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GPG2(1) 				GNU Privacy Guard				  GPG2(1)

NAME
       gpg2 - OpenPGP encryption and signing tool

SYNOPSIS
       gpg2 [--homedir dir] [--options file] [options] command [args]

DESCRIPTION
       gpg2 is the OpenPGP part of the GNU Privacy Guard (GnuPG). It is a tool to provide digital
       encryption and signing services using the OpenPGP standard.  gpg2  features  complete  key
       management and all bells and whistles you can expect from a decent OpenPGP implementation.

       In  contrast  to  the standalone version gpg, which is more suited for server and embedded
       platforms, this version is commonly installed under the name gpg2 and more targeted to the
       desktop as it requires several other modules to be installed.  The standalone version will
       be kept maintained and it is possible to install both versions on the same system.  If you
       need  to  use  different  configuration	files,	you  should  make  use	of something like
       'gpg.conf-2' instead of just 'gpg.conf'.

RETURN VALUE
       The program returns 0 if everything was fine, 1 if at least a signature was bad, and other
       error codes for fatal errors.

WARNINGS
       Use a *good* password for your user account and a *good* passphrase to protect your secret
       key. This passphrase is the weakest part of the whole system. Programs  to  do  dictionary
       attacks	on  your  secret  keyring  are	very easy to write and so you should protect your
       "~/.gnupg/" directory very well.

       Keep in mind that, if this program is used over a network (telnet), it is *very*  easy  to
       spy out your passphrase!

       If you are going to verify detached signatures, make sure that the program knows about it;
       either give both filenames on the command line or use '-' to specify STDIN.

INTEROPERABILITY
       GnuPG tries to be a very flexible implementation of the OpenPGP standard.  In  particular,
       GnuPG implements many of the optional parts of the standard, such as the SHA-512 hash, and
       the ZLIB and BZIP2 compression algorithms. It is  important  to	be  aware  that  not  all
       OpenPGP programs implement these optional algorithms and that by forcing their use via the
       --cipher-algo, --digest-algo, --cert-digest-algo, or --compress-algo options in GnuPG,  it
       is  possible  to  create a perfectly valid OpenPGP message, but one that cannot be read by
       the intended recipient.

       There are dozens of variations of OpenPGP programs available, and each supports a slightly
       different subset of these optional algorithms.  For example, until recently, no (unhacked)
       version of PGP supported the BLOWFISH cipher algorithm. A message  using  BLOWFISH  simply
       could  not  be read by a PGP user. By default, GnuPG uses the standard OpenPGP preferences
       system that will always do the right thing and create messages  that  are  usable  by  all
       recipients,  regardless of which OpenPGP program they use. Only override this safe default
       if you really know what you are doing.

       If you absolutely must override the safe default, or if the preferences on a given key are
       invalid	for  some  reason,  you  are  far  better off using the --pgp6, --pgp7, or --pgp8
       options. These options are safe as they do not force any particular algorithms  in  viola-
       tion of OpenPGP, but rather reduce the available algorithms to a "PGP-safe" list.

COMMANDS
       Commands  are  not distinguished from options except for the fact that only one command is
       allowed.

       gpg2 may be run with no commands, in which  case  it  will  perform  a  reasonable  action
       depending  on  the type of file it is given as input (an encrypted message is decrypted, a
       signature is verified, a file containing keys is listed).

       Please remember that option as well as command parsing stops as soon as	a  non-option  is
       encountered, you can explicitly stop parsing by using the special option --.

   Commands not specific to the function

       --version
	      Print the program version and licensing information.  Note that you cannot abbrevi-
	      ate this command.

       --help

       -h     Print a usage message summarizing the most useful command line options.  Note  that
	      you cannot abbreviate this command.

       --warranty
	      Print warranty information.

       --dump-options
	      Print  a list of all available options and commands.  Note that you cannot abbrevi-
	      ate this command.

   Commands to select the type of operation

       --sign

       -s     Make a signature. This command may be combined with --encrypt  (for  a  signed  and
	      encrypted message), --symmetric (for a signed and symmetrically encrypted message),
	      or --encrypt and --symmetric together (for a signed message that may  be	decrypted
	      via  a  secret  key  or a passphrase).  The key to be used for signing is chosen by
	      default or can be set with the --local-user and --default-key options.

       --clearsign
	      Make a clear text signature.  The content in a clear  text  signature  is  readable
	      without  any special software. OpenPGP software is only needed to verify the signa-
	      ture.  Clear text signatures may modify end-of-line whitespace for  platform  inde-
	      pendence	and are not intended to be reversible.	The key to be used for signing is
	      chosen by default or can be set with the --local-user and --default-key options.

       --detach-sign

       -b     Make a detached signature.

       --encrypt

       -e     Encrypt data. This option may be combined with --sign (for a signed  and	encrypted
	      message),  --symmetric  (for  a message that may be decrypted via a secret key or a
	      passphrase), or --sign and --symmetric together (for a signed message that  may  be
	      decrypted via a secret key or a passphrase).

       --symmetric

       -c     Encrypt  with  a	symmetric cipher using a passphrase. The default symmetric cipher
	      used is CAST5, but may be chosen with the --cipher-algo option. This option may  be
	      combined	with --sign (for a signed and symmetrically encrypted message), --encrypt
	      (for a message that may be decrypted via a secret key or a passphrase),  or  --sign
	      and --encrypt together (for a signed message that may be decrypted via a secret key
	      or a passphrase).

       --store
	      Store only (make a simple RFC1991 literal data packet).

       --decrypt

       -d     Decrypt the file given on the command line (or STDIN if no file is  specified)  and
	      write  it to STDOUT (or the file specified with --output). If the decrypted file is
	      signed, the signature is also verified. This command differs from the default oper-
	      ation,  as  it  never  writes  to the filename which is included in the file and it
	      rejects files which don't begin with an encrypted message.

       --verify
	      Assume that the first argument is a signed file or a detached signature and  verify
	      it  without  generating any output. With no arguments, the signature packet is read
	      from STDIN. If only a sigfile is given,  it  may	be  a  complete  signature  or	a
	      detached	signature,  in	which case the signed stuff is expected in a file without
	      the ".sig" or ".asc" extension.  With more than 1 argument, the first should  be	a
	      detached signature and the remaining files are the signed stuff. To read the signed
	      stuff from STDIN, use '-' as the second filename.  For security reasons a  detached
	      signature  cannot  read  the  signed material from STDIN without denoting it in the
	      above way.

	      Note: When verifying a cleartext signature, gpg verifies only  what  makes  up  the
	      cleartext  signed data and not any extra data outside of the cleartext signature or
	      header lines following directly the dash marker line.  The option --output  may  be
	      used  to	write  out the actual signed data; but there are other pitfalls with this
	      format as well.  It is suggested to avoid cleartext signatures in favor of detached
	      signatures.

       --multifile
	      This modifies certain other commands to accept multiple files for processing on the
	      command line or read from STDIN with each filename on a separate line. This  allows
	      for  many  files	to  be processed at once. --multifile may currently be used along
	      with --verify, --encrypt, and --decrypt. Note that --multifile --verify may not  be
	      used with detached signatures.

       --verify-files
	      Identical to --multifile --verify.

       --encrypt-files
	      Identical to --multifile --encrypt.

       --decrypt-files
	      Identical to --multifile --decrypt.

       --list-keys

       -k

       --list-public-keys
	      List all keys from the public keyrings, or just the keys given on the command line.

	      Avoid using the output of this command in scripts or other programs as it is likely
	      to change as GnuPG changes. See --with-colons for a machine-parseable  key  listing
	      command that is appropriate for use in scripts and other programs.

       --list-secret-keys

       -K     List all keys from the secret keyrings, or just the ones given on the command line.
	      A # after the letters sec means that the secret key is not usable (for example,  if
	      it was created via --export-secret-subkeys).

       --list-sigs
	      Same  as --list-keys, but the signatures are listed too.	This command has the same
	      effect as using --list-keys with --with-sig-list.

	      For each signature listed, there are several flags in between  the  "sig"  tag  and
	      keyid.  These  flags give additional information about each signature. From left to
	      right, they are the numbers 1-3 for certificate check level (see --ask-cert-level),
	      "L" for a local or non-exportable signature (see --lsign-key), "R" for a nonRevoca-
	      ble signature (see the --edit-key command "nrsign"), "P" for a signature that  con-
	      tains  a	policy	URL  (see --cert-policy-url), "N" for a signature that contains a
	      notation (see --cert-notation), "X"  for	an  eXpired  signature	(see  --ask-cert-
	      expire),	and  the  numbers 1-9 or "T" for 10 and above to indicate trust signature
	      levels (see the --edit-key command "tsign").

       --check-sigs
	      Same as --list-sigs, but the signatures are verified.  Note  that  for  performance
	      reasons  the revocation status of a signing key is not shown.  This command has the
	      same effect as using --list-keys with --with-sig-check.

	      The status of the verification is indicated by a flag directly following the  "sig"
	      tag  (and  thus before the flags described above for --list-sigs).  A "!" indicates
	      that the signature has been successfully verified, a "-" denotes	a  bad	signature
	      and  a  "%"  is  used if an error occurred while checking the signature (e.g. a non
	      supported algorithm).

       --locate-keys
	      Locate the keys given as arguments.  This command basically uses the same algorithm
	      as  used	when  locating keys for encryption or signing and may thus be used to see
	      what keys gpg2 might use.  In particular external methods as defined by --auto-key-
	      locate may be used to locate a key.  Only public keys are listed.

       --fingerprint
	      List  all  keys  (or the specified ones) along with their fingerprints. This is the
	      same output as --list-keys but with the additional output of a line with	the  fin-
	      gerprint.  May  also be combined with --list-sigs or --check-sigs.  If this command
	      is given twice, the fingerprints of all secondary keys are listed too.

       --list-packets
	      List only the sequence of packets. This is mainly useful for debugging.

       --card-edit
	      Present a menu to work with a smartcard. The subcommand "help" provides an overview
	      on  available  commands.	For  a detailed description, please see the Card HOWTO at
	      http://www.gnupg.org/documentation/howtos.html#GnuPG-cardHOWTO .

       --card-status
	      Show the content of the smart card.

       --change-pin
	      Present a menu to allow changing the PIN of a smartcard. This functionality is also
	      available as the subcommand "passwd" with the --card-edit command.

       --delete-key name
	      Remove  key  from the public keyring. In batch mode either --yes is required or the
	      key must be specified by fingerprint. This is a safeguard against accidental  dele-
	      tion of multiple keys.

       --delete-secret-key name
	      Remove key from the secret keyring. In batch mode the key must be specified by fin-
	      gerprint.

       --delete-secret-and-public-key name
	      Same as --delete-key, but if a secret key exists, it  will  be  removed  first.  In
	      batch mode the key must be specified by fingerprint.

       --export
	      Either export all keys from all keyrings (default keyrings and those registered via
	      option --keyring), or if at least one name is given, those of the given  name.  The
	      new  keyring  is	written  to STDOUT or to the file given with option --output. Use
	      together with --armor to mail those keys.

       --send-keys key IDs
	      Similar to --export but sends the keys to a keyserver.  Fingerprints  may  be  used
	      instead  of  key IDs. Option --keyserver must be used to give the name of this key-
	      server. Don't send your complete keyring to a keyserver --- select only those  keys
	      which are new or changed by you.	If no key IDs are given, gpg does nothing.

       --export-secret-keys

       --export-secret-subkeys
	      Same  as	--export, but exports the secret keys instead.	This is normally not very
	      useful and a security risk.  The second form of the command has the  special  prop-
	      erty  to render the secret part of the primary key useless; this is a GNU extension
	      to OpenPGP and other implementations can not be  expected  to  successfully  import
	      such  a  key.   See  the	option --simple-sk-checksum if you want to import such an
	      exported key with an older OpenPGP implementation.

       --import

       --fast-import
	      Import/merge keys. This adds the given keys to the keyring.  The	fast  version  is
	      currently just a synonym.

	      There  are  a few other options which control how this command works.  Most notable
	      here is the --import-options merge-only option which does not insert new	keys  but
	      does only the merging of new signatures, user-IDs and subkeys.

       --recv-keys key IDs
	      Import the keys with the given key IDs from a keyserver. Option --keyserver must be
	      used to give the name of this keyserver.

       --refresh-keys
	      Request updates from a keyserver for keys that already exist on the local  keyring.
	      This  is useful for updating a key with the latest signatures, user IDs, etc. Call-
	      ing this with no arguments will refresh the entire keyring. Option --keyserver must
	      be  used	to give the name of the keyserver for all keys that do not have preferred
	      keyservers set (see --keyserver-options honor-keyserver-url).

       --search-keys names
	      Search the keyserver for the given names. Multiple names given here will be  joined
	      together to create the search string for the keyserver.  Option --keyserver must be
	      used to give the name of this keyserver.	Keyservers that support different  search
	      methods  allow using the syntax specified in "How to specify a user ID" below. Note
	      that different keyserver types support different	search	methods.  Currently  only
	      LDAP supports them all.

       --fetch-keys URIs
	      Retrieve	keys  located at the specified URIs. Note that different installations of
	      GnuPG may support different protocols (HTTP, FTP, LDAP, etc.)

       --update-trustdb
	      Do trust database maintenance. This command iterates over all keys and  builds  the
	      Web  of  Trust.  This  is an interactive command because it may have to ask for the
	      "ownertrust" values for keys. The user has to give an estimation	of  how  far  she
	      trusts the owner of the displayed key to correctly certify (sign) other keys. GnuPG
	      only asks for the ownertrust value if it has not yet been assigned to a key.  Using
	      the --edit-key menu, the assigned value can be changed at any time.

       --check-trustdb
	      Do trust database maintenance without user interaction. From time to time the trust
	      database must be updated so that expired	keys  or  signatures  and  the	resulting
	      changes  in  the	Web  of Trust can be tracked. Normally, GnuPG will calculate when
	      this is required and do it automatically	unless	--no-auto-check-trustdb  is  set.
	      This  command can be used to force a trust database check at any time. The process-
	      ing is identical to that of --update-trustdb but it  skips  keys	with  a  not  yet
	      defined "ownertrust".

	      For  use	with  cron  jobs, this command can be used together with --batch in which
	      case the trust database check is done only if a check is needed.	To  force  a  run
	      even in batch mode add the option --yes.

       --export-ownertrust
	      Send  the  ownertrust values to STDOUT. This is useful for backup purposes as these
	      values are the only ones which can't be re-created from a corrupted trustdb.  Exam-
	      ple:
		  gpg2 --export-ownertrust > otrust.txt

       --import-ownertrust
	      Update  the  trustdb  with  the  ownertrust values stored in files (or STDIN if not
	      given); existing values will be overwritten.  In case of a severely damaged trustdb
	      and  if  you  have  a  recent  backup  of  the  ownertrust values (e.g. in the file
	      'otrust.txt', you may re-create the trustdb using these commands:
		  cd ~/.gnupg
		  rm trustdb.gpg
		  gpg2 --import-ownertrust < otrust.txt

       --rebuild-keydb-caches
	      When updating from version 1.0.6 to 1.0.7 this command should  be  used  to  create
	      signature caches in the keyring. It might be handy in other situations too.

       --print-md algo

       --print-mds
	      Print message digest of algorithm ALGO for all given files or STDIN.  With the sec-
	      ond form (or a deprecated "*" as algo) digests for  all  available  algorithms  are
	      printed.

       --gen-random 0|1|2 count
	      Emit count random bytes of the given quality level 0, 1 or 2. If count is not given
	      or zero, an endless sequence of random bytes will be emitted.  If used with --armor
	      the  output will be base64 encoded.  PLEASE, don't use this command unless you know
	      what you are doing; it may remove precious entropy from the system!

       --gen-prime mode bits
	      Use the source, Luke :-). The output format is still subject to change.

       --enarmor

       --dearmor
	      Pack or unpack an arbitrary input into/from an OpenPGP  ASCII  armor.   This  is	a
	      GnuPG extension to OpenPGP and in general not very useful.

   How to manage your keys

       This section explains the main commands for key management

       --gen-key
	      Generate a new key pair. This command is normally only used interactively.

	      There is an experimental feature which allows you to create keys in batch mode. See
	      the file 'doc/DETAILS' in the source distribution on how to use this.

       --gen-revoke name
	      Generate a revocation certificate for the complete key. To revoke  a  subkey  or	a
	      signature, use the --edit command.

       --desig-revoke name
	      Generate	a  designated  revocation certificate for a key. This allows a user (with
	      the permission of the keyholder) to revoke someone else's key.

       --edit-key
	      Present a menu which enables you to do most of the key  management  related  tasks.
	      It expects the specification of a key on the command line.

	      uid n  Toggle  selection of user ID or photographic user ID with index n.  Use * to
		     select all and 0 to deselect all.

	      key n  Toggle selection of subkey with index n.  Use * to select all and 0 to dese-
		     lect all.

	      sign   Make  a  signature  on  key of user name If the key is not yet signed by the
		     default user (or the users given with -u), the program displays the informa-
		     tion  of  the  key  again, together with its fingerprint and asks whether it
		     should be signed. This question is repeated for all users specified with -u.

	      lsign  Same as "sign" but the signature is marked as non-exportable and will there-
		     fore  never  be  used by others. This may be used to make keys valid only in
		     the local environment.

	      nrsign Same as "sign" but the signature is marked as non-revocable and  can  there-
		     fore never be revoked.

	      tsign  Make  a  trust  signature.  This is a signature that combines the notions of
		     certification (like a regular signature), and trust (like the  "trust"  com-
		     mand). It is generally only useful in distinct communities or groups.

	      Note  that  "l" (for local / non-exportable), "nr" (for non-revocable, and "t" (for
	      trust) may be freely mixed and prefixed to "sign" to create a signature of any type
	      desired.

	      delsig Delete  a	signature.  Note  that it is not possible to retract a signature,
		     once it has been send to the public (i.e. to a keyserver).  In that case you
		     better use revsig.

	      revsig Revoke  a	signature. For every signature which has been generated by one of
		     the secret keys, GnuPG asks whether a revocation certificate should be  gen-
		     erated.

	      check  Check the signatures on all selected user IDs.

	      adduid Create an additional user ID.

	      addphoto
		     Create a photographic user ID. This will prompt for a JPEG file that will be
		     embedded into the user ID. Note that a very large JPEG will make for a  very
		     large  key.  Also	note  that some programs will display your JPEG unchanged
		     (GnuPG), and some programs will scale it to fit in a dialog box (PGP).

	      showphoto
		     Display the selected photographic user ID.

	      deluid Delete a user ID or photographic user ID.	Note that it is not  possible  to
		     retract  a  user  id,  once  it  has been send to the public (i.e. to a key-
		     server).  In that case you better use revuid.

	      revuid Revoke a user ID or photographic user ID.

	      primary
		     Flag the current user id as the primary one, removes  the	primary  user  id
		     flag  from  all  other user ids and sets the timestamp of all affected self-
		     signatures one second ahead. Note that setting a photo user  ID  as  primary
		     makes it primary over other photo user IDs, and setting a regular user ID as
		     primary makes it primary over other regular user IDs.

	      keyserver
		     Set a preferred keyserver for the specified user ID(s).  This  allows  other
		     users  to	know  where  you  prefer they get your key from. See --keyserver-
		     options honor-keyserver-url for more on how this works.  Setting a value  of
		     "none" removes an existing preferred keyserver.

	      notation
		     Set  a name=value notation for the specified user ID(s). See --cert-notation
		     for more on how this works. Setting a value of "none" removes all notations,
		     setting a notation prefixed with a minus sign (-) removes that notation, and
		     setting a notation name (without the =value)  prefixed  with  a  minus  sign
		     removes all notations with that name.

	      pref   List  preferences	from  the selected user ID. This shows the actual prefer-
		     ences, without including any implied preferences.

	      showpref
		     More verbose preferences listing for the selected user ID.  This  shows  the
		     preferences in effect by including the implied preferences of 3DES (cipher),
		     SHA-1 (digest), and Uncompressed  (compression)  if  they	are  not  already
		     included  in  the	preference list. In addition, the preferred keyserver and
		     signature notations (if any) are shown.

	      setpref string
		     Set the list of user ID preferences to string for all (or just the selected)
		     user  IDs. Calling setpref with no arguments sets the preference list to the
		     default (either built-in or set via --default-preference-list), and  calling
		     setpref  with "none" as the argument sets an empty preference list. Use gpg2
		     --version to get a list of available algorithms. Note  that  while  you  can
		     change  the preferences on an attribute user ID (aka "photo ID"), GnuPG does
		     not select keys via attribute user IDs so these preferences will not be used
		     by GnuPG.

		     When  setting preferences, you should list the algorithms in the order which
		     you'd like to see them used by someone else when  encrypting  a  message  to
		     your  key.  If you don't include 3DES, it will be automatically added at the
		     end.  Note that there are many factors that go into  choosing  an	algorithm
		     (for  example,  your  key	may not be the only recipient), and so the remote
		     OpenPGP application being used to send to you may or  may	not  follow  your
		     exact  chosen  order  for a given message.  It will, however, only choose an
		     algorithm that is present on the preference list  of  every  recipient  key.
		     See also the INTEROPERABILITY WITH OTHER OPENPGP PROGRAMS section below.

	      addkey Add a subkey to this key.

	      addcardkey
		     Generate a subkey on a card and add it to this key.

	      keytocard
		     Transfer  the  selected  secret  subkey (or the primary key if no subkey has
		     been selected) to a smartcard.  The  secret  key  in  the	keyring  will  be
		     replaced  by  a stub if the key could be stored successfully on the card and
		     you use the save command later. Only certain key types may be transferred to
		     the  card.  A  sub  menu allows you to select on what card to store the key.
		     Note that it is not possible to get that key back from the  card  -  if  the
		     card gets broken your secret key will be lost unless you have a backup some-
		     where.

	      bkuptocard file
		     Restore the given file to a card. This command may  be  used  to  restore	a
		     backup  key  (as  generated  during  card	initialization) to a new card. In
		     almost all cases this will be the encryption key. You should use  this  com-
		     mand  only  with  the  corresponding  public key and make sure that the file
		     given as argument is indeed the backup to restore. You should then select	2
		     to  restore  as  encryption  key.	 You  will  first  be  asked to enter the
		     passphrase of the backup key and then for the Admin PIN of the card.

	      delkey Remove a subkey (secondart key). Note that it is not possible to  retract	a
		     subkey,  once it has been send to the public (i.e. to a keyserver).  In that
		     case you better use revkey.

	      revkey Revoke a subkey.

	      expire Change the key or subkey expiration time. If a subkey is selected, the expi-
		     ration time of this subkey will be changed. With no selection, the key expi-
		     ration of the primary key is changed.

	      trust  Change the owner trust value for the key. This updates the trust-db  immedi-
		     ately and no save is required.

	      disable

	      enable Disable or enable an entire key. A disabled key can not normally be used for
		     encryption.

	      addrevoker
		     Add a designated revoker to the key. This takes one optional argument: "sen-
		     sitive".  If  a  designated  revoker  is marked as sensitive, it will not be
		     exported by default (see export-options).

	      passwd Change the passphrase of the secret key.

	      toggle Toggle between public and secret key listing.

	      clean  Compact (by removing all signatures except the selfsig) any user ID that  is
		     no  longer  usable  (e.g.	revoked, or expired). Then, remove any signatures
		     that are not usable by the trust calculations.  Specifically,  this  removes
		     any  signature that does not validate, any signature that is superseded by a
		     later signature, revoked signatures, and signatures issued by keys that  are
		     not present on the keyring.

	      minimize
		     Make  the	key  as  small as possible. This removes all signatures from each
		     user ID except for the most recent self-signature.

	      cross-certify
		     Add cross-certification signatures to signing subkeys that may not currently
		     have  them.  Cross-certification  signatures protect against a subtle attack
		     against signing subkeys. See --require-cross-certification.   All	new  keys
		     generated	have  this signature by default, so this option is only useful to
		     bring older keys up to date.

	      save   Save all changes to the key rings and quit.

	      quit   Quit the program without updating the key rings.

	      The listing shows you the key with its secondary keys and all user ids.	The  pri-
	      mary  user id is indicated by a dot, and selected keys or user ids are indicated by
	      an asterisk.  The trust value is displayed with the primary key: the first  is  the
	      assigned owner trust and the second is the calculated trust value. Letters are used
	      for the values:

	      -      No ownertrust assigned / not yet calculated.

	      e      Trust calculation has failed; probably due to an expired key.

	      q      Not enough information for calculation.

	      n      Never trust this key.

	      m      Marginally trusted.

	      f      Fully trusted.

	      u      Ultimately trusted.

       --sign-key name
	      Signs a public key with your secret key. This is a shortcut version of the  subcom-
	      mand "sign" from --edit.

       --lsign-key name
	      Signs  a	public key with your secret key but marks it as non-exportable. This is a
	      shortcut version of the subcommand "lsign" from --edit-key.

       --passwd user_id
	      Change the passphrase of the secret key belonging to the certificate  specified  as
	      user_id.	This is a shortcut for the sub-command passwd of the edit key menu.

OPTIONS
       gpg2  features a bunch of options to control the exact behaviour and to change the default
       configuration.

       Long options can be put in an options file  (default  "~/.gnupg/gpg.conf").  Short  option
       names  will  not work - for example, "armor" is a valid option for the options file, while
       "a" is not. Do not write the 2 dashes, but simply the name of the option and any  required
       arguments.  Lines  with	a  hash ('#') as the first non-white-space character are ignored.
       Commands may be put in this file too, but that is not generally useful as the command will
       execute automatically with every execution of gpg.

       Please  remember that option parsing stops as soon as a non-option is encountered, you can
       explicitly stop parsing by using the special option --.

   How to change the configuration

       These options are used to change the configuration and are usually  found  in  the  option
       file.

       --default-key name
	      Use  name  as the default key to sign with. If this option is not used, the default
	      key is the first key found in the secret keyring.  Note  that  -u  or  --local-user
	      overrides this option.

       --default-recipient name
	      Use  name  as  default recipient if option --recipient is not used and don't ask if
	      this is a valid one. name must be non-empty.

       --default-recipient-self
	      Use the default key as default recipient if option  --recipient  is  not	used  and
	      don't  ask if this is a valid one. The default key is the first one from the secret
	      keyring or the one set with --default-key.

       --no-default-recipient
	      Reset --default-recipient and --default-recipient-self.

       -v, --verbose
	      Give more information during processing. If used twice, the input data is listed in
	      detail.

       --no-verbose
	      Reset verbose level to 0.

       -q, --quiet
	      Try to be as quiet as possible.

       --batch

       --no-batch
	      Use batch mode.  Never ask, do not allow interactive commands.  --no-batch disables
	      this option.  Note that even with a filename given on the command line,  gpg  might
	      still  need  to  read  from STDIN (in particular if gpg figures that the input is a
	      detached signature and no data file has been specified).	Thus if you do	not  want
	      to feed data via STDIN, you should connect STDIN to '/dev/null'.

       --no-tty
	      Make  sure  that	the  TTY (terminal) is never used for any output.  This option is
	      needed in some cases because GnuPG sometimes prints warnings to  the  TTY  even  if
	      --batch is used.

       --yes  Assume "yes" on most questions.

       --no   Assume "no" on most questions.

       --list-options parameters
	      This is a space or comma delimited string that gives options used when listing keys
	      and signatures (that  is,  --list-keys,  --list-sigs,  --list-public-keys,  --list-
	      secret-keys,  and  the  --edit-key functions).  Options can be prepended with a no-
	      (after the two dashes) to give the opposite meaning.  The options are:

	      show-photos
		     Causes --list-keys, --list-sigs, --list-public-keys, and  --list-secret-keys
		     to  display  any  photo  IDs  attached to the key.  Defaults to no. See also
		     --photo-viewer.  Does not work with --with-colons:  see  --attribute-fd  for
		     the appropriate way to get photo data for scripts and other frontends.

	      show-policy-urls
		     Show  policy  URLs in the --list-sigs or --check-sigs listings.  Defaults to
		     no.

	      show-notations

	      show-std-notations

	      show-user-notations
		     Show all, IETF standard, or user-defined signature notations in the  --list-
		     sigs or --check-sigs listings. Defaults to no.

	      show-keyserver-urls
		     Show  any	preferred  keyserver URL in the --list-sigs or --check-sigs list-
		     ings. Defaults to no.

	      show-uid-validity
		     Display the calculated validity of user IDs during key  listings.	 Defaults
		     to no.

	      show-unusable-uids
		     Show revoked and expired user IDs in key listings. Defaults to no.

	      show-unusable-subkeys
		     Show revoked and expired subkeys in key listings. Defaults to no.

	      show-keyring
		     Display the keyring name at the head of key listings to show which keyring a
		     given key resides on. Defaults to no.

	      show-sig-expire
		     Show signature expiration dates (if any) during --list-sigs or  --check-sigs
		     listings. Defaults to no.

	      show-sig-subpackets
		     Include  signature  subpackets  in  the key listing. This option can take an
		     optional argument list of the subpackets to list. If no argument is  passed,
		     list  all	subpackets.  Defaults  to no. This option is only meaningful when
		     using --with-colons along with --list-sigs or --check-sigs.

       --verify-options parameters
	      This is a space or comma delimited string that gives options  used  when	verifying
	      signatures. Options can be prepended with a `no-' to give the opposite meaning. The
	      options are:

	      show-photos
		     Display any photo	IDs  present  on  the  key  that  issued  the  signature.
		     Defaults to no. See also --photo-viewer.

	      show-policy-urls
		     Show policy URLs in the signature being verified. Defaults to no.

	      show-notations

	      show-std-notations

	      show-user-notations
		     Show  all,  IETF standard, or user-defined signature notations in the signa-
		     ture being verified. Defaults to IETF standard.

	      show-keyserver-urls
		     Show any preferred keyserver URL in the signature being verified.	 Defaults
		     to no.

	      show-uid-validity
		     Display  the  calculated validity of the user IDs on the key that issued the
		     signature. Defaults to no.

	      show-unusable-uids
		     Show revoked and expired user IDs during signature  verification.	 Defaults
		     to no.

	      show-primary-uid-only
		     Show  only  the  primary user ID during signature verification.  That is all
		     the AKA lines as well as photo Ids are not shown with the signature  verifi-
		     cation status.

	      pka-lookups
		     Enable  PKA  lookups  to  verify sender addresses. Note that PKA is based on
		     DNS, and so enabling this option may disclose information on when	and  what
		     signatures are verified or to whom data is encrypted. This is similar to the
		     "web bug" described for the auto-key-retrieve feature.

	      pka-trust-increase
		     Raise the trust in a signature to full if the signature passes  PKA  valida-
		     tion. This option is only meaningful if pka-lookups is set.

       --enable-dsa2

       --disable-dsa2
	      Enable hash truncation for all DSA keys even for old DSA Keys up to 1024 bit.  This
	      is also the default with	--openpgp.   Note  that  older	versions  of  GnuPG  also
	      required this flag to allow the generation of DSA larger than 1024 bit.

       --photo-viewer string
	      This  is	the  command  line  that  should  be run to view a photo ID. "%i" will be
	      expanded to a filename containing the photo. "%I" does the same,	except	the  file
	      will  not  be  deleted once the viewer exits.  Other flags are "%k" for the key ID,
	      "%K" for the long key ID, "%f" for the key fingerprint, "%t" for the  extension  of
	      the  image  type	(e.g.  "jpg"),	"%T"  for  the	MIME  type  of	the  image  (e.g.
	      "image/jpeg"), "%v" for the single-character calculated validity of the image being
	      viewed (e.g. "f"), "%V" for the calculated validity as a string (e.g.  "full"), and
	      "%%" for an actual percent sign. If neither %i or %I are present,  then  the  photo
	      will be supplied to the viewer on standard input.

	      The  default  viewer  is	"xloadimage -fork -quiet -title 'KeyID 0x%k' STDIN". Note
	      that if your image viewer program is not secure, then executing it from GnuPG  does
	      not make it secure.

       --exec-path string
	      Sets  a  list  of directories to search for photo viewers and keyserver helpers. If
	      not provided, keyserver helpers use the compiled-in default  directory,  and  photo
	      viewers use the $PATH environment variable.  Note, that on W32 system this value is
	      ignored when searching for keyserver helpers.

       --keyring file
	      Add file to the current list of keyrings. If file begins with a tilde and a  slash,
	      these  are  replaced  by	the  $HOME  directory. If the filename does not contain a
	      slash, it is assumed to be in the GnuPG home directory ("~/.gnupg" if --homedir  or
	      $GNUPGHOME is not used).

	      Note  that  this	adds  a  keyring to the current list. If the intent is to use the
	      specified keyring alone, use --keyring along with --no-default-keyring.

       --secret-keyring file
	      Same as --keyring but for the secret keyrings.

       --primary-keyring file
	      Designate file as the primary public keyring. This means that newly  imported  keys
	      (via --import or keyserver --recv-from) will go to this keyring.

       --trustdb-name file
	      Use  file  instead of the default trustdb. If file begins with a tilde and a slash,
	      these are replaced by the $HOME directory. If  the  filename  does  not  contain	a
	      slash,  it is assumed to be in the GnuPG home directory ('~/.gnupg' if --homedir or
	      $GNUPGHOME is not used).

       --homedir dir
	      Set the name of the home directory to dir. If this option is  not  used,	the  home
	      directory  defaults to '~/.gnupg'.  It is only recognized when given on the command
	      line.  It also overrides any home directory stated through the environment variable
	      'GNUPGHOME'  or  (on  W32  systems)  by  means  of  the  Registry  entry HKCU\Soft-
	      ware\GNU\GnuPG:HomeDir.

       --display-charset name
	      Set the name of the native character set. This is used  to  convert  some  informa-
	      tional  strings  like  user  IDs	to the proper UTF-8 encoding.  Note that this has
	      nothing to do with the character set of data to be encrypted or signed; GnuPG  does
	      not  recode  user-supplied  data. If this option is not used, the default character
	      set is determined from the current locale. A verbosity level of 3 shows the  chosen
	      set.  Valid values for name are:

	      iso-8859-1
		     This is the Latin 1 set.

	      iso-8859-2
		     The Latin 2 set.

	      iso-8859-15
		     This is currently an alias for the Latin 1 set.

	      koi8-r The usual Russian set (rfc1489).

	      utf-8  Bypass all translations and assume that the OS uses native UTF-8 encoding.

       --utf8-strings

       --no-utf8-strings
	      Assume  that  command  line arguments are given as UTF8 strings. The default (--no-
	      utf8-strings) is to assume that arguments are encoded in the character set as spec-
	      ified  by  --display-charset.  These  options  affect all following arguments. Both
	      options may be used multiple times.

       --options file
	      Read options from file and do not try to read them from the default options file in
	      the homedir (see --homedir). This option is ignored if used in an options file.

       --no-options
	      Shortcut for --options /dev/null. This option is detected before an attempt to open
	      an option file.  Using this option will also prevent the creation of  a  '~/.gnupg'
	      homedir.

       -z n

       --compress-level n

       --bzip2-compress-level n
	      Set compression level to n for the ZIP and ZLIB compression algorithms. The default
	      is to use the default compression level of  zlib	(normally  6).	--bzip2-compress-
	      level sets the compression level for the BZIP2 compression algorithm (defaulting to
	      6 as well). This is a different option from --compress-level  since  BZIP2  uses	a
	      significant  amount of memory for each additional compression level.  -z sets both.
	      A value of 0 for n disables compression.

       --bzip2-decompress-lowmem
	      Use a different decompression method for BZIP2  compressed  files.  This	alternate
	      method  uses a bit more than half the memory, but also runs at half the speed. This
	      is useful under extreme low memory circumstances when the file was originally  com-
	      pressed at a high --bzip2-compress-level.

       --mangle-dos-filenames

       --no-mangle-dos-filenames
	      Older  version of Windows cannot handle filenames with more than one dot. --mangle-
	      dos-filenames causes GnuPG to replace (rather than add to) the extension of an out-
	      put filename to avoid this problem. This option is off by default and has no effect
	      on non-Windows platforms.

       --ask-cert-level

       --no-ask-cert-level
	      When making a key signature, prompt for a certification level. If  this  option  is
	      not  specified,  the  certification level used is set via --default-cert-level. See
	      --default-cert-level for information on the specific levels and how they are  used.
	      --no-ask-cert-level disables this option. This option defaults to no.

       --default-cert-level n
	      The default to use for the check level when signing a key.

	      0 means you make no particular claim as to how carefully you verified the key.

	      1  means	you  believe  the key is owned by the person who claims to own it but you
	      could not, or did not verify the key at all. This is useful for a "persona" verifi-
	      cation, where you sign the key of a pseudonymous user.

	      2  means	you did casual verification of the key. For example, this could mean that
	      you verified the key fingerprint and checked the user ID on the key against a photo
	      ID.

	      3  means	you  did  extensive verification of the key. For example, this could mean
	      that you verified the key fingerprint with the owner of the key in person, and that
	      you  checked, by means of a hard to forge document with a photo ID (such as a pass-
	      port) that the name of the key owner matches the name in the user ID  on	the  key,
	      and  finally that you verified (by exchange of email) that the email address on the
	      key belongs to the key owner.

	      Note that the examples given above for levels 2 and 3 are just that:  examples.  In
	      the end, it is up to you to decide just what "casual" and "extensive" mean to you.

	      This option defaults to 0 (no particular claim).

       --min-cert-level
	      When  building  the trust database, treat any signatures with a certification level
	      below this as invalid. Defaults to 2, which disregards  level  1	signatures.  Note
	      that level 0 "no particular claim" signatures are always accepted.

       --trusted-key long key ID
	      Assume  that  the specified key (which must be given as a full 8 byte key ID) is as
	      trustworthy as one of your own secret keys. This option is useful if you don't want
	      to keep your secret keys (or one of them) online but still want to be able to check
	      the validity of a given recipient's or signator's key.

       --trust-model pgp|classic|direct|always|auto
	      Set what trust model GnuPG should follow. The models are:

	      pgp    This is the Web of Trust combined with trust signatures as used in  PGP  5.x
		     and  later.  This is the default trust model when creating a new trust data-
		     base.

	      classic
		     This is the standard Web of Trust as used in PGP 2.x and earlier.

	      direct Key validity is set directly by the user and not calculated via the  Web  of
		     Trust.

	      always Skip  key validation and assume that used keys are always fully trusted. You
		     generally won't use this unless  you  are	using  some  external  validation
		     scheme.  This option also suppresses the "[uncertain]" tag printed with sig-
		     nature checks when there is no evidence that the user ID  is  bound  to  the
		     key.

	      auto   Select  the  trust  model	depending on whatever the internal trust database
		     says. This is the default model if such a database already exists.

       --auto-key-locate parameters

       --no-auto-key-locate
	      GnuPG can automatically locate and retrieve keys as needed using this option.  This
	      happens  when  encrypting to an email address (in the "user@example.com" form), and
	      there are no user@example.com keys on the local keyring.	 This  option  takes  any
	      number of the following mechanisms, in the order they are to be tried:

	      cert   Locate a key using DNS CERT, as specified in rfc4398.

	      pka    Locate a key using DNS PKA.

	      ldap   Using  DNS Service Discovery, check the domain in question for any LDAP key-
		     servers to use.  If this fails, attempt to locate the key using the PGP Uni-
		     versal method of checking 'ldap://keys.(thedomain)'.

	      keyserver
		     Locate  a	key  using  whatever  keyserver  is defined using the --keyserver
		     option.

	      keyserver-URL
		     In addition, a keyserver URL as used in the --keyserver option may  be  used
		     here to query that particular keyserver.

	      local  Locate  the  key  using the local keyrings.  This mechanism allows to select
		     the order a local key lookup is done.  Thus using '--auto-key-locate  local'
		     is identical to --no-auto-key-locate.

	      nodefault
		     This  flag  disables  the	standard local key lookup, done before any of the
		     mechanisms defined by the --auto-key-locate are tried.  The position of this
		     mechanism	in the list does not matter.  It is not required if local is also
		     used.

       --keyid-format short|0xshort|long|0xlong
	      Select how to display key IDs. "short"  is  the  traditional  8-character  key  ID.
	      "long"  is the more accurate (but less convenient) 16-character key ID. Add an "0x"
	      to either to include an "0x" at the beginning of the  key  ID,  as  in  0x99242560.
	      Note that this option is ignored if the option --with-colons is used.

       --keyserver name
	      Use  name  as your keyserver. This is the server that --recv-keys, --send-keys, and
	      --search-keys will communicate with to receive keys from, send keys to, and  search
	      for keys on. The format of the name is a URI: `scheme:[//]keyservername[:port]' The
	      scheme is the type of keyserver: "hkp" for the  HTTP  (or  compatible)  keyservers,
	      "ldap"  for  the	LDAP  keyservers, or "mailto" for the Graff email keyserver. Note
	      that your particular installation of GnuPG may have other keyserver types available
	      as well. Keyserver schemes are case-insensitive. After the keyserver name, optional
	      keyserver configuration options may be provided. These are the same as  the  global
	      --keyserver-options from below, but apply only to this particular keyserver.

	      Most  keyservers synchronize with each other, so there is generally no need to send
	      keys to more than one server. The keyserver hkp://keys.gnupg.net uses  round  robin
	      DNS to give a different keyserver each time you use it.

       --keyserver-options name=value1
	      This  is	a  space  or comma delimited string that gives options for the keyserver.
	      Options can be prefixed with a `no-' to give the opposite  meaning.  Valid  import-
	      options  or  export-options may be used here as well to apply to importing (--recv-
	      key) or exporting (--send-key) a key from a keyserver. While not	all  options  are
	      available for all keyserver types, some common options are:

	      include-revoked
		     When searching for a key with --search-keys, include keys that are marked on
		     the keyserver as revoked. Note that not all keyservers differentiate between
		     revoked  and unrevoked keys, and for such keyservers this option is meaning-
		     less. Note also that most keyservers do not have cryptographic  verification
		     of  key  revocations,  and so turning this option off may result in skipping
		     keys that are incorrectly marked as revoked.

	      include-disabled
		     When searching for a key with --search-keys, include keys that are marked on
		     the  keyserver  as disabled. Note that this option is not used with HKP key-
		     servers.

	      auto-key-retrieve
		     This option enables the automatic retrieving of keys from a  keyserver  when
		     verifying signatures made by keys that are not on the local keyring.

		     Note  that  this option makes a "web bug" like behavior possible.	Keyserver
		     operators can see which keys you request, so by sending you a message signed
		     by  a  brand  new	key  (which  you  naturally  will  not have on your local
		     keyring), the operator can tell both your IP address and the time	when  you
		     verified the signature.

	      honor-keyserver-url
		     When  using --refresh-keys, if the key in question has a preferred keyserver
		     URL, then use that preferred keyserver to refresh the key from. In addition,
		     if  auto-key-retrieve  is	set,  and the signature being verified has a pre-
		     ferred keyserver URL, then use that preferred keyserver  to  fetch  the  key
		     from. Defaults to yes.

	      honor-pka-record
		     If  auto-key-retrieve  is	set,  and  the signature being verified has a PKA
		     record, then use the PKA information to fetch the key. Defaults to yes.

	      include-subkeys
		     When receiving a key, include subkeys as potential targets. Note  that  this
		     option  is  not  used with HKP keyservers, as they do not support retrieving
		     keys by subkey id.

	      use-temp-files
		     On most Unix-like platforms, GnuPG communicates with  the	keyserver  helper
		     program  via  pipes,  which is the most efficient method. This option forces
		     GnuPG to use temporary files to communicate.  On  some  platforms	(such  as
		     Win32 and RISC OS), this option is always enabled.

	      keep-temp-files
		     If  using	`use-temp-files',  do not delete the temp files after using them.
		     This option is useful to learn the keyserver communication protocol by read-
		     ing the temporary files.

	      verbose
		     Tell  the	keyserver  helper  program to be more verbose. This option can be
		     repeated multiple times to increase the verbosity level.

	      timeout
		     Tell the keyserver helper program how long (in seconds) to try and perform a
		     keyserver	action before giving up. Note that performing multiple actions at
		     the same time uses  this  timeout	value  per  action.   For  example,  when
		     retrieving  multiple keys via --recv-keys, the timeout applies separately to
		     each key retrieval, and not to the --recv-keys command as a whole.  Defaults
		     to 30 seconds.

	      http-proxy=value
		     Set  the  proxy  to  use  for  HTTP  and HKP keyservers.  This overrides the
		     "http_proxy" environment variable, if any.

	      max-cert-size
		     When retrieving a key via DNS CERT,  only	accept	keys  up  to  this  size.
		     Defaults to 16384 bytes.

	      debug  Turn on debug output in the keyserver helper program.  Note that the details
		     of debug output depends on which keyserver helper program is being used, and
		     in  turn, on any libraries that the keyserver helper program uses internally
		     (libcurl, openldap, etc).

	      check-cert
		     Enable certificate checking if the  keyserver  presents  one  (for  hkps  or
		     ldaps).  Defaults to on.

	      ca-cert-file
		     Provide  a certificate store to override the system default.  Only necessary
		     if check-cert is enabled, and the keyserver is using a certificate  that  is
		     not present in a system default certificate list.

		     Note  that  depending  on the SSL library that the keyserver helper is built
		     with, this may actually be a directory or a file.

       --completes-needed n
	      Number of completely trusted users to introduce a new key signer (defaults to 1).

       --marginals-needed n
	      Number of marginally trusted users to introduce a new key signer (defaults to 3)

       --max-cert-depth n
	      Maximum depth of a certification chain (default is 5).

       --simple-sk-checksum
	      Secret keys are integrity protected by using a SHA-1 checksum. This method is  part
	      of the upcoming enhanced OpenPGP specification but GnuPG already uses it as a coun-
	      termeasure against certain attacks.  Old applications  don't  understand	this  new
	      format,  so this option may be used to switch back to the old behaviour. Using this
	      option bears a security risk. Note that using this option only  takes  effect  when
	      the secret key is encrypted - the simplest way to make this happen is to change the
	      passphrase on the key (even changing it to the same value is acceptable).

       --no-sig-cache
	      Do not cache the verification status of key signatures.  Caching gives a much  bet-
	      ter  performance	in key listings. However, if you suspect that your public keyring
	      is not save against write modifications, you can use this  option  to  disable  the
	      caching.	It  probably does not make sense to disable it because all kind of damage
	      can be done if someone else has write access to your public keyring.

       --no-sig-create-check
	      GnuPG normally verifies each signature right after creation to protect against bugs
	      and hardware malfunctions which could leak out bits from the secret key. This extra
	      verification needs some time (about 115% for DSA keys), and so this option  can  be
	      used  to	disable  it.   However, due to the fact that the signature creation needs
	      manual interaction, this performance penalty does not matter in most settings.

       --auto-check-trustdb

       --no-auto-check-trustdb
	      If GnuPG feels that its information about the Web of Trust has to  be  updated,  it
	      automatically runs the --check-trustdb command internally.  This may be a time con-
	      suming process. --no-auto-check-trustdb disables this option.

       --use-agent

       --no-use-agent
	      This is dummy option. gpg2 always requires the agent.

       --gpg-agent-info
	      This is dummy option. It has no effect when used with gpg2.

       --lock-once
	      Lock the databases the first time a lock is requested and do not release	the  lock
	      until the process terminates.

       --lock-multiple
	      Release  the  locks  every  time a lock is no longer needed. Use this to override a
	      previous --lock-once from a config file.

       --lock-never
	      Disable locking entirely. This option should be used only in very special  environ-
	      ments,  where  it  can be assured that only one process is accessing those files. A
	      bootable floppy with a  stand-alone  encryption  system  will  probably  use  this.
	      Improper usage of this option may lead to data and key corruption.

       --exit-on-status-write-error
	      This  option  will cause write errors on the status FD to immediately terminate the
	      process. That should in fact be the default but it never worked this way	and  thus
	      we need an option to enable this, so that the change won't break applications which
	      close their end of a status fd connected pipe too early. Using  this  option  along
	      with --enable-progress-filter may be used to cleanly cancel long running gpg opera-
	      tions.

       --limit-card-insert-tries n
	      With n greater than 0 the number of prompts asking to insert a smartcard gets  lim-
	      ited  to	N-1. Thus with a value of 1 gpg won't at all ask to insert a card if none
	      has been inserted at startup. This option is useful in the  configuration  file  in
	      case  an application does not know about the smartcard support and waits ad infini-
	      tum for an inserted card.

       --no-random-seed-file
	      GnuPG uses a file to store its internal random pool over invocations.   This  makes
	      random  generation faster; however sometimes write operations are not desired. This
	      option can be used to achieve that with the cost of slower random generation.

       --no-greeting
	      Suppress the initial copyright message.

       --no-secmem-warning
	      Suppress the warning about "using insecure memory".

       --no-permission-warning
	      Suppress the warning about unsafe file and home directory (--homedir)  permissions.
	      Note that the permission checks that GnuPG performs are not intended to be authori-
	      tative, but rather they simply warn about certain common	permission  problems.  Do
	      not assume that the lack of a warning means that your system is secure.

	      Note  that the warning for unsafe --homedir permissions cannot be suppressed in the
	      gpg.conf file, as this would allow an attacker to place an unsafe gpg.conf file  in
	      place,  and  use this file to suppress warnings about itself. The --homedir permis-
	      sions warning may only be suppressed on the command line.

       --no-mdc-warning
	      Suppress the warning about missing MDC integrity protection.

       --require-secmem

       --no-require-secmem
	      Refuse to run if GnuPG cannot get secure memory. Defaults to no (i.e. run, but give
	      a warning).

       --require-cross-certification

       --no-require-cross-certification
	      When  verifying a signature made from a subkey, ensure that the cross certification
	      "back signature" on the subkey is present and valid.  This protects against a  sub-
	      tle  attack  against subkeys that can sign.  Defaults to --require-cross-certifica-
	      tion for gpg2.

       --expert

       --no-expert
	      Allow the user to do certain nonsensical or "silly" things like signing an  expired
	      or  revoked key, or certain potentially incompatible things like generating unusual
	      key types. This also disables certain warning messages about potentially incompati-
	      ble  actions.  As  the  name implies, this option is for experts only. If you don't
	      fully understand the implications of what it allows you  to  do,	leave  this  off.
	      --no-expert disables this option.

   Key related options

       --recipient name

       -r     Encrypt  for  user  id name. If this option or --hidden-recipient is not specified,
	      GnuPG asks for the user-id unless --default-recipient is given.

       --hidden-recipient name

       -R     Encrypt for user ID name, but hide the key ID of this user's key. This option helps
	      to hide the receiver of the message and is a limited countermeasure against traffic
	      analysis. If this option or --recipient is not specified, GnuPG asks for	the  user
	      ID unless --default-recipient is given.

       --encrypt-to name
	      Same as --recipient but this one is intended for use in the options file and may be
	      used with your own user-id as an "encrypt-to-self". These keys are only  used  when
	      there  are other recipients given either by use of --recipient or by the asked user
	      id.  No trust checking is performed for these user ids and even disabled	keys  can
	      be used.

       --hidden-encrypt-to name
	      Same as --hidden-recipient but this one is intended for use in the options file and
	      may be used with your own user-id as a hidden  "encrypt-to-self".  These	keys  are
	      only  used when there are other recipients given either by use of --recipient or by
	      the asked user id.  No trust checking is performed for these user ids and even dis-
	      abled keys can be used.

       --no-encrypt-to
	      Disable the use of all --encrypt-to and --hidden-encrypt-to keys.

       --group name=value1
	      Sets up a named group, which is similar to aliases in email programs.  Any time the
	      group name is a recipient (-r or --recipient), it will be expanded  to  the  values
	      specified.  Multiple groups with the same name are automatically merged into a sin-
	      gle group.

	      The values are key IDs or fingerprints, but any key description is  accepted.  Note
	      that  a  value with spaces in it will be treated as two different values. Note also
	      there is only one level of expansion --- you cannot make an group  that  points  to
	      another  group.  When  used from the command line, it may be necessary to quote the
	      argument to this option to prevent the shell from treating  it  as  multiple  argu-
	      ments.

       --ungroup name
	      Remove a given entry from the --group list.

       --no-groups
	      Remove all entries from the --group list.

       --local-user name

       -u     Use name as the key to sign with. Note that this option overrides --default-key.

       --try-secret-key name
	      For  hidden recipients GPG needs to know the keys to use for trial decryption.  The
	      key set with --default-key is always tried first, but this is often not sufficient.
	      This  option allows to set more keys to be used for trial decryption.  Although any
	      valid user-id specification may be used for name it makes sense to use at least the
	      long keyid to avoid ambiguities.	Note that gpg-agent might pop up a pinentry for a
	      lot keys to do the trial decryption.  If you want to stop all further trial decryp-
	      tion you may use close-window button instead of the cancel button.

       --try-all-secrets
	      Don't  look  at the key ID as stored in the message but try all secret keys in turn
	      to find the right decryption key. This option  forces  the  behaviour  as  used  by
	      anonymous  recipients  (created  by using --throw-keyids or --hidden-recipient) and
	      might come handy in case where an encrypted message contains a bogus key ID.

       --skip-hidden-recipients

       --no-skip-hidden-recipients
	      During decryption skip all anonymous recipients.	This option  helps  in	the  case
	      that people use the hidden recipients feature to hide there own encrypt-to key from
	      others.  If oneself has many secret keys this may lead to a major annoyance because
	      all  keys  are tried in turn to decrypt soemthing which was not really intended for
	      it.  The drawback of this option is that it is currently not possible to decrypt	a
	      message which includes real anonymous recipients.

   Input and Output

       --armor

       -a     Create ASCII armored output.  The default is to create the binary OpenPGP format.

       --no-armor
	      Assume the input data is not in ASCII armored format.

       --output file

       -o file
	      Write output to file.

       --max-output n
	      This  option  sets  a limit on the number of bytes that will be generated when pro-
	      cessing a file. Since OpenPGP supports various levels of compression, it is  possi-
	      ble  that  the  plaintext  of  a given message may be significantly larger than the
	      original OpenPGP message. While GnuPG works properly with such messages,	there  is
	      often  a desire to set a maximum file size that will be generated before processing
	      is forced to stop by the OS limits. Defaults to 0, which means "no limit".

       --import-options parameters
	      This is a space or comma delimited string that gives options  for  importing  keys.
	      Options  can  be	prepended  with a `no-' to give the opposite meaning. The options
	      are:

	      import-local-sigs
		     Allow importing key signatures marked as "local". This is not generally use-
		     ful unless a shared keyring scheme is being used.	Defaults to no.

	      repair-pks-subkey-bug
		     During  import, attempt to repair the damage caused by the PKS keyserver bug
		     (pre version 0.9.6) that mangles keys with multiple subkeys. Note that  this
		     cannot  completely repair the damaged key as some crucial data is removed by
		     the keyserver, but it does at least give you back one subkey. Defaults to no
		     for regular --import and to yes for keyserver --recv-keys.

	      merge-only
		     During  import, allow key updates to existing keys, but do not allow any new
		     keys to be imported. Defaults to no.

	      import-clean
		     After import, compact (remove all signatures except the self-signature)  any
		     user  IDs from the new key that are not usable.  Then, remove any signatures
		     from the new key that are not usable.  This includes  signatures  that  were
		     issued  by keys that are not present on the keyring. This option is the same
		     as running the --edit-key command "clean" after import. Defaults to no.

	      import-minimal
		     Import the smallest key possible. This removes  all  signatures  except  the
		     most  recent self-signature on each user ID. This option is the same as run-
		     ning the --edit-key command "minimize" after import.  Defaults to no.

       --export-options parameters
	      This is a space or comma delimited string that gives options  for  exporting  keys.
	      Options  can  be	prepended  with a `no-' to give the opposite meaning. The options
	      are:

	      export-local-sigs
		     Allow exporting key signatures marked as "local". This is not generally use-
		     ful unless a shared keyring scheme is being used.	Defaults to no.

	      export-attributes
		     Include  attribute  user  IDs (photo IDs) while exporting. This is useful to
		     export keys if they are going to be used by an OpenPGP program that does not
		     accept attribute user IDs. Defaults to yes.

	      export-sensitive-revkeys
		     Include  designated  revoker  information	that  was  marked as "sensitive".
		     Defaults to no.

	      export-reset-subkey-passwd
		     When using the  --export-secret-subkeys  command,	this  option  resets  the
		     passphrases  for  all  exported  subkeys  to  empty. This is useful when the
		     exported subkey is to be used on an unattended machine  where  a  passphrase
		     doesn't necessarily make sense. Defaults to no.

	      export-clean
		     Compact  (remove  all signatures from) user IDs on the key being exported if
		     the user IDs are not usable. Also, do not export any signatures that are not
		     usable.  This  includes  signatures  that	were  issued by keys that are not
		     present on the keyring. This option is the same as  running  the  --edit-key
		     command  "clean"  before export except that the local copy of the key is not
		     modified. Defaults to no.

	      export-minimal
		     Export the smallest key possible. This removes  all  signatures  except  the
		     most  recent self-signature on each user ID. This option is the same as run-
		     ning the --edit-key command "minimize" before export except that  the  local
		     copy of the key is not modified. Defaults to no.

       --with-colons
	      Print  key  listings  delimited  by colons. Note that the output will be encoded in
	      UTF-8 regardless of any --display-charset setting. This format is useful when GnuPG
	      is  called  from	scripts  and  other  programs as it is easily machine parsed. The
	      details of this format are documented in the file 'doc/DETAILS', which is  included
	      in the GnuPG source distribution.

       --fixed-list-mode
	      Do not merge primary user ID and primary key in --with-colon listing mode and print
	      all timestamps as seconds since 1970-01-01.   Since  GnuPG  2.0.10,  this  mode  is
	      always used and thus this option is obsolete; it does not harm to use it though.

       --with-fingerprint
	      Same as the command --fingerprint but changes only the format of the output and may
	      be used together with another command.

       --with-keygrip
	      Include the keygrip in the key listings.

   OpenPGP protocol specific options.

       -t, --textmode

       --no-textmode
	      Treat input files as text and store them in the OpenPGP canonical  text  form  with
	      standard	"CRLF"	line  endings.	This  also sets the necessary flags to inform the
	      recipient that the encrypted or signed data is text and may need its  line  endings
	      converted back to whatever the local system uses. This option is useful when commu-
	      nicating between two platforms that have different line ending  conventions  (UNIX-
	      like  to	Mac, Mac to Windows, etc). --no-textmode disables this option, and is the
	      default.

       --force-v3-sigs

       --no-force-v3-sigs
	      OpenPGP states that an implementation should generate v4 signatures  but	PGP  ver-
	      sions  5 through 7 only recognize v4 signatures on key material. This option forces
	      v3 signatures for signatures on data.  Note that this option implies  --no-ask-sig-
	      expire,  and  unsets  --sig-policy-url, --sig-notation, and --sig-keyserver-url, as
	      these features cannot be used with v3 signatures.  --no-force-v3-sigs disables this
	      option.  Defaults to no.

       --force-v4-certs

       --no-force-v4-certs
	      Always  use v4 key signatures even on v3 keys. This option also changes the default
	      hash algorithm for v3 RSA keys from MD5  to  SHA-1.   --no-force-v4-certs  disables
	      this option.

       --force-mdc
	      Force the use of encryption with a modification detection code. This is always used
	      with the newer ciphers (those with a blocksize greater than 64 bits), or if all  of
	      the recipient keys indicate MDC support in their feature flags.

       --disable-mdc
	      Disable the use of the modification detection code. Note that by using this option,
	      the encrypted message becomes vulnerable to a message modification attack.

       --personal-cipher-preferences string
	      Set the list of personal cipher preferences to string.  Use gpg2 --version to get a
	      list  of	available  algorithms,	and  use  none to set no preference at all.  This
	      allows the user to safely override the algorithm chosen by the recipient key  pref-
	      erences,	as  GPG  will  only select an algorithm that is usable by all recipients.
	      The most highly ranked cipher in this list is also used for the --symmetric encryp-
	      tion command.

       --personal-digest-preferences string
	      Set the list of personal digest preferences to string.  Use gpg2 --version to get a
	      list of available algorithms, and use none to  set  no  preference  at  all.   This
	      allows  the user to safely override the algorithm chosen by the recipient key pref-
	      erences, as GPG will only select an algorithm that is  usable  by  all  recipients.
	      The  most  highly  ranked  digest  algorithm in this list is also used when signing
	      without encryption (e.g. --clearsign or --sign).

       --personal-compress-preferences string
	      Set the list of personal compression preferences to string.  Use gpg2 --version  to
	      get a list of available algorithms, and use none to set no preference at all.  This
	      allows the user to safely override the algorithm chosen by the recipient key  pref-
	      erences,	as  GPG  will  only select an algorithm that is usable by all recipients.
	      The most highly ranked compression algorithm in this list is also used  when  there
	      are no recipient keys to consider (e.g. --symmetric).

       --s2k-cipher-algo name
	      Use  name  as the cipher algorithm used to protect secret keys.  The default cipher
	      is CAST5. This cipher is also  used  for	conventional  encryption  if  --personal-
	      cipher-preferences and --cipher-algo is not given.

       --s2k-digest-algo name
	      Use name as the digest algorithm used to mangle the passphrases.	The default algo-
	      rithm is SHA-1.

       --s2k-mode n
	      Selects how passphrases are mangled. If n is 0 a plain  passphrase  (which  is  not
	      recommended)  will be used, a 1 adds a salt to the passphrase and a 3 (the default)
	      iterates the whole process a number of times (see --s2k-count).	Unless	--rfc1991
	      is used, this mode is also used for conventional encryption.

       --s2k-count n
	      Specify  how  many times the passphrase mangling is repeated.  This value may range
	      between 1024 and 65011712 inclusive.  The default is inquired from gpg-agent.  Note
	      that not all values in the 1024-65011712 range are legal and if an illegal value is
	      selected, GnuPG will round up to the nearest legal  value.   This  option  is  only
	      meaningful if --s2k-mode is 3.

   Compliance options

       These  options control what GnuPG is compliant to. Only one of these options may be active
       at a time. Note that the default setting of this is nearly always the correct one. See the
       INTEROPERABILITY  WITH  OTHER  OPENPGP  PROGRAMS  section  below before using one of these
       options.

       --gnupg
	      Use standard GnuPG behavior. This is essentially OpenPGP behavior (see  --openpgp),
	      but with some additional workarounds for common compatibility problems in different
	      versions of PGP. This is the default option, so it is not generally needed, but  it
	      may be useful to override a different compliance option in the gpg.conf file.

       --openpgp
	      Reset  all  packet,  cipher and digest options to strict OpenPGP behavior. Use this
	      option to reset all previous options like --s2k-*, --cipher-algo, --digest-algo and
	      --compress-algo to OpenPGP compliant values. All PGP workarounds are disabled.

       --rfc4880
	      Reset  all packet, cipher and digest options to strict RFC-4880 behavior. Note that
	      this is currently the same thing as --openpgp.

       --rfc2440
	      Reset all packet, cipher and digest options to strict RFC-2440 behavior.

       --rfc1991
	      Try to be more RFC-1991 (PGP 2.x) compliant.

       --pgp2 Set up all options to be as PGP 2.x compliant as possible, and warn if an action is
	      taken  (e.g.  encrypting	to a non-RSA key) that will create a message that PGP 2.x
	      will not be able to handle. Note that `PGP 2.x' here means `MIT PGP  2.6.2'.  There
	      are other versions of PGP 2.x available, but the MIT release is a good common base-
	      line.

	      This option implies --rfc1991 --disable-mdc --no-force-v4-certs --escape-from-lines
	      --force-v3-sigs  --cipher-algo  IDEA --digest-algo MD5 --compress-algo ZIP. It also
	      disables --textmode when encrypting.

       --pgp6 Set up all options to be as PGP 6 compliant as possible. This restricts you to  the
	      ciphers  IDEA  (if  the IDEA plugin is installed), 3DES, and CAST5, the hashes MD5,
	      SHA1 and RIPEMD160, and the compression algorithms none and ZIP. This also disables
	      --throw-keyids, and making signatures with signing subkeys as PGP 6 does not under-
	      stand signatures made by signing subkeys.

	      This option implies --disable-mdc --escape-from-lines --force-v3-sigs.

       --pgp7 Set up all options to be as PGP 7 compliant  as  possible.  This	is  identical  to
	      --pgp6  except  that  MDCs  are  not disabled, and the list of allowable ciphers is
	      expanded to add AES128, AES192, AES256, and TWOFISH.

       --pgp8 Set up all options to be as PGP 8 compliant as possible. PGP 8 is a lot  closer  to
	      the  OpenPGP  standard  than  previous versions of PGP, so all this does is disable
	      --throw-keyids and set --escape-from-lines.  All algorithms are allowed except  for
	      the SHA224, SHA384, and SHA512 digests.

   Doing things one usually doesn't want to do.

       -n

       --dry-run
	      Don't make any changes (this is not completely implemented).

       --list-only
	      Changes  the  behaviour  of  some commands. This is like --dry-run but different in
	      some cases. The semantic of this command may be extended in the  future.	Currently
	      it  only	skips  the actual decryption pass and therefore enables a fast listing of
	      the encryption keys.

       -i

       --interactive
	      Prompt before overwriting any files.

       --debug-level level
	      Select the debug level for investigating problems. level may be a numeric value  or
	      by a keyword:

	      none   No debugging at all.  A value of less than 1 may be used instead of the key-
		     word.

	      basic  Some basic debug messages.  A value between 1 and 2 may be used  instead  of
		     the keyword.

	      advanced
		     More verbose debug messages.  A value between 3 and 5 may be used instead of
		     the keyword.

	      expert Even more detailed messages.  A value between 6 and 8 may be used instead of
		     the keyword.

	      guru   All  of  the  debug messages you can get. A value greater than 8 may be used
		     instead of the keyword.  The creation of hash tracing files is only  enabled
		     if the keyword is used.

       How  these  messages  are  mapped  to  the actual debugging flags is not specified and may
       change with newer releases of this program. They are however carefully  selected  to  best
       aid in debugging.

       --debug flags
	      Set  debugging  flags. All flags are or-ed and flags may be given in C syntax (e.g.
	      0x0042).

       --debug-all
	      Set all useful debugging flags.

       --faked-system-time epoch
	      This option is only useful for testing; it sets the system time back  or	forth  to
	      epoch  which  is	the number of seconds elapsed since the year 1970.  Alternatively
	      epoch may be given as a full ISO time string (e.g. "20070924T154812").

       --enable-progress-filter
	      Enable certain PROGRESS status outputs. This option allows frontends to  display	a
	      progress indicator while gpg is processing larger files.	There is a slight perfor-
	      mance overhead using it.

       --status-fd n
	      Write special status strings to the file descriptor n.  See the file DETAILS in the
	      documentation for a listing of them.

       --status-file file
	      Same as --status-fd, except the status data is written to file file.

       --logger-fd n
	      Write log output to file descriptor n and not to STDERR.

       --log-file file

       --logger-file file
	      Same  as	--logger-fd,  except  the logger data is written to file file.	Note that
	      --log-file is only implemented for GnuPG-2.

       --attribute-fd n
	      Write attribute subpackets to the file descriptor n. This is most  useful  for  use
	      with  --status-fd, since the status messages are needed to separate out the various
	      subpackets from the stream delivered to the file descriptor.

       --attribute-file file
	      Same as --attribute-fd, except the attribute data is written to file file.

       --comment string

       --no-comments
	      Use string as a comment string in clear text signatures and ASCII armored  messages
	      or  keys (see --armor). The default behavior is not to use a comment string. --com-
	      ment may be repeated multiple times to get multiple comment strings.  --no-comments
	      removes  all  comments.	It  is a good idea to keep the length of a single comment
	      below 60 characters to avoid problems with mail programs wrapping such lines.  Note
	      that  comment  lines,  like all other header lines, are not protected by the signa-
	      ture.

       --emit-version

       --no-emit-version
	      Force inclusion of the version string in ASCII armored  output.	--no-emit-version
	      disables this option.

       --sig-notation name=value

       --cert-notation name=value

       -N, --set-notation name=value
	      Put  the	name  value  pair into the signature as notation data.	name must consist
	      only of printable characters or spaces, and must contain a  '@'  character  in  the
	      form  keyname@domain.example.com	(substituting  the appropriate keyname and domain
	      name, of course).  This is to help prevent pollution of the IETF reserved  notation
	      namespace.  The  --expert  flag overrides the '@' check. value may be any printable
	      string; it will be encoded in UTF8, so you should check that your --display-charset
	      is  set  correctly.  If  you prefix name with an exclamation mark (!), the notation
	      data will be flagged as critical (rfc4880:5.2.3.16). --sig-notation sets a notation
	      for data signatures. --cert-notation sets a notation for key signatures (certifica-
	      tions). --set-notation sets both.

	      There are special codes that may be used in notation names. "%k" will  be  expanded
	      into the key ID of the key being signed, "%K" into the long key ID of the key being
	      signed, "%f" into the fingerprint of the key being signed, "%s" into the key ID  of
	      the  key making the signature, "%S" into the long key ID of the key making the sig-
	      nature, "%g" into the fingerprint of the key making the signature (which might be a
	      subkey),	"%p" into the fingerprint of the primary key of the key making the signa-
	      ture, "%c" into the signature count from the OpenPGP smartcard, and "%%" results in
	      a  single "%". %k, %K, and %f are only meaningful when making a key signature (cer-
	      tification), and %c is only meaningful when using the OpenPGP smartcard.

       --sig-policy-url string

       --cert-policy-url string

       --set-policy-url string
	      Use string as a Policy URL for signatures (rfc4880:5.2.3.20).   If  you  prefix  it
	      with  an	exclamation  mark (!), the policy URL packet will be flagged as critical.
	      --sig-policy-url sets a policy url for data signatures.  --cert-policy-url  sets	a
	      policy url for key signatures (certifications). --set-policy-url sets both.

	      The same %-expandos used for notation data are available here as well.

       --sig-keyserver-url string
	      Use  string as a preferred keyserver URL for data signatures. If you prefix it with
	      an exclamation mark (!), the keyserver URL packet will be flagged as critical.

	      The same %-expandos used for notation data are available here as well.

       --set-filename string
	      Use string as the filename which is stored inside  messages.   This  overrides  the
	      default, which is to use the actual filename of the file being encrypted.

       --for-your-eyes-only

       --no-for-your-eyes-only
	      Set  the	`for  your eyes only' flag in the message. This causes GnuPG to refuse to
	      save the file unless the --output option is given, and PGP to use a "secure viewer"
	      with a claimed Tempest-resistant font to display the message. This option overrides
	      --set-filename.  --no-for-your-eyes-only disables this option.

       --use-embedded-filename

       --no-use-embedded-filename
	      Try to create a file with a name as embedded in the data. This can be  a	dangerous
	      option as it allows to overwrite files. Defaults to no.

       --cipher-algo name
	      Use name as cipher algorithm. Running the program with the command --version yields
	      a list of supported algorithms. If  this	is  not  used  the  cipher  algorithm  is
	      selected	from  the preferences stored with the key. In general, you do not want to
	      use this option as it allows you to  violate  the  OpenPGP  standard.   --personal-
	      cipher-preferences is the safe way to accomplish the same thing.

       --digest-algo name
	      Use  name  as  the  message  digest algorithm. Running the program with the command
	      --version yields a list of supported algorithms. In general, you do not want to use
	      this  option  as	it allows you to violate the OpenPGP standard. --personal-digest-
	      preferences is the safe way to accomplish the same thing.

       --compress-algo name
	      Use compression algorithm name. "zlib"  is  RFC-1950  ZLIB  compression.	"zip"  is
	      RFC-1951	ZIP  compression which is used by PGP.	"bzip2" is a more modern compres-
	      sion scheme that can compress some things better than zip or zlib, but at the  cost
	      of  more memory used during compression and decompression. "uncompressed" or "none"
	      disables compression. If this option is not used, the default behavior is to  exam-
	      ine  the	recipient key preferences to see which algorithms the recipient supports.
	      If all else fails, ZIP is used for maximum compatibility.

	      ZLIB may give better compression results than ZIP, as the compression  window  size
	      is not limited to 8k. BZIP2 may give even better compression results than that, but
	      will use a significantly larger amount of memory while compressing and  decompress-
	      ing. This may be significant in low memory situations. Note, however, that PGP (all
	      versions) only supports ZIP compression. Using any  algorithm  other  than  ZIP  or
	      "none"  will  make  the message unreadable with PGP. In general, you do not want to
	      use this option as it allows you to violate the OpenPGP  standard.  --personal-com-
	      press-preferences is the safe way to accomplish the same thing.

       --cert-digest-algo name
	      Use  name as the message digest algorithm used when signing a key. Running the pro-
	      gram with the command --version yields a list of	supported  algorithms.	Be  aware
	      that  if	you choose an algorithm that GnuPG supports but other OpenPGP implementa-
	      tions do not, then some users will not be able to use the key signatures you  make,
	      or quite possibly your entire key.

       --disable-cipher-algo name
	      Never  allow  the  use  of  name	as  cipher algorithm.  The given name will not be
	      checked so that a later loaded algorithm will still get disabled.

       --disable-pubkey-algo name
	      Never allow the use of name as public key algorithm.  The given name  will  not  be
	      checked so that a later loaded algorithm will still get disabled.

       --throw-keyids

       --no-throw-keyids
	      Do  not  put  the recipient key IDs into encrypted messages. This helps to hide the
	      receivers of the message and is a limited countermeasure against traffic	analysis.
	      ([Using  a  little social engineering anyone who is able to decrypt the message can
	      check whether one of the other recipients is the one he suspects.])  On the receiv-
	      ing side, it may slow down the decryption process because all available secret keys
	      must be tried.  --no-throw-keyids disables this option. This option is  essentially
	      the same as using --hidden-recipient for all recipients.

       --not-dash-escaped
	      This  option  changes the behavior of cleartext signatures so that they can be used
	      for patch files. You should not send such an armored file  via  email  because  all
	      spaces  and line endings are hashed too. You can not use this option for data which
	      has 5 dashes at the beginning of a line, patch files don't  have	this.  A  special
	      armor header line tells GnuPG about this cleartext signature option.

       --escape-from-lines

       --no-escape-from-lines
	      Because  some  mailers change lines starting with "From " to ">From " it is good to
	      handle such lines in a special way when creating cleartext  signatures  to  prevent
	      the mail system from breaking the signature. Note that all other PGP versions do it
	      this way too.  Enabled by default. --no-escape-from-lines disables this option.

       --passphrase-repeat n
	      Specify how many times gpg2 will request a new passphrase  be  repeated.	 This  is
	      useful for helping memorize a passphrase.  Defaults to 1 repetition.

       --passphrase-fd n
	      Read  the  passphrase from file descriptor n. Only the first line will be read from
	      file descriptor n. If you use 0 for n, the passphrase will be read from STDIN. This
	      can  only be used if only one passphrase is supplied.  Note that this passphrase is
	      only used if the option --batch has also been given.  This is different from gpg.

       --passphrase-file file
	      Read the passphrase from file file. Only the first line  will  be  read  from  file
	      file.  This  can	only  be  used	if  only one passphrase is supplied. Obviously, a
	      passphrase stored in a file is of questionable security if  other  users	can  read
	      this file. Don't use this option if you can avoid it.  Note that this passphrase is
	      only used if the option --batch has also been given.  This is different from gpg.

       --passphrase string
	      Use string as the passphrase. This can only be used if only one passphrase is  sup-
	      plied.  Obviously,  this	is  of very questionable security on a multi-user system.
	      Don't use this option if you can avoid it.  Note that this passphrase is only  used
	      if the option --batch has also been given.  This is different from gpg.

       --pinentry-mode mode
	      Set the pinentry mode to mode.  Allowed values for mode are:

	      default
		     Use the default of the agent, which is ask.

	      ask    Force the use of the Pinentry.

	      cancel Emulate use of Pinentry's cancel button.

	      error  Return a Pinentry error (``No Pinentry'').

	      loopback
		     Redirect  Pinentry queries to the caller.	Note that in contrast to Pinentry
		     the user is not prompted again if he enters a bad password.

       --command-fd n
	      This is a replacement for the deprecated shared-memory IPC mode.	If this option is
	      enabled,	user  input  on questions is not expected from the TTY but from the given
	      file descriptor. It  should  be  used  together  with  --status-fd.  See	the  file
	      doc/DETAILS in the source distribution for details on how to use it.

       --command-file file
	      Same as --command-fd, except the commands are read out of file file

       --allow-non-selfsigned-uid

       --no-allow-non-selfsigned-uid
	      Allow  the  import and use of keys with user IDs which are not self-signed. This is
	      not recommended, as a non self-signed user ID is trivial to forge.  --no-allow-non-
	      selfsigned-uid disables.

       --allow-freeform-uid
	      Disable  all  checks  on	the  form of the user ID while generating a new one. This
	      option should only be used in very special environments as it does not  ensure  the
	      de-facto standard format of user IDs.

       --ignore-time-conflict
	      GnuPG  normally checks that the timestamps associated with keys and signatures have
	      plausible values. However, sometimes a signature seems to be older than the key due
	      to  clock  problems.  This  option  makes  these	checks	just  a warning. See also
	      --ignore-valid-from for timestamp issues on subkeys.

       --ignore-valid-from
	      GnuPG normally does not select and use subkeys created in the future.  This  option
	      allows  the  use of such keys and thus exhibits the pre-1.0.7 behaviour. You should
	      not use this option unless there is some clock problem. See also --ignore-time-con-
	      flict for timestamp issues with signatures.

       --ignore-crc-error
	      The ASCII armor used by OpenPGP is protected by a CRC checksum against transmission
	      errors. Occasionally the CRC gets mangled somewhere on the transmission channel but
	      the  actual  content  (which  is protected by the OpenPGP protocol anyway) is still
	      okay. This option allows GnuPG to ignore CRC errors.

       --ignore-mdc-error
	      This option changes a MDC integrity protection failure into a warning.  This can be
	      useful  if  a message is partially corrupt, but it is necessary to get as much data
	      as possible out of the corrupt message.  However, be aware that  a  MDC  protection
	      failure  may  also  mean	that  the  message  was tampered with intentionally by an
	      attacker.

       --no-default-keyring
	      Do not add the default keyrings to the list of keyrings. Note that GnuPG	will  not
	      operate  without	any keyrings, so if you use this option and do not provide alter-
	      nate keyrings via --keyring or --secret-keyring, then  GnuPG  will  still  use  the
	      default public or secret keyrings.

       --skip-verify
	      Skip  the  signature  verification  step.  This  may be used to make the decryption
	      faster if the signature verification is not needed.

       --with-key-data
	      Print key listings delimited by colons (like --with-colons) and  print  the  public
	      key data.

       --fast-list-mode
	      Changes the output of the list commands to work faster; this is achieved by leaving
	      some parts empty. Some applications don't need the user ID and the  trust  informa-
	      tion  given  in  the listings. By using this options they can get a faster listing.
	      The exact behaviour of this option may change in future versions.  If you are miss-
	      ing some information, don't use this option.

       --no-literal
	      This is not for normal use. Use the source to see for what it might be useful.

       --set-filesize
	      This is not for normal use. Use the source to see for what it might be useful.

       --show-session-key
	      Display  the  session  key used for one message. See --override-session-key for the
	      counterpart of this option.

	      We think that Key Escrow is a Bad Thing; however the user should have  the  freedom
	      to  decide whether to go to prison or to reveal the content of one specific message
	      without compromising all messages ever encrypted for one secret key. DON'T  USE  IT
	      UNLESS YOU ARE REALLY FORCED TO DO SO.

       --override-session-key string
	      Don't  use  the public key but the session key string. The format of this string is
	      the same as the one printed by --show-session-key. This option is normally not used
	      but  comes  handy  in case someone forces you to reveal the content of an encrypted
	      message; using this option you can do this without handing out the secret key.

       --ask-sig-expire

       --no-ask-sig-expire
	      When making a data signature, prompt for an expiration time. If this option is  not
	      specified,  the expiration time set via --default-sig-expire is used. --no-ask-sig-
	      expire disables this option.

       --default-sig-expire
	      The default expiration time to use for signature expiration. Valid values  are  "0"
	      for  no  expiration, a number followed by the letter d (for days), w (for weeks), m
	      (for months), or y (for years) (for example "2m" for two months, or "5y"	for  five
	      years), or an absolute date in the form YYYY-MM-DD. Defaults to "0".

       --ask-cert-expire

       --no-ask-cert-expire
	      When  making  a key signature, prompt for an expiration time. If this option is not
	      specified, the expiration time set via  --default-cert-expire  is  used.	--no-ask-
	      cert-expire disables this option.

       --default-cert-expire
	      The  default expiration time to use for key signature expiration.  Valid values are
	      "0" for no expiration, a number followed by the letter d (for days), w (for weeks),
	      m (for months), or y (for years) (for example "2m" for two months, or "5y" for five
	      years), or an absolute date in the form YYYY-MM-DD. Defaults to "0".

       --allow-secret-key-import
	      This is an obsolete option and is not used anywhere.

       --allow-multiple-messages

       --no-allow-multiple-messages
	      Allow processing of multiple OpenPGP messages contained in a single file or stream.
	      Some  programs  that call GPG are not prepared to deal with multiple messages being
	      processed together, so this option defaults to no.  Note that versions of GPG prior
	      to 1.4.7 always allowed multiple messages.

	      Warning: Do not use this option unless you need it as a temporary workaround!

       --enable-special-filenames
	      This options enables a mode in which filenames of the form '-&n', where n is a non-
	      negative decimal number, refer to the file descriptor n and not to a file with that
	      name.

       --no-expensive-trust-checks
	      Experimental use only.

       --preserve-permissions
	      Don't  change the permissions of a secret keyring back to user read/write only. Use
	      this option only if you really know what you are doing.

       --default-preference-list string
	      Set the list of default preferences to string. This preference list is used for new
	      keys and becomes the default for "setpref" in the edit menu.

       --default-keyserver-url name
	      Set the default keyserver URL to name. This keyserver will be used as the keyserver
	      URL when writing a new self-signature on a key, which includes key  generation  and
	      changing preferences.

       --list-config
	      Display various internal configuration parameters of GnuPG. This option is intended
	      for external programs that call GnuPG to perform tasks, and is thus  not	generally
	      useful.  See  the  file 'doc/DETAILS' in the source distribution for the details of
	      which configuration items may be listed. --list-config is only usable with  --with-
	      colons set.

       --gpgconf-list
	      This command is similar to --list-config but in general only internally used by the
	      gpgconf tool.

       --gpgconf-test
	      This is more or less dummy action.  However it parses the  configuration	file  and
	      returns  with  failure  if  the  configuration file would prevent gpg from startup.
	      Thus it may be used to run a syntax check on the configuration file.

   Deprecated options

       --show-photos

       --no-show-photos
	      Causes --list-keys, --list-sigs, --list-public-keys, --list-secret-keys, and  veri-
	      fying  a	signature  to  also display the photo ID attached to the key, if any. See
	      also --photo-viewer. These options are deprecated.  Use  --list-options  [no-]show-
	      photos and/or --verify-options [no-]show-photos instead.

       --show-keyring
	      Display  the keyring name at the head of key listings to show which keyring a given
	      key resides on. This option is  deprecated:  use	--list-options	[no-]show-keyring
	      instead.

       --always-trust
	      Identical to --trust-model always. This option is deprecated.

       --show-notation

       --no-show-notation
	      Show  signature  notations  in  the --list-sigs or --check-sigs listings as well as
	      when verifying a signature with a notation in it. These options are deprecated. Use
	      --list-options   [no-]show-notation   and/or   --verify-options  [no-]show-notation
	      instead.

       --show-policy-url

       --no-show-policy-url
	      Show policy URLs in the --list-sigs or --check-sigs listings as well as when  veri-
	      fying  a	signature  with  a  policy  URL  in it. These options are deprecated. Use
	      --list-options [no-]show-policy-url  and/or  --verify-options  [no-]show-policy-url
	      instead.

EXAMPLES
       gpg -se -r Bob file
	      sign and encrypt for user Bob

       gpg --clearsign file
	      make a clear text signature

       gpg -sb file
	      make a detached signature

       gpg -u 0x12345678 -sb file
	      make a detached signature with the key 0x12345678

       gpg --list-keys user_ID
	      show keys

       gpg --fingerprint user_ID
	      show fingerprint

       gpg --verify pgpfile

       gpg --verify sigfile
	      Verify  the  signature  of  the file but do not output the data. The second form is
	      used for detached signatures, where sigfile is the detached signature (either ASCII
	      armored  or  binary) and are the signed data; if this is not given, the name of the
	      file holding the signed data is constructed by cutting off the extension (".asc" or
	      ".sig") of sigfile or by asking the user for the filename.

HOW TO SPECIFY A USER ID
       There  are  different ways to specify a user ID to GnuPG.  Some of them are only valid for
       gpg others are only good for gpgsm.  Here is the entire list of ways to specify a key:

       By key Id.
	      This format is deduced from the length of the string and its content or 0x  prefix.
	      The  key	Id  of an X.509 certificate are the low 64 bits of its SHA-1 fingerprint.
	      The use of key Ids is just a shortcut, for all automated processing the fingerprint
	      should be used.

	      When using gpg an exclamation mark (!) may be appended to force using the specified
	      primary or secondary key and not to try and calculate which  primary  or	secondary
	      key to use.

	      The last four lines of the example give the key ID in their long form as internally
	      used by the OpenPGP protocol. You can see the long key ID using the option  --with-
	      colons.

	 234567C4
	 0F34E556E
	 01347A56A
	 0xAB123456

	 234AABBCC34567C4
	 0F323456784E56EAB
	 01AB3FED1347A5612
	 0x234AABBCC34567C4

       By fingerprint.
	      This format is deduced from the length of the string and its content or the 0x pre-
	      fix.  Note, that only the 20 byte version fingerprint is available with gpgsm (i.e.
	      the SHA-1 hash of the certificate).

	      When using gpg an exclamation mark (!) may be appended to force using the specified
	      primary or secondary key and not to try and calculate which  primary  or	secondary
	      key to use.

	      The  best  way  to  specify  a key Id is by using the fingerprint.  This avoids any
	      ambiguities in case that there are duplicated key IDs.

	 1234343434343434C434343434343434
	 123434343434343C3434343434343734349A3434
	 0E12343434343434343434EAB3484343434343434
	 0xE12343434343434343434EAB3484343434343434

       (gpgsm also accepts colons between each pair of hexadecimal digits because this is the de-
       facto standard on how to present X.509 fingerprints.)

       By exact match on OpenPGP user ID.
	      This  is denoted by a leading equal sign. It does not make sense for X.509 certifi-
	      cates.

	 =Heinrich Heine <heinrichh@uni-duesseldorf.de>

       By exact match on an email address.
	      This is indicated by enclosing the email address in the usual  way  with	left  and
	      right angles.

	 <heinrichh@uni-duesseldorf.de>

       By word match.
	      All  words  must	match exactly (not case sensitive) but can appear in any order in
	      the user ID or a subjects name.  Words are any sequences of  letters,  digits,  the
	      underscore and all characters with bit 7 set.

	 +Heinrich Heine duesseldorf

       By exact match on the subject's DN.
	      This  is indicated by a leading slash, directly followed by the RFC-2253 encoded DN
	      of the subject.  Note that you can't use the string printed by "gpgsm  --list-keys"
	      because that one as been reordered and modified for better readability; use --with-
	      colons to print the raw (but standard escaped) RFC-2253 string

	 /CN=Heinrich Heine,O=Poets,L=Paris,C=FR

       By exact match on the issuer's DN.
	      This is indicated by a leading hash mark, directly followed by  a  slash	and  then
	      directly	followed by the rfc2253 encoded DN of the issuer.  This should return the
	      Root cert of the issuer.	See note above.

	 #/CN=Root Cert,O=Poets,L=Paris,C=FR

       By exact match on serial number and issuer's DN.
	      This is indicated by a hash mark, followed by the hexadecimal representation of the
	      serial  number, then followed by a slash and the RFC-2253 encoded DN of the issuer.
	      See note above.

	 #4F03/CN=Root Cert,O=Poets,L=Paris,C=FR

       By keygrip
	      This is indicated by an ampersand followed by the  40  hex  digits  of  a  keygrip.
	      gpgsm  prints the keygrip when using the command --dump-cert.  It does not yet work
	      for OpenPGP keys.

	 &D75F22C3F86E355877348498CDC92BD21010A480

       By substring match.
	      This is the default mode but applications may want to explicitly indicate  this  by
	      putting the asterisk in front.  Match is not case sensitive.

	 Heine
	 *Heine

       Please  note that we have reused the hash mark identifier which was used in old GnuPG ver-
       sions to indicate the so called local-id.  It is not anymore used and there should  be  no
       conflict when used with X.509 stuff.

       Using the RFC-2253 format of DNs has the drawback that it is not possible to map them back
       to the original encoding, however we don't have to do this because our key database stores
       this encoding as meta data.

FILES
       There are a few configuration files to control certain aspects of gpg2's operation. Unless
       noted, they are expected in the current home directory (see: [option --homedir]).

       gpg.conf
	      This is the standard configuration file read by gpg2 on startup.	 It  may  contain
	      any valid long option; the leading two dashes may not be entered and the option may
	      not be abbreviated.  This default name may be changed on	the  command  line  (see:
	      [gpg-option --options]).	You should backup this file.

       Note that on larger installations, it is useful to put predefined files into the directory
       '/etc/skel/.gnupg/' so that newly created users start up  with  a  working  configuration.
       For  existing  users  the  a  small  helper script is provided to create these files (see:
       [addgnupghome]).

       For internal purposes gpg2 creates and maintains a few other files; They all  live  in  in
       the  current  home  directory  (see:  [option --homedir]).  Only the gpg2 may modify these
       files.

       ~/.gnupg/secring.gpg
	      The secret keyring.  You should backup this file.

       ~/.gnupg/secring.gpg.lock
	      The lock file for the secret keyring.

       ~/.gnupg/pubring.gpg
	      The public keyring.  You should backup this file.

       ~/.gnupg/pubring.gpg.lock
	      The lock file for the public keyring.

       ~/.gnupg/trustdb.gpg
	      The trust database.  There is no need to backup this file; it is better  to  backup
	      the ownertrust values (see: [option --export-ownertrust]).

       ~/.gnupg/trustdb.gpg.lock
	      The lock file for the trust database.

       ~/.gnupg/random_seed
	      A file used to preserve the state of the internal random pool.

       /usr[/local]/share/gnupg/options.skel
	      The skeleton options file.

       /usr[/local]/lib/gnupg/
	      Default location for extensions.

       Operation is further controlled by a few environment variables:

       HOME   Used to locate the default home directory.

       GNUPGHOME
	      If set directory used instead of "~/.gnupg".

       GPG_AGENT_INFO
	      Used to locate the gpg-agent.
		The value consists of 3 colon delimited fields: The first is the path
		to the Unix Domain Socket, the second the PID of the gpg-agent and the
		protocol version which should be set to 1. When starting the gpg-agent
		as described in its documentation, this variable is set to the correct
		value. The option --gpg-agent-info can be used to override it.

       PINENTRY_USER_DATA
	      This  value  is  passed  via  gpg-agent  to pinentry.  It is useful to convey extra
	      information to a custom pinentry.

       COLUMNS

       LINES  Used to size some displays to the full size of the screen.

       LANGUAGE
	      Apart from its use by GNU, it is used in the W32 version to override  the  language
	      selection done through the Registry.  If used and set to a valid and available lan-
	      guage name (langid), the file with the translation is loaded from

	      gpgdir/gnupg.nls/langid.mo.  Here gpgdir is the directory  out  of  which  the  gpg
	      binary  has  been  loaded.  If it can't be loaded the Registry is tried and as last
	      resort the native Windows locale system is used.

BUGS
       On older systems this program should be installed as setuid(root). This	is  necessary  to
       lock  memory pages. Locking memory pages prevents the operating system from writing memory
       pages (which may contain passphrases or other sensitive material) to disk. If you  get  no
       warning message about insecure memory your operating system supports locking without being
       root. The program drops root privileges as soon as locked memory is allocated.

       Note also that some systems (especially laptops) have the ability to ``suspend  to  disk''
       (also  known  as  ``safe sleep'' or ``hibernate'').  This writes all memory to disk before
       going into a low power or even powered off mode.  Unless measures are taken in the operat-
       ing  system  to	protect  the saved memory, passphrases or other sensitive material may be
       recoverable from it later.

       Before you report a bug you should first search the  mailing  list  archives  for  similar
       problems  and second check whether such a bug has already been reported to our bug tracker
       at http://bugs.gnupg.org .

SEE ALSO
       gpgv(1), gpgsm(1), gpg-agent(1)

       The full documentation for this tool is maintained as a Texinfo manual.	If GnuPG and  the
       info program are properly installed at your site, the command

	 info gnupg

       should give you access to the complete manual including a menu structure and an index.

GnuPG 2.0.22				    2014-06-10					  GPG2(1)
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