.

	      Note: genisoimage needs to know the native FAT cluster size of the disk that the PC
	      Exchange	files  are  on	(or  have been copied from). This size is given by -clus-
	      ter-size.  The cluster or allocation size can be found by  using	the  DOS  utility
	      chkdsk.

	      May not work with PC Exchange v2.2 or higher files (available with MacOS 8.1).  DOS
	      media containing PC Exchange files should be mounted as type msdos (not vfat)  when
	      using Linux.

       SGI/XINET
	      Used  by	SGI  machines  when  they  mount  HFS  disks. Data fork stored in a file.
	      Resource fork in subdirectory .HSResource with same filename.  Finder info  as  one
	      record in file .HSancillary.  Separate .HSancillary for each data fork directory.

       Thursby Software Systems DAVE
	      Allows  Macintoshes  to  store  Apple  files on SMB servers.  Data fork stored in a
	      file. Resource fork in subdirectory resource.frk.  Uses the AppleDouble  format  to
	      store resource fork.

       Services for Macintosh
	      Format  of  files  stored by NT Servers on NTFS filesystems. Data fork is stored as
	      filename.  Resource fork stored as a NTFS stream called filename:AFP_Resource.  The
	      Finder  info  is stored as a NTFS stream called filename:Afp_AfpInfo.  NTFS streams
	      are normally invisible to the user.

	      Warning: genisoimage only partially supports the SFM format.  If	an  HFS  file  or
	      folder  stored  on  the  NT server contains an illegal NT character in its name, NT
	      converts these characters to Private Use Unicode characters.  The characters are: "
	      *  /  <  > ? \ | and a space or period if it is the last character of the filename,
	      character codes 0x01 to 0x1f (control characters) and Apple's apple logo.

	      Unfortunately, these private Unicode characters are not readable by the genisoimage
	      NT  executable.  Therefore  any  file or directory name containing these characters
	      will be ignored -- including the contents of any such directory.

       Mac OS X AppleDouble
	      When HFS/HFS+ files are copied or saved by Mac OS X  on  to  a  non-HFS  filesystem
	      (e.g. UFS, NFS etc.), the files are stored in AppleDouble format.  Data fork stored
	      in a file. Resource fork stored in a file with same name prefixed with `._'. Finder
	      info also stored in same `._' file.

       Mac OS X HFS (Alpha)
	      Not  really an Apple/Unix encoding, but actual HFS/HFS+ files on a Mac OS X system.
	      Data fork stored in a file. Resource fork stored in a pseudo  file  with	the  same
	      name  with  the  suffix  /rsrc.	The  Finder info is only available via a Mac OS X
	      library call.

	      See also README.macosx.

	      Only works when used on Mac OS X.

	      If a file is found with a zero length resource fork and  empty  finderinfo,  it  is
	      assumed  not to have any Apple/Unix encoding -- therefore a TYPE and CREATOR can be
	      set using other methods.

       genisoimage will attempt to set the CREATOR, TYPE, date and possibly other flags from  the
       finder  info.  Additionally,  if  it exists, the Macintosh filename is set from the finder
       info, otherwise the Macintosh name is based on the Unix filename -- see the HFS	MACINTOSH
       FILENAMES section below.

       When  using  -apple,  the  TYPE	and CREATOR are stored in the optional System Use or SUSP
       field in the ISO9660 Directory Record -- in much the same way as the Rock Ridge attributes
       are.  In  fact  to  make life easy, the Apple extensions are added at the beginning of the
       existing Rock Ridge attributes (i.e., to get the Apple extensions you get the  Rock  Ridge
       extensions as well).

       The Apple extensions require the resource fork to be stored as an ISO9660 associated file.
       This is just like any normal file stored in the ISO9660 filesystem except that the associ-
       ated  file flag is set in the Directory Record (bit 2). This file has the same name as the
       data fork (the file seen by non-Apple machines). Associated files are normally ignored  by
       other OSs

       When using -hfs, the TYPE and CREATOR plus other finder info, are stored in a separate HFS
       directory, not visible on the ISO9660 volume. The HFS directory references the  same  data
       and resource fork files described above.

       In  most cases, it is better to use -hfs instead of -apple, as the latter imposes the lim-
       ited ISO9660 characters allowed in filenames. However, the Apple extensions  do	give  the
       advantage that the files are packed on the disk more efficiently and it may be possible to
       fit more files on a CD.

HFS MACINTOSH FILENAMES
       Where possible, the HFS filename that is stored with an Apple/Unix file is  used  for  the
       HFS  part of the CD. However, not all the Apple/Unix encodings store the HFS filename with
       the finderinfo. In these cases, the Unix filename is used -- with escaped special  charac-
       ters. Special characters include `/' and characters with codes over 127.

       AUFS  escapes these characters by using `:' followed by the character code as two hex dig-
       its. Netatalk and EtherShare have a similar scheme, but uses `%' instead of a `:'.

       If genisoimage cannot find an HFS filename, it uses the Unix name, with	any  %xx  or  :xx
       characters  (xx	are  two hex digits) converted to a single character code.  If xx are not
       hex digits ([0-9a-fA-F]), they are left alone -- although any remaining `:'  is	converted
       to  `%',  as  `:'  is the HFS directory separator. Care must be taken, as an ordinary Unix
       file with %xx or :xx will also be converted. e.g.

       This:2fFile   converted to This/File

       This:File     converted to This%File

       This:t7File   converted to This%t7File

       Although HFS filenames appear to support uppercase and lowercase letters,  the  filesystem
       is case-insensitive, i.e., the filenames aBc and AbC are the same. If a file is found in a
       directory with the same HFS name, genisoimage will attempt to make a unique name by adding
       `_' characters to one of the filenames.

       If  an HFS filename exists for a file, genisoimage can use this name as the starting point
       for the ISO9660, Joliet and Rock Ridge filenames using -mac-name.  Normal Unix files with-
       out an HFS name will still use their Unix name.	e.g.

       If  a  MacBinary (or PC Exchange) file is stored as someimage.gif.bin on the Unix filesys-
       tem, but contains a HFS file called someimage.gif, this is the name that would  appear  on
       the  HFS  part of the CD. However, as genisoimage uses the Unix name as the starting point
       for the other names, the ISO9660 name generated will  probably  be  SOMEIMAG.BIN  and  the
       Joliet/Rock  Ridge  would  be someimage.gif.bin.  This option will use the HFS filename as
       the starting point and the ISO9660 name will probably be SOMEIMAG.GIF and the  Joliet/Rock
       Ridge would be someimage.gif.

       -mac-name  will	not currently work with -T -- the Unix name will be used in the TRANS.TBL
       file, not the Macintosh name.

       The character set used to convert  any  HFS  filename  to  a  Joliet/Rock  Ridge  filename
       defaults  to  cp10000  (Mac  Roman).   The  character  set  used  can  be  specified using
       -input-hfs-charset.  Other built-in HFS character sets are:  cp10006  (MacGreek),  cp10007
       (MacCyrillic), cp10029 (MacLatin2), cp10079 (MacIcelandandic) and cp10081 (MacTurkish).

       Note:  the character codes used by HFS filenames taken from the various Apple/Unix formats
       will not be converted as they are assumed to be in the correct Apple character  set.  Only
       the Joliet/Rock Ridge names derived from the HFS filenames will be converted.

       The  existing  genisoimage code will filter out any illegal characters for the ISO9660 and
       Joliet filenames, but as genisoimage expects to be dealing directly with  Unix  names,  it
       leaves  the  Rock  Ridge  names	as  is.   But  as  `/' is a legal HFS filename character,
       -mac-name converts `/' to a `_' in Rock Ridge filenames.

       If the Apple extensions are used, only the ISO9660 filenames will appear on the Macintosh.
       However,  as  the Macintosh ISO9660 drivers can use Level 2 filenames, you can use options
       like -allow-multidot without problems on a Macintosh -- still take care	over  the  names,
       for  example  this.file.name  will  be converted to THIS.FILE i.e. only have one `.', also
       filename abcdefgh will be seen as ABCDEFGH but abcdefghi will be seen as ABCDEFGHI.   i.e.
       with  a `.' at the end -- don't know if this is a Macintosh problem or a genisoimage/mkhy-
       brid problem. All filenames will be in uppercase when viewed on a  Macintosh.  Of  course,
       DOS/Win3.X machines will not be able to see Level 2 filenames...

HFS CUSTOM VOLUME/FOLDER ICONS
       To  give a HFS CD a custom icon, make sure the root (top level) folder includes a standard
       Macintosh volume icon file. To give a volume a custom icon on a Macintosh, an icon has  to
       be  pasted  over  the  volume's	icon in the "Get Info" box of the volume. This creates an
       invisible file called Icon\r (`\r' is the carriage return character) in the root folder.

       A custom folder icon is very similar -- an invisible file  called  Icon\r  exists  in  the
       folder itself.

       Probably  the  easiest way to create a custom icon that genisoimage can use is to format a
       blank HFS floppy disk on a Mac and paste an icon to its "Get Info"  box.  If  using  Linux
       with the HFS module installed, mount the floppy:

	      mount -t hfs /dev/fd0 /mnt/floppy

       The  floppy  will  be  mounted as a CAP filesystem by default.  Then run genisoimage using
       something like:

	      genisoimage --cap -o output source_dir /mnt/floppy

       If you are not using Linux, you can use hfsutils to copy the icon file  from  the  floppy.
       However,  care  has to be taken, as the icon file contains a control character.	For exam-
       ple:

	      hmount /dev/fd0
	      hdir -a
	      hcopy -m Icon^V^M icon_dir/icon

       Where `^V^M' is control-V followed by control-M. Then run genisoimage by  using	something
       like:

	      genisoimage --macbin -o output source_dir icon_dir

       The  procedure  for creating/using custom folder icons is very similar -- paste an icon to
       folder's "Get Info" box and transfer the resulting Icon\r file to the  relevant	directory
       in the genisoimage source tree.

       You may want to hide the icon files from the ISO9660 and Joliet trees.

       To  give  a  custom  icon to a Joliet CD, follow the instructions found at http://www.cdr-
       faq.org/faq03.html#S3-21-1.

HFS BOOT DRIVER
       It may be possible to make the hybrid CD bootable on a Macintosh.

       A bootable HFS CD requires an Apple CD-ROM (or compatible) driver, a bootable  HFS  parti-
       tion and the necessary System, Finder, etc. files.

       A  driver  can be obtained from any other Macintosh bootable CD-ROM using the apple_driver
       utility. This file can then be used with -boot-hfs-file.

       The HFS partition (i.e. the hybrid disk in  our	case)  must  contain  a  suitable  System
       Folder, again from another CD-ROM or disk.

       For  a partition to be bootable, it must have its boot block set. The boot block is in the
       first two blocks of a partition. For a non-bootable partition the boot block  is  full  of
       zeros.  Normally,  when a System file is copied to partition on a Macintosh disk, the boot
       block is filled with a number of required settings -- unfortunately I don't know the  full
       spec for the boot block, so I'm guessing that the following will work.

       Therefore, the utility apple_driver also extracts the boot block from the first HFS parti-
       tion it finds on the given CD-ROM and this is  used  for  the  HFS  partition  created  by
       genisoimage.

       Please note: By using a driver from an Apple CD and copying Apple software to your CD, you
       become liable to obey Apple Computer, Inc. Software License Agreements.

EL TORITO BOOT INFORMATION TABLE
       When -boot-info-table is given, genisoimage will modify the boot file specified by  -b  by
       inserting  a 56-byte boot information table at offset 8 in the file.  This modification is
       done in the source filesystem, so make sure you use a copy if  this  file  is  not  easily
       recreated!   This  file	contains pointers which may not be easily or reliably obtained at
       boot time.

       The format of this table is as  follows;  all  integers	are  in  section  7.3.1  ("little
       endian") format.

	 Offset    Name 	  Size	    Meaning
	  8	   bi_pvd	  4 bytes   LBA of primary volume descriptor
	 12	   bi_file	  4 bytes   LBA of boot file
	 16	   bi_length	  4 bytes   Boot file length in bytes
	 20	   bi_csum	  4 bytes   32-bit checksum
	 24	   bi_reserved	  40 bytes  Reserved

	      The 32-bit checksum is the sum of all the 32-bit words in the boot file starting at
	      byte offset 64.  All linear block addresses (LBAs) are given in  CD  sectors  (nor-
	      mally 2048 bytes).

HPPA NOTES
       To make a bootable CD for HPPA, at the very least a boot loader file (-hppa-bootloader), a
       kernel image file (32-bit, 64-bit, or both, depending on hardware) and a boot command line
       (-hppa-cmdline)	must be specified. Some systems can boot either a 32- or a 64-bit kernel,
       and the firmware will choose one if both are present.  Optionally, a ramdisk can  be  used
       for the root filesystem using -hppa-cmdline.

JIGDO NOTES
       Jigdo  is  a  tool  to help in the distribution of large files like CD and DVD images; see
       http://atterer.org/jigdo/ for more details.  Debian CDs and DVD ISO images  are	published
       on the web in jigdo format to allow end users to download them more efficiently.

       To  create  jigdo  and  template  files alongside the ISO image from genisoimage, you must
       first generate a list of the files that will be used, in the following format:

	 MD5sum   File size  Path
	 32 chars 12 chars   to end of line

       The MD5sum must be written in standard hexadecimal notation, the file size must	list  the
       size of the file in bytes, and the path must list the absolute path to the file. For exam-
       ple:

       00006dcd58ff0756c36d2efae21be376 	14736  /mirror/debian/file1
       000635c69b254a1be8badcec3a8d05c1        211822  /mirror/debian/file2
       00083436a3899a09633fc1026ef1e66e 	22762  /mirror/debian/file3

       Once you have this file, call genisoimage with all of your normal command-line parameters.
       Specify	the  output  filenames	for  the  jigdo and template files using -jigdo-jigdo and
       -jigdo-template, and pass in the location of your MD5 list with -md5-list.

       If there are files that you do NOT want to be added into the jigdo file (e.g. if they  are
       likely  to change often), specify them using -jigdo-exclude. If you want to verify some of
       the files as they are written into the image, specify them using -jigdo-force-md5. If  any
       files  don't  match,  genisoimage  will	then  abort.   Both of these options take regular
       expressions as input. It is possible to restrict the set of files that will be  used  fur-
       ther based on size -- use the -jigdo-min-file-size option.

       Finally, the jigdo code needs to know how to map the files it is given onto a mirror-style
       configuration. Specify how to map paths	using  -jigdo-map.   Using  Debian=/mirror/debian
       will  cause  all  paths	starting with /mirror/debian to be mapped to Debian:<file> in the
       output jigdo file.

EXAMPLES
       To create a vanilla ISO9660 filesystem image in	the  file  cd.iso,  where  the	directory
       cd_dir will become the root directory of the CD, call:

	      % genisoimage -o cd.iso cd_dir

       To create a CD with Rock Ridge extensions of the source directory cd_dir:

	      % genisoimage -o cd.iso -R cd_dir

       To  create  a CD with Rock Ridge extensions of the source directory cd_dir where all files
       have at least read permission and all files are owned by root, call:

	      % genisoimage -o cd.iso -r cd_dir

       To write a tar archive directly to a CD that will later contain a simple ISO9660  filesys-
       tem with the tar archive call:

	      % tar cf - . | genisoimage -stream-media-size 333000 | \
		   wodim dev=b,t,l -dao tsize=333000s -

       To  create  a HFS hybrid CD with the Joliet and Rock Ridge extensions of the source direc-
       tory cd_dir:

	      % genisoimage -o cd.iso -R -J -hfs cd_dir

       To create a HFS hybrid  CD  from  the  source  directory  cd_dir  that  contains  Netatalk
       Apple/Unix files:

	      % genisoimage -o cd.iso --netatalk cd_dir

       To  create  a HFS hybrid CD from the source directory cd_dir, giving all files CREATOR and
       TYPES based on just their filename extensions listed in the file "mapping".:

	      % genisoimage -o cd.iso -map mapping cd_dir

       To create a CD with the Apple Extensions to ISO9660, from the  source  directories  cd_dir
       and another_dir.  Files in all the known Apple/Unix format are decoded and any other files
       are given CREATOR and TYPE based on their magic number given in the file magic:

	      % genisoimage -o cd.iso -apple -magic magic -probe \
		      cd_dir another_dir

       The following example puts different files on the CD that all have the  name  README,  but
       have different contents when seen as a ISO9660/Rock Ridge, Joliet or HFS CD.

       Current directory contains:

	      % ls -F
	      README.hfs     README.joliet  README.Unix    cd_dir/

       The  following  command puts the contents of the directory cd_dir on the CD along with the
       three README files -- but only one will be seen from each of the three filesystems:

	      % genisoimage -o cd.iso -hfs -J -r -graft-points \
		      -hide README.hfs -hide README.joliet \
		      -hide-joliet README.hfs -hide-joliet README.Unix \
		      -hide-hfs README.joliet -hide-hfs README.Unix \
		      README=README.hfs README=README.joliet \
		      README=README.Unix cd_dir

       i.e. the file README.hfs will be seen as README on the HFS CD and  the  other  two  README
       files will be hidden. Similarly for the Joliet and ISO9660/Rock Ridge CD.

       There  are  probably  all  sorts of strange results possible with combinations of the hide
       options ...

NOTES
       genisoimage may safely be installed suid root. This may be needed to allow genisoimage  to
       read the previous session when creating a multisession image.

       If genisoimage is creating a filesystem image with Rock Ridge attributes and the directory
       nesting level of the source directory tree is too much for ISO9660,  genisoimage  will  do
       deep directory relocation.  This results in a directory called RR_MOVED in the root direc-
       tory of the CD. You cannot avoid this directory.

       Many boot code options for different platforms are  mutualy  exclusive  because	the  boot
       blocks cannot coexist, ie. different platforms share the same data locations in the image.
       See http://lists.debian.org/debian-cd/2006/12/msg00109.html for details.

BUGS
       Any files that have hard links to files not in  the  tree  being  copied  to  the  ISO9660
       filesystem will have an incorrect file reference count.

       Does  not  check for SUSP record(s) in `.' entry of the root directory to verify the exis-
       tence of Rock Ridge enhancements.  This problem is present when reading old sessions while
       adding data in multisession mode.

       Does  not  properly read relocated directories in multisession mode when adding data.  Any
       relocated deep directory is lost if the new session does not include the deep directory.

       Does not re-use RR_MOVED when doing multisession from TRANS.TBL.

       Does not create whole_name entry for RR_MOVED in multisession mode.

       There may be other bugs.  Please, report them to the maintainers.

HFS PROBLEMS/LIMITATIONS
       I have had to make several assumptions on how I expect the  modified  libhfs  routines  to
       work,  however  there  may  be situations that either I haven't thought of, or come across
       when these assumptions fail.  Therefore I can't guarantee that genisoimage  will  work  as
       expected (although I haven't had a major problem yet). Most of the HFS features work fine,
       but some are not fully tested. These are marked as Alpha above.

       Although HFS filenames appear to support uppercase and lowercase letters,  the  filesystem
       is case-insensitive, i.e., the filenames aBc and AbC are the same. If a file is found in a
       directory with the same HFS name, genisoimage will attempt to make a unique name by adding
       `_' characters to one of the filenames.

       HFS  file/directory  names that share the first 31 characters have `_N' (a decimal number)
       substituted for the last few characters to generate unique names.

       Care must be taken when "grafting" Apple/Unix files or  directories  (see  above  for  the
       method  and  syntax  involved).	It  is	not  possible to use a new name for an Apple/Unix
       encoded file/directory. e.g. If a Apple/Unix encoded file called oldname is  to	added  to
       the CD, you cannot use the command line:

	      genisoimage -o output.raw -hfs -graft-points newname=oldname cd_dir

       genisoimage  will  be unable to decode oldname.	However, you can graft Apple/Unix encoded
       files or directories as long as you do not attempt to give them new names as above.

       When creating an HFS volume with the multisession options, -M and -C, only  files  in  the
       last  session  will be in the HFS volume. i.e.  genisoimage cannot add existing files from
       previous sessions to the HFS volume.

       However, if each session is created with -part, each session will appear as separate  vol-
       umes  when mounted on a Mac. In this case, it is worth using -V or -hfs-volid to give each
       session a unique volume name, otherwise each "volume" will appear on the Desktop with  the
       same name.

       Symbolic links (as with all other non-regular files) are not added to the HFS directory.

       Hybrid  volumes	may be larger than pure ISO9660 volumes containing the same data. In some
       cases (e.g. DVD sized volumes) the difference can be significant. As an	HFS  volume  gets
       bigger,	so  does  the  allocation  block  size	(the  smallest amount of space a file can
       occupy).  For a 650MB CD, the allocation block is 10kB, for a 4.7GB DVD it will	be  about
       70kB.

       The  maximum  number  of  files in an HFS volume is about 65500 -- although the real limit
       will be somewhat less than this.

       The resulting hybrid volume can be accessed on a Unix machine by using the  hfsutils  rou-
       tines.  However,  no changes can be made to the volume as it is set as locked.  The option
       -hfs-unlock will create an output image that is unlocked -- however no changes  should  be
       made to the contents of the volume (unless you really know what you are doing) as it's not
       a "real" HFS volume.

       -mac-name will not currently work with -T -- the Unix name will be used in  the	TRANS.TBL
       file, not the Macintosh name.

       Although  genisoimage does not alter the contents of a file, if a binary file has its TYPE
       set as TEXT, it may be read incorrectly on a Macintosh. Therefore a better choice for  the
       default TYPE may be ????.

       -mac-boot-file may not work at all...

       May  not work with PC Exchange v2.2 or higher files (available with MacOS 8.1).	DOS media
       containing PC Exchange files should be mounted as type msdos (not vfat) when using Linux.

       The SFM format is only partially supported --  see  HFS	MACINTOSH  FILE  FORMATS  section
       above.

       It is not possible to use -sparc-boot or -generic-boot with -boot-hfs-file or -prep-boot.

       genisoimage  should  be	able  to create HFS hybrid images over 4Gb, although this has not
       been fully tested.

SEE ALSO
       genisoimagerc(5), wodim(1), mkzftree(8), magic(5).

AUTHORS
       genisoimage is derived from mkisofs from the cdrtools 2.01.01a08  package  from	May  2006
       (with   few  updates  extracted	from  cdrtools	2.01.01a24  from  March  2007)	from  .IR
       http://cdrecord.berlios.de/ , but is now part of the cdrkit  suite,  maintained	by  Joerg
       Jaspert,  Eduard  Bloch, Steve McIntyre, Peter Samuelson, Christian Fromme, Ben Hutchings,
       and   other   contributors.    The   maintainers   can	be    contacted    at	 debburn-
       devel@lists.alioth.debian.org,	 or    see    the    cdrkit    project	  web	site   at
       http://www.cdrkit.org/.

       Eric Youngdale wrote the first versions (1993-1998) of mkisofs.	Jorg Schilling wrote  the
       SCSI  transport	library  and its interface, and has maintained mkisofs since 1999.  James
       Pearson wrote the HFS hybrid code, using libhfs by  Robert  Leslie.   Pearson,  Schilling,
       Jungshik  Shin  and Jaakko Heinonen contributed to the character set conversion code.  The
       cdrkit maintainers have maintained genisoimage since 2006.

       Copyright 1993-1998 by Yggdrasil Computing, Inc.
       Copyright 1996-1997 by Robert Leslie
       Copyright 1997-2001 by James Pearson
       Copyright 1999-2006 by Jorg Schilling
       Copyright 2007 by Jorg Schilling (originating few updates)
       Copyright 2002-2003 by Jungshik Shin
       Copyright 2003 by Jaakko Heinonen
       Copyright 2006 by the Cdrkit maintainers

       If you want to take part in the development of genisoimage, you may join the cdrkit devel-
       oper	  mailing	list	   by	    following	    the      instructions      on
       http://alioth.debian.org/mail/?group_id=31006.  The email address of the list is  debburn-
       devel@lists.alioth.debian.org.  This is also the address for user support questions.  Note
       that cdrkit and cdrtools are not affiliated.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
       UNIX is a registered trademark of The Open Group in the US and other countries.

					   13 Dec 2006				   GENISOIMAGE(1)
Unix & Linux Commands & Man Pages : ©2000 - 2018 Unix and Linux Forums


All times are GMT -4. The time now is 02:53 AM.