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GPGSM(1)				GNU Privacy Guard				 GPGSM(1)

       gpgsm - CMS encryption and signing tool

       gpgsm [--homedir dir] [--options file] [options] command [args]

       gpgsm is a tool similar to gpg to provide digital encryption and signing services on X.509
       certificates and the CMS protocol.  It is mainly used as a backend for  S/MIME  mail  pro-
       cessing.   gpgsm  includes  a  full  featured certificate management and complies with all
       rules defined for the German Sphinx project.

       Commands are not distinguished from options except for the fact that only one  command  is

   Commands not specific to the function

	      Print the program version and licensing information.  Note that you cannot abbrevi-
	      ate this command.

       --help, -h
	      Print a usage message summarizing the most useful command-line options.  Note  that
	      you cannot abbreviate this command.

	      Print warranty information.  Note that you cannot abbreviate this command.

	      Print  a list of all available options and commands.  Note that you cannot abbrevi-
	      ate this command.

   Commands to select the type of operation

	      Perform an encryption.  The keys the data is encrypted too must be  set  using  the
	      option --recipient.

	      Perform a decryption; the type of input is automatically determined.  It may either
	      be in binary form or PEM encoded; automatic determination of  base-64  encoding  is
	      not done.

       --sign Create  a digital signature.  The key used is either the fist one found in the key-
	      box or those set with the --local-user option.

	      Check a signature file for validity.  Depending on the arguments a detached  signa-
	      ture may also be checked.

	      Run in server mode and wait for commands on the stdin.

       --call-dirmngr command [args]
	      Behave  as  a  Dirmngr client issuing the request command with the optional list of
	      args.  The output of the Dirmngr is printed stdout.  Please note	that  file  names
	      given  as  arguments  should  have  an  absolute	file name (i.e. commencing with /
	      because they are passed verbatim to the Dirmngr and the working  directory  of  the
	      Dirmngr  might not be the same as the one of this client.  Currently it is not pos-
	      sible to pass data via stdin to the Dirmngr.  command should not contain spaces.

	      This is command is required for certain maintaining tasks of the	dirmngr  where	a
	      dirmngr must be able to call back to gpgsm.  See the Dirmngr manual for details.

       --call-protect-tool arguments
	      Certain  maintenance  operations	are done by an external program call gpg-protect-
	      tool; this is usually not installed in a directory listed  in  the  PATH	variable.
	      This  command  provides a simple wrapper to access this tool.  arguments are passed
	      verbatim to this command; use '--help' to get a list of supported operations.

   How to manage the certificates and keys

	      -This command allows the creation of a certificate signing request.   It	-is  com-
	      monly used along with the --output option to save the -created CSR into a file.  If
	      used with the --batch a parameter -file is used to create the  CSR.   This  command
	      allows  the creation of a certificate signing request or a self-signed certificate.
	      It is commonly used along with the --output option to save the created CSR or  cer-
	      tificate	into a file.  If used with the --batch a parameter file is used to create
	      the CSR or certificate and it is further possible to  create  non-self-signed  cer-


       -k     List  all  available  certificates stored in the local key database.  Note that the
	      displayed data might be reformatted for better human readability and illegal  char-
	      acters are replaced by safe substitutes.


       -K     List  all  available  certificates for which a corresponding a secret key is avail-

       --list-external-keys pattern
	      List certificates matching pattern using an external  server.   This  utilizes  the
	      dirmngr service.

	      Same as --list-keys but also prints all keys making up the chain.


	      List  all  available  certificates  stored in the local key database using a format
	      useful mainly for debugging.

	      Same as --dump-keys but also prints all keys making up the chain.

	      List all available certificates for which a corresponding a secret key is available
	      using a format useful mainly for debugging.

       --dump-external-keys pattern
	      List  certificates  matching  pattern  using an external server.	This utilizes the
	      dirmngr service.	It uses a format useful mainly for debugging.

	      This is a debugging aid to reset certain flags in the key database which	are  used
	      to  cache  certain  certificate  stati.	It is especially useful if a bad CRL or a
	      weird running OCSP responder did accidentally  revoke  certificate.   There  is  no
	      security	issue  with this command because gpgsm always make sure that the validity
	      of a certificate is checked right before it is used.

       --delete-keys pattern
	      Delete the keys matching pattern.  Note that there is  no  command  to  delete  the
	      secret  part  of the key directly.  In case you need to do this, you should run the
	      command gpgsm --dump-secret-keys KEYID before you delete the key, copy  the  string
	      of  hex-digits in the ``keygrip'' line and delete the file consisting of these hex-
	      digits and the suffix .key from the 'private-keys-v1.d' directory below  our  GnuPG
	      home directory (usually '~/.gnupg').

       --export [pattern]
	      Export  all  certificates  stored  in the Keybox or those specified by the optional
	      pattern. Those pattern consist of a list of user ids (see:  [how-to-specify-a-user-
	      id]).   When  used  along  with  the  --armor  option a few informational lines are
	      prepended before each block.  There is one limitation:  As  there  is  no  commonly
	      agreed  upon  way  to  pack  more than one certificate into an ASN.1 structure, the
	      binary export (i.e. without using armor) works only for the export of one  certifi-
	      cate.   Thus  it is required to specify a pattern which yields exactly one certifi-
	      cate.  Ephemeral certificate are only exported if all pattern are given as  finger-
	      prints or keygrips.

       --export-secret-key-p12 key-id
	      Export  the  private key and the certificate identified by key-id in a PKCS#12 for-
	      mat. When using along with  the  --armor	option	a  few	informational  lines  are
	      prepended to the output.	Note, that the PKCS#12 format is not very secure and this
	      command is only provided if there is no other way  to  exchange  the  private  key.
	      (see: [option --p12-charset])

       --import [files]
	      Import  the  certificates  from  the  PEM  or  binary encoded files as well as from
	      signed-only messages.  This command may also be used to import a secret key from	a
	      PKCS#12 file.

	      Read  information about the private keys from the smartcard and import the certifi-
	      cates from there.  This command utilizes the gpg-agent and in turn the scdaemon.

       --passwd user_id
	      Change the passphrase of the private key belonging to the certificate specified  as
	      user_id.	 Note,	that  changing	the passphrase/PIN of a smartcard is not yet sup-

       GPGSM features a bunch of options to control the exact behaviour and to change the default

   How to change the configuration

       These  options  are  used  to change the configuration and are usually found in the option

       --options file
	      Reads configuration from file instead of from the  default  per-user  configuration
	      file.   The  default  configuration  file is named 'gpgsm.conf' and expected in the
	      '.gnupg' directory directly below the home directory of the user.

       --homedir dir
	      Set the name of the home directory to dir. If this option is  not  used,	the  home
	      directory  defaults to '~/.gnupg'.  It is only recognized when given on the command
	      line.  It also overrides any home directory stated through the environment variable
	      'GNUPGHOME'  or  (on  W32  systems)  by  means  of  the  Registry  entry HKCU\Soft-


	      Outputs additional information while running.  You can increase  the  verbosity  by
	      giving several verbose commands to gpgsm, such as '-vv'.

       --policy-file filename
	      Change the default name of the policy file to filename.

       --agent-program file
	      Specify  an  agent program to be used for secret key operations.	The default value
	      is the '/usr/local/bin/gpg-agent'.  This is only used as a fallback when the  envi-
	      ronment variable GPG_AGENT_INFO is not set or a running agent cannot be connected.

       --dirmngr-program file
	      Specify  a  dirmngr  program  to	be  used  for  CRL  checks.  The default value is
	      '/usr/sbin/dirmngr'.  This is only used as a fallback when the environment variable
	      DIRMNGR_INFO is not set or a running dirmngr cannot be connected.

	      If  a  system  wide dirmngr is running in daemon mode, first try to connect to this
	      one.  Fallback to a pipe based server if this does not work.   Under  Windows  this
	      option is ignored because the system dirmngr is always used.

	      Entirely disable the use of the Dirmngr.

	      Do not print a warning when the so called "secure memory" cannot be used.

       --log-file file
	      When running in server mode, append all logging output to file.

   Certificate related options


	      By default policy checks are enabled.  These options may be used to change it.


	      By  default the CRL checks are enabled and the DirMngr is used to check for revoked
	      certificates.  The disable option is most useful with an off-line  network  connec-
	      tion to suppress this check.


	      By  default  the	CRL  for trusted root certificates are checked like for any other
	      certificates.  This allows a CA to revoke its own  certificates  voluntary  without
	      the  need  of  putting all ever issued certificates into a CRL.  The disable option
	      may be used to switch this extra check off.  Due to the caching done by  the  Dirm-
	      ngr,  there will not be any noticeable performance gain.	Note, that this also dis-
	      ables possible OCSP checks for trusted root certificates.  A more specific  way  of
	      disabling  this check is by adding the ``relax'' keyword to the root CA line of the

	      Tell the dirmngr to reload the CRL for each request.  For better	performance,  the
	      dirmngr  will  actually  optimize  this  by  suppressing the loading for short time
	      intervals (e.g. 30 minutes). This option is useful to make sure that a fresh CRL is
	      available  for certificates hold in the keybox.  The suggested way of doing this is
	      by using it along with the option --with-validation  for	a  key	listing  command.
	      This option should not be used in a configuration file.


	      By  default OCSP checks are disabled.  The enable option may be used to enable OCSP
	      checks via Dirmngr.  If CRL checks are also enabled, CRLs will be used as  a  fall-
	      back  if	for some reason an OCSP request will not succeed.  Note, that you have to
	      allow OCSP requests in Dirmngr's configuration too (option --allow-ocsp)	and  con-
	      figure Dirmngr properly.	If you do not do so you will get the error code 'Not sup-

	      If a required certificate is missing while validating the  chain	of  certificates,
	      try  to  load  that certificate from an external location.  This usually means that
	      Dirmngr is employed to search for the certificate.  Note that this option  makes	a
	      "web  bug"  like	behavior  possible.  LDAP server operators can see which keys you
	      request, so by sending you a message signed by a brand new key (which you naturally
	      will not have on your local keybox), the operator can tell both your IP address and
	      the time when you verified the signature.

       --validation-model name
	      This option changes the default validation model.  The  only  possible  values  are
	      "shell" (which is the default), "chain" which forces the use of the chain model and
	      "steed" for a new simplified model.  The chain model is also used if an  option  in
	      the  'trustlist.txt'  or	an attribute of the certificate requests it.  However the
	      standard model (shell) is in that case always tried first.

       --ignore-cert-extension oid
	      Add oid to the list of ignored certificate extensions.  The oid is expected  to  be
	      in  dotted  decimal  form,  like  This option may be used more than once.
	      Critical flagged certificate extensions matching one of the OIDs in  the	list  are
	      treated  as  if  they  are  actually  handled  and thus the certificate will not be
	      rejected due to an unknown critical extension.  Use this option with  care  because
	      extensions are usually flagged as critical for a reason.

   Input and Output


       -a     Create PEM encoded output.  Default is binary output.

	      Create Base-64 encoded output; i.e. PEM without the header lines.

	      Assume  the  input  data is PEM encoded.	Default is to autodetect the encoding but
	      this is may fail.

	      Assume the input data is plain base-64 encoded.

	      Assume the input data is binary encoded.

       --p12-charset name
	      gpgsm uses the UTF-8 encoding when encoding passphrases for  PKCS#12  files.   This
	      option  may be used to force the passphrase to be encoded in the specified encoding
	      name.  This is useful if the application used to import the key  uses  a	different
	      encoding	and  thus will not be able to import a file generated by gpgsm.  Commonly
	      used values for name are Latin1 and CP850.  Note that  gpgsm  itself  automagically
	      imports any file with a passphrase encoded to the most commonly used encodings.

       --default-key user_id
	      Use  user_id as the standard key for signing.  This key is used if no other key has
	      been defined as a signing key.  Note, that the first --local-users option also sets
	      this key if it has not yet been set; however --default-key always overrides this.

       --local-user user_id

       -u user_id
	      Set  the user(s) to be used for signing.	The default is the first secret key found
	      in the database.

       --recipient name

       -r     Encrypt to the user id name.  There are several ways a user id may be  given  (see:

       --output file

       -o file
	      Write output to file.  The default is to write it to stdout.

	      Displays extra information with the --list-keys commands.  Especially a line tagged
	      grp is printed which tells you the keygrip of a key.  This string  is  for  example
	      used as the file name of the secret key.

	      When  doing  a  key  listing, do a full validation check for each key and print the
	      result.  This is usually a slow operation because it  requires  a  CRL  lookup  and
	      other operations.

	      When  used  along  with --import, a validation of the certificate to import is done
	      and only imported if it succeeds the test.  Note	that  this  does  not  affect  an
	      already available certificate in the DB.	This option is therefore useful to simply
	      verify a certificate.

	      For standard key listings, also print the MD5 fingerprint of the certificate.

	      Include the keygrip in standard key listings.  Note  that  the  keygrip  is  always
	      listed in --with-colons mode.

   How to change how the CMS is created.

       --include-certs n
	      Using  n	of  -2 includes all certificate except for the root cert, -1 includes all
	      certs, 0 does not include any certs, 1 includes only the signers cert and all other
	      positive	values	include  up to n certificates starting with the signer cert.  The
	      default is -2.

       --cipher-algo oid
	      Use the cipher algorithm with the ASN.1 object identifier oid for encryption.   For
	      convenience  the	strings  3DES,	AES and AES256 may be used instead of their OIDs.
	      The default is 3DES (1.2.840.113549.3.7).

       --digest-algo name
	      Use name as the message digest algorithm.  Usually this algorithm is  deduced  from
	      the  respective signing certificate.  This option forces the use of the given algo-
	      rithm and may lead to severe interoperability problems.

   Doing things one usually do not want to do.

       --extra-digest-algo name
	      Sometimes signatures are broken in that they announce a different digest	algorithm
	      than  actually used.  gpgsm uses a one-pass data processing model and thus needs to
	      rely on the announced digest algorithms to properly hash the data.  As a workaround
	      this option may be used to tell gpg to also hash the data using the algorithm name;
	      this slows processing down a little bit but allows to  verify  such  broken  signa-
	      tures.   If  gpgsm  prints an error like ``digest algo 8 has not been enabled'' you
	      may want to try this option, with 'SHA256' for name.

       --faked-system-time epoch
	      This option is only useful for testing; it sets the system time back  or	forth  to
	      epoch  which  is	the number of seconds elapsed since the year 1970.  Alternatively
	      epoch may be given as a full ISO time string (e.g. "20070924T154812").

	      Include ephemeral flagged keys in the output of key listings.  Note that	they  are
	      included	anyway	if the key specification for a listing is given as fingerprint or

       --debug-level level
	      Select the debug level for investigating problems. level may be a numeric value  or
	      by a keyword:

	      none   No debugging at all.  A value of less than 1 may be used instead of the key-

	      basic  Some basic debug messages.  A value between 1 and 2 may be used  instead  of
		     the keyword.

		     More verbose debug messages.  A value between 3 and 5 may be used instead of
		     the keyword.

	      expert Even more detailed messages.  A value between 6 and 8 may be used instead of
		     the keyword.

	      guru   All  of  the  debug messages you can get. A value greater than 8 may be used
		     instead of the keyword.  The creation of hash tracing files is only  enabled
		     if the keyword is used.

       How  these  messages  are  mapped  to  the actual debugging flags is not specified and may
       change with newer releases of this program. They are however carefully  selected  to  best
       aid in debugging.

       --debug flags
	      This  option  is only useful for debugging and the behaviour may change at any time
	      without notice; using --debug-levels is the preferred method to  select  the  debug
	      verbosity.  FLAGS are bit encoded and may be given in usual C-Syntax. The currently
	      defined bits are:

	      0 (1)  X.509 or OpenPGP protocol related data

	      1 (2)  values of big number integers

	      2 (4)  low level crypto operations

	      5 (32) memory allocation

	      6 (64) caching

	      7 (128)
		     show memory statistics.

	      9 (512)
		     write hashed data to files named dbgmd-000*

	      10 (1024)
		     trace Assuan protocol

       Note, that all flags set using this option may get overridden by --debug-level.

	      Same as --debug=0xffffffff

	      Usually gpgsm tries to avoid dumping core by well written  code  and  by	disabling
	      core  dumps  for	security reasons.  However, bugs are pretty durable beasts and to
	      squash them it is sometimes useful to have a core dump.  This option  enables  core
	      dumps unless the Bad Thing happened before the option parsing.

	      This  is	actually  not  a debugging option but only useful as such.  It lets gpgsm
	      bypass all certificate chain validation checks.

	      This is actually not a debugging option but only useful as  such.   It  lets  gpgsm
	      ignore all notAfter dates, this is used by the regression tests.

       --fixed-passphrase string
	      Supply  the  passphrase string to the gpg-protect-tool.  This option is only useful
	      for the regression tests included with this package and may be revised  or  removed
	      at any time without notice.

	      Suppress the import of common certificates on keybox creation.

	      All  the	long  options may also be given in the configuration file after stripping
	      off the two leading dashes.

       There are different ways to specify a user ID to GnuPG.	Some of them are only  valid  for
       gpg others are only good for gpgsm.  Here is the entire list of ways to specify a key:

       By key Id.
	      This  format is deduced from the length of the string and its content or 0x prefix.
	      The key Id of an X.509 certificate are the low 64 bits of  its  SHA-1  fingerprint.
	      The use of key Ids is just a shortcut, for all automated processing the fingerprint
	      should be used.

	      When using gpg an exclamation mark (!) may be appended to force using the specified
	      primary  or  secondary  key and not to try and calculate which primary or secondary
	      key to use.

	      The last four lines of the example give the key ID in their long form as internally
	      used  by the OpenPGP protocol. You can see the long key ID using the option --with-



       By fingerprint.
	      This format is deduced from the length of the string and its content or the 0x pre-
	      fix.  Note, that only the 20 byte version fingerprint is available with gpgsm (i.e.
	      the SHA-1 hash of the certificate).

	      When using gpg an exclamation mark (!) may be appended to force using the specified
	      primary  or  secondary  key and not to try and calculate which primary or secondary
	      key to use.

	      The best way to specify a key Id is by using  the  fingerprint.	This  avoids  any
	      ambiguities in case that there are duplicated key IDs.


       (gpgsm also accepts colons between each pair of hexadecimal digits because this is the de-
       facto standard on how to present X.509 fingerprints.)

       By exact match on OpenPGP user ID.
	      This is denoted by a leading equal sign. It does not make sense for X.509  certifi-

	 =Heinrich Heine <heinrichh@uni-duesseldorf.de>

       By exact match on an email address.
	      This  is	indicated  by  enclosing the email address in the usual way with left and
	      right angles.


       By word match.
	      All words must match exactly (not case sensitive) but can appear in  any	order  in
	      the  user  ID  or a subjects name.  Words are any sequences of letters, digits, the
	      underscore and all characters with bit 7 set.

	 +Heinrich Heine duesseldorf

       By exact match on the subject's DN.
	      This is indicated by a leading slash, directly followed by the RFC-2253 encoded  DN
	      of  the subject.	Note that you can't use the string printed by "gpgsm --list-keys"
	      because that one as been reordered and modified for better readability; use --with-
	      colons to print the raw (but standard escaped) RFC-2253 string

	 /CN=Heinrich Heine,O=Poets,L=Paris,C=FR

       By exact match on the issuer's DN.
	      This  is	indicated  by  a leading hash mark, directly followed by a slash and then
	      directly followed by the rfc2253 encoded DN of the issuer.  This should return  the
	      Root cert of the issuer.	See note above.

	 #/CN=Root Cert,O=Poets,L=Paris,C=FR

       By exact match on serial number and issuer's DN.
	      This is indicated by a hash mark, followed by the hexadecimal representation of the
	      serial number, then followed by a slash and the RFC-2253 encoded DN of the  issuer.
	      See note above.

	 #4F03/CN=Root Cert,O=Poets,L=Paris,C=FR

       By keygrip
	      This  is	indicated  by  an  ampersand  followed by the 40 hex digits of a keygrip.
	      gpgsm prints the keygrip when using the command --dump-cert.  It does not yet  work
	      for OpenPGP keys.


       By substring match.
	      This  is	the default mode but applications may want to explicitly indicate this by
	      putting the asterisk in front.  Match is not case sensitive.


       Please note that we have reused the hash mark identifier which was used in old GnuPG  ver-
       sions  to  indicate the so called local-id.  It is not anymore used and there should be no
       conflict when used with X.509 stuff.

       Using the RFC-2253 format of DNs has the drawback that it is not possible to map them back
       to the original encoding, however we don't have to do this because our key database stores
       this encoding as meta data.

	 $ gpgsm -er goo@bar.net <plaintext >ciphertext

       There are a few configuration files to  control	certain  aspects  of  gpgsm's  operation.
       Unless noted, they are expected in the current home directory (see: [option --homedir]).

	      This  is	the standard configuration file read by gpgsm on startup.  It may contain
	      any valid long option; the leading two dashes may not be entered and the option may
	      not  be  abbreviated.   This  default name may be changed on the command line (see:
	      [gpgsm-option --options]).  You should backup this file.

	      This is a list of allowed CA policies.  This file should list  the  object  identi-
	      fiers  of  the  policies	line by line.  Empty lines and lines starting with a hash
	      mark are ignored.  Policies missing in this file and not marked as critical in  the
	      certificate  will print only a warning; certificates with policies marked as criti-
	      cal and not listed in this file will fail the signature verification.   You  should
	      backup this file.

	      For example, to allow only the policy, the file should look like this:

		# Allowed policies

	      This  is	the  list of root certificates used for qualified certificates.  They are
	      defined as certificates capable of creating legally binding signatures in the  same
	      way as handwritten signatures are.  Comments start with a hash mark and empty lines
	      are ignored.  Lines do have a length limit but this is not a serious limitation  as
	      the  format of the entries is fixed and checked by gpgsm: A non-comment line starts
	      with optional whitespace, followed by exactly 40 hex character, white space  and	a
	      lowercased  2 letter country code.  Additional data delimited with by a white space
	      is current ignored but might late be used for other purposes.

	      Note that even if a certificate is listed in this file, this does not mean that the
	      certificate  is trusted; in general the certificates listed in this file need to be
	      listed also in 'trustlist.txt'.

	      This  is	 a   global   file   an   installed   in   the	 data	directory   (e.g.
	      '/usr/share/gnupg/qualified.txt').   GnuPG  installs a suitable file with root cer-
	      tificates as used in Germany.  As new Root-CA certificates may be issued over time,
	      these  entries  may  need  to be updated; new distributions of this software should
	      come with an updated list but it is still the responsibility of  the  Administrator
	      to check that this list is correct.

	      Everytime  gpgsm	uses  a certificate for signing or verification this file will be
	      consulted to check whether the  certificate  under  question  has  ultimately  been
	      issued by one of these CAs.  If this is the case the user will be informed that the
	      verified signature represents a legally binding  (``qualified'')	signature.   When
	      creating a signature using such a certificate an extra prompt will be issued to let
	      the user confirm that such a legally binding signature shall really be created.

	      Because this software has not yet been approved for  use	with  such  certificates,
	      appropriate notices will be shown to indicate this fact.

	      This  is	plain  text  file with a few help entries used with pinentry as well as a
	      large list of help items for gpg and gpgsm.  The standard  file  has  English  help
	      texts;  to  install  localized  versions	use  filenames like 'help.LL.txt' with LL
	      denoting the locale.  GnuPG comes with a set of predefined help files in	the  data
	      directory  (e.g.	'/usr/share/gnupg/help.de.txt') and allows overriding of any help
	      item  by	help  files  stored  in  the   system	configuration	directory   (e.g.
	      '/etc/gnupg/help.de.txt').   For	a reference of the help file's syntax, please see
	      the installed 'help.txt' file.

	      This file is a collection of common certificates used to populated a newly  created
	      'pubring.kbx'.  An administrator may replace this file with a custom one.  The for-
	      mat is a concatenation of PEM encoded X.509  certificates.   This  global  file  is
	      installed in the data directory (e.g. '/usr/share/gnupg/com-certs.pem').

       Note that on larger installations, it is useful to put predefined files into the directory
       '/etc/skel/.gnupg/' so that newly created users start up  with  a  working  configuration.
       For  existing  users  a	small  helper  script  is  provided  to  create these files (see:

       For internal purposes gpgsm creates and maintains a few other files; they all live  in  in
       the current home directory (see: [option --homedir]).  Only gpgsm may modify these files.

	      This  a  database  file  storing the certificates as well as meta information.  For
	      debugging purposes the tool kbxutil may be used to show the internal  structure  of
	      this file.  You should backup this file.

	      This content of this file is used to maintain the internal state of the random num-
	      ber generator across invocations.  The same file is used by other programs of  this
	      software too.

	      If this file exists and the environment variable 'GPG_AGENT_INFO' is not set, gpgsm
	      will first try to connect to this socket for accessing gpg-agent before starting	a
	      new  gpg-agent  instance.   Under  Windows this socket (which in reality be a plain
	      file describing a regular TCP listening port) is the standard way of connecting the

       gpg2(1), gpg-agent(1)

       The  full documentation for this tool is maintained as a Texinfo manual.  If GnuPG and the
       info program are properly installed at your site, the command

	 info gnupg

       should give you access to the complete manual including a menu structure and an index.

GnuPG 2.0.22				    2014-06-10					 GPGSM(1)
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